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CATHEUEAi,  AfcTTIQTPITlE  S. 


PL  .XIV. 


EiuF-M-ai  fy  flJle  J&u.v  .-from  a  ttrttwwv  h  £iU*:Sltrre  .-/brSriito/ii  BLrtrry  a'v  ,n~  Wi/i.-hwr  ,-Vr/,.i-„-,' 

WEFCDIHIIESTEIE.    (DATriHIIE3E)I^^JL    ©iHTCJIECIHI, 

Fart  of  the  Stalls'  oftfte  Choir. 

Zmden  J*ul<lisfiea U)ecTz,lflz6 \fa  Zarupheoi  k  CRiternos&r  Row . 


Hinted  h  J&n-nvrd 


k3 


THE 


HISTORY  AND  ANTIQUITIES 


SEE  AND  CATHEDRAL  CHURCH 


ti&iutfyttttt ; 


ILLUSTRATED  WITH 


A  SERIES  OF  ENGRAVINGS, 

OF 

Wiittos,  ©lebattons,  Pans,  anfc  SSetafls  of  t&e  gtrc&itettuw  of  tfiat  ©trfffte : 

INCLUDING 

BIOGRAPHICAL  ANECDOTES  OF  THE  BISHOPS, 

AND  OP 

OTHER  EMINENT  PERSONS  CONNECTED  WITH  THE  CHURCH. 


JOHN  BRITTON.F.S.A. 


HotiDon : 

PRINTED  FOR,  AND  PUBLISHED  BY,  LONGMAN,  HURST,  REES,  ORME,  AND  BROWN, 

PATERNOSTER  ROW  ; 
THE  AUTHOR,   10,  TAVISTOCK  PLACE;    AND  J.  TAYLOR,  59,  HIGH  HOLBORN. 

J817. 


C.  Whittingham,  Printer,  Cliiswick. 


TO 
HER  ROYAL  HIGHNESS 


Zf)t  J3vtuttS0  e^atrlotte  irf  ©!ftale& 


Intimately  connected  as  the  Ecclesiastical  Antiquities  are  with 
the  history  of  our  native  country,  they  cannot  fail  to  be  objects  of 
curiosity  and  inquiry  to  your  Royal  Highness.  It  is  therefore 
with  no  small  degree  of  pleasure  that  the  Author  addresses  the 
present  Volume  to  one  who  is  likely  to  be  deeply  interested  in  the 
mutual  obligations  and  dependancies  of  church  and  state.  The 
historical  annals  of  the  one  are  materially  interwoven  with,  and 
elucidatory  of  the  other.  Whilst  the  page  of  the  historian  records 
the  actions  of  the  higher  classes  of  mankind  in  past  ages,  that  of 
the  antiquary  displays  the  arts,  customs,  and  pursuits  of  our 
ancestors  in  every  sphere  and  station  of  life.  Hence  antiquity 
has  been  denominated  the  eye  of  history ;  and  hence  it  becomes, 
not  merely  an  useful,  but  almost  essential  branch  of  polite  and 
dignified  education. 

Assured  that  your  Royal  Highness  has  long  been  familiar  with 
the  antiquarian  publications  of  the  author  of  this  address,  he 
eagerly  embraces  the  present  occasion  of  expressing  his  obligations 
and  thanks  for  such  distinguished  honour.  Should  any  of  his 
humble  works  conduce  to  the  rational  amusement  of  your  Royal 
Highness,  or  tend  to  excite  that  inquiry  which  leads  to  science 


IV  DEDICATION. 

and  truth,  he  will  have  cause  to  be  delighted.  He  is  induced  to 
inscribe  this  Volume  to  your  Royal  Highness,  because  the  City 
and  Cathedral  of  Winchester  are  intimately  associated  with  many 
distinguished  historical  events  and  eminent  characters.  Here  the 
justly  revered  Alfred  was  educated,  crowned,  lived,  and  died. 
Canute  also  resided  in  this  city,  and  gave  liberally  to  the  church. 
Egbert  constituted  Winchester  the  metropolis  of  the  kingdom ;  and 
was  crowned,  died,  and  interred  in  the  cathedral.  The  fabulous 
story  of  Queen  Emma's  walking  barefooted  and  unhurt  over  red- 
hot  ploughshares  belongs  to  this  cathedral.  The  first  Norman 
monarch  built  a  palace,  or  rather  a  castle  here;  and  his  son,  William 
Rufus,  was  enshrined  in  this  church.  Philip  aiid  Mary  were 
married  at  Winchester;  whilst  Charles  the  Second  was  so  much 
prepossessed  in  favour  of  the  city,  that  he  built  a  noble  and 
spacious  palace  on  the  site  of  the  old  castle. 

Constans,  a  monk  of  Winton,  was  made  EmperOr  of  Rome; 
and  no  less  than  ten  of  its  prelates  are  recorded  among  the  saints 
of  the  Roman  Catholic  Calendar.  Indeed  Winchester  may  pro- 
perly be  called  an  historical  and  royal  city;  and  therefore  it  is 
hoped  that  the  present  Volume,  illustrative  of  the  Antiquity  and 
Architecture  of  its  venerable  Cathedral,  may  be  found  worthy  of 
the  notice,  aud  deserving  the  patronage,  of  your  Royal  Highness, 

I  am,  with  profound  respect, 

Your  Royal  Highness's 

Obedient  humble  servant, 


JOHN  BRITTON. 


Tavistock  Place,  London, 
Aprils,  If.  17. 


PREFACE. 


Since  the  preceding  dedication  was  published,  the  whole  English  nation  has 
had  to  deplore  and  lament  the  sudden  and  melancholy  death  of  the  amiable 
Princess  to  whom  it  was  addressed.  Never,  perhaps,  was  there  a  more 
general  and  unanimous  sympathy  excited  :  never  were  all  parties  "and  all 
classes  of  people  more  agreed  as  to  the  eligibility  of  a  future  sovereign, — 
as  to  the  domestic  virtues  of  the  wife,  and  as  to  the  incalculable  influence 
of  such  qualities  on  the  fashion  and  manners  of  a  country.  Let  us 
cherish,  however,  an  ardent  hope,  that  the  esteem  she  excited  will  act 
as  a  stimulus  to  other  heirs  to  the  crown ; — for  the  greatest  treasure  a 
monarch  can  obtain  is  a  nation's  love.  Splendid  and  costly  monuments 
may  be  raised — churches  may  be  founded — and  poets  may  eulogise  the 
wealthy  and  the  great — but  neither  of  those  will  secure  the  impartial 
approbation  of  the  honest  historian,  if  not  accompanied  by  real  worth,  or 
talents.  In  examining  the  monuments  of  our  Cathedrals,  we  are  often 
disgusted  with  the  fulsome  flattery  and  falsehood  of  many  inscriptions  ; — 
we  often  see  the  short-sighted  policy  of  those  who  seek  to  obtain  post- 
humous fame  by  testamentary  legacies  and  foundations  :  and  have  frequent 
occasion  to  deplore  that  the  names,  characters,  and  worldly  situations  of 
real  benefactors  to  mankind,  are  often  unnoticed  by  marble  tablets  and 
sepulchral  eulogia.  In  the  present  age,  however,  real  merit  is  very 
generally  understood  and  appreciated;  and  great  talents,  if  united  with 
integrity,  will  certainly  be  honoured  and  perpetuated.  It  is  a  noble  and 
proud  characteristic  of  the  English,  to  cherish  and  respect  connubial 
happiness;  to  admire  domestic  virtues;  and  wherever  these  are  rendered 
apparent,  they  immediately  secure  the  sincerest  and  warmest  sympathy. 
A  people  so  constituted  must  be  dignified  in  the  scale  of  nations;  and 
Englishmen,  whilst  they  are  proud  of  their  country,  should  exert  their 
talents  to  exalt  it,  and  guard  its  honour  with  the  most  watchful  jealousy. 

Intimately  connected  as  the  diocess  of  Winchester  has  been  with  the 
history  and  progress  of  Christianity  in  England ; — with  the  contentions 
between  the  episcopal  and  inonarchial  supremacy,  I  have  been  seduced 
into  a  more  extended  review  of  those  subjects  than  will,  perhaps,  be 
agreeable  to  the  general  reader :  but  I  could  not  with  propriety  neglect 
to  notice  them,  nor  yet  coutract  my  comments  within  a  smaller  compass. 
On  these  points  I  have  most  scrupulously  endeavoured  to  be  candid  and 
strictly  impartial ;  detailing  the  opinions  of  those  writers  who  appear  to  be 
most  deserving  of  credit,  and  occasionally,  but  rarely,  submitting  my  own. 
Aware  that  the  civil  and  ecclesiastical  history  of  Winchester  has  been 
amply  and  learnedly  developed  by  its  local  historian,  and  that,  from  the 
religious  opinions  entertained  by  the  writer,  much  warm,  and  rather  acri- 
monious, controversy  has  been  produced ;  my  endeavour  has  been  to  avoid 
the  intemperate  zeal  of  both  parties  *.     History,  antiquity,  art,  and  matter 

*  Sec  Preface  to  "  The  History,  Sfc.  of  Norwich  Cathedral,"  for  my  opinions  on  this  point. 


PREFACE. 

of  fact,  are  the  objects  of  the  present  woi'k;  not  theory,  opinion,  or 
romance: — these  are  fleeting  and  transitory;  maybe  esteemed  to-day,  but 
despised  to-morrow:  whilst  those  are  lasting  :  at  once  affording  a  gratify- 
ing reward  to  investigation,  and  permanent  satisfaction  to  the  mind. 

With  the  same  feelings  and  principles  I  have  eagerly  endeavoured  to 
elucidate  the  styles  and  dates  of  the  different  parts  of  Winchester  Cathedral. 
If  I  have  erred  in  opinion,  in  statement,  or  inference,  I  shall  feel  thankful 
for  better  information,  or  for  friendly  correction.  Many  points,  1  am  willing 
to  admit,  are  unsettled,  and  therefore  liable  to  varied  interpretations  :  but  I 
suspect  that  many  persons,  with  the  best  intentions,  and  with  well  informed 
minds,  are  too  prone  to  yield  to  the  seductions  of  theory  and  prepossession. 
Though  much  has  been  written  and  published  on  this  subject,  I  am  per- 
suaded that  much  more  remains  to  be  done  ;  and  that  we  shall  never  elicit 
the  whole  truth,  nor  come  to  the  arcana  of  antiquarian  science,  but  by 
diligent  and  fastiduous  investigation.  To  elucidate  all  the  nice  varieties 
and  gradations  of  architecture,  we  must  be  furnished  with  the  most  accu- 
rate elevations,  sections,  and  details  of  ancient  buildings;  and  at  length  we 
have  a  few  artists  capable  of  rendering  us  this  invaluable  service. 

It  is  the  duty  of  a  writer  not  only  to  avail  himself  of  all  the  labours  of 
his  predecessors,  but  to  correct  their  errors  and  supply  their  deficiencies. 
In  doing  this,  however,  he  should  be  governed  by  rigid  impartiality,  and  a 
manly  courage  to  point  out,  without  exulting  at  their  defects.  Knowing 
the  difficulty  of  attaining  truth,  he  should  be  lenient  and  liberal,  and  his 
grand  rule  of  action  is  to  be  just  to  himself  and  to  his  reader.  With  these 
sentiments  impressed  on  the  heart,  I  have  penned  the  following  pages  ;  and 
though  they  may  not  comprise  all  the  information  that  may  be  required  by 
the  critical  reader;  and  though  not  so  full  of  comments  on  the  errors  and 
mis-statements  of  preceding  writers  as  some  may  wish,  yet  I  hope  the  im- 
partial antiquary  will  forgive  me  for  the  latter  omission,  and  excuse  me  for 
the  former. 

It  is  now  my  pleasing  task  to  thank  the  following  correspondents  for  much 
useful  communication  and  kindnesses — the  Df.an  of  Winchester  ;  the 
Rev.  K.  Poulter  ;  the  Rev.  H.  Lee;  the  Rev.  F.  Iremonger;  B.  Winter, 
Esq.;  the  Rev.  R.  Yates;  Wm.Garbett,  lisq.;  and  Wm.  Hampeb,  Esq. 

Having  completed  the  history  and  illustration  of  Winchester  Cathedral, 
being  the  third  of  this  series,  I  shall  next  proceed  to  illustrate  aud  elucidate 
that  of  York,  for  which  nearly  the  whole  of  the  drawings  are  completed  by 
Messrs.  Blore  aud  Mackenzie.  Krom  the  progress  made,  I  have  reason  to 
believe  that  the  whole  work  will  be  completed  in  the  course  of  twelve  months; 
and  I  cannot  doubt  but  that  the  historical  and  architectural  materials, 
relating  to  this  metropolitical  church,  will  abound  with  curious  aud  interest- 
ing facts.  The  architecture  is  replete  with  beautiful  forms  and  features,  and 
the  whole  will  be  amply  and  accurately  displayed  by  the  faithful  pencils  of 
the  artists  above-named. 


^tetotp  an&  Antiquities 


WINCHESTER  CATHEDRAL  CHURCH. 


<£f)aju  & 


FIRST  ESTABLISHMENT  OF  CHRISTIANITY  IN  BRITAIN  : — INQUIRY  INTO  THE 

REALITY     AND     SOVEREIGNTY     OF     LUCIUS  : ESTABLISHMENT     OF    A    SEE 

AT   WINCHESTER  : — THE    EXTENT   AND    INFLUENCE    OF    ITS    DOMINION  I 

HISTORY  OF  THE  FOUNDATION  AND  SUCCESSIVE  ALTERATIONS  OF  THE 
CATHEDRAL,  THROUGH  THE  DYNASTY  OF  THE  KINGS  OF  THE  WEST 
SAXONS  TO  THE  PERIOD  OF  THE  NORMAN  CONQUEST. 


JLt  is  not  easy,  nor  would  it  be  desirable,  to  examine  the  Cathedral  of 
Winchester  without  connecting  it  with  eminent  men  and  memorable 
events  of  former  ages.  Its  history,  indeed,  is  intimately  blended  with 
that  of  the  nation;  and  its  annals  embrace  many  facts  and  relations 
which  cannot  fail  to  interest  the  feelings  of  the  philosopher,  the  Christian, 
the  historian,  and  the  antiquary.  As  connected  with  the  disputable  and 
uncertain  primary  establishment  of  Christianity  in  Britain — as  the  temple 
wherein  its  benign  doctrines  were  promulgated  to  Britons  and  Romans — 
and  as  the  place  of  coronation  and  sepulture  of  Anglo-Saxon  and  Anglo- 
Norman  monarchs,  the  Cathedral  of  Winchester  is  eminently  important. 
In  reviewing  its  early  history  we  are,  however,  constantly  perplexed  in 

B 


10  WINCHESTER  CATHEDRAL. 

the  mazes  of  fable,  tradition,  and  probable  narrative ;  and  feel  extreme 
difficulty  in  discriminating  the  one  from  the  other,  and  rendering  our 
account  rational,  satisfactory,  and  authentic.  From  the  earliest  period 
to  the  dissolution  of  the  monastic  institutions  in  Great  Britain,  Winchester 
appears  to  have  been  a  place  of  local  and  national  consequence.  Under 
the  Celtic  or  Belgic  Britons,  here  was  certainly  a  town  called  Caer- 
Gtvent,  or  the  White  City :  this  was  subsequently  occupied,  fortified,  and 
rendered  a  permanent  station  by  the  Romans,  and  denominated  by  them 
Venta-Betgarum.  By  the  West  Saxons  it  was  made  their  chief  seat,  and  it 
afterwards  became  the  metropolis  of  all  England.  The  Norman  monarchs 
and  some  subsequent  kings  either  resided  at,  or  conferred  certain  marks  of 
distinction  on  the  city.  Hence  we  shall  find  that,  in  its  political  and 
ecclesiastical  history,  there  are  abundant  subjects  for  interesting  inquiry 
and  for  extended  disquisition.  On  the  present  occasion,  however,  it  will 
be  necessary  to  confine  our  attention  to  the  latter  subject. 

The  early  history  of  Winchester  Cathedral  has  been  connected,  by 
the  almost  general  assent  of  topographical  writers,  with  the  very  intro- 
duction of  Christianity  itself  into  this  island ;  yet  so  few  and  meagre  are 
the  notices  which  the  records  of  antiquity  furnish  on  the  suhject,  and  so 
much  are  they  intermingled  with  fiction  and  improbabilities,  that  the  impar- 
tial inquirer  must  still  remain  in  a  state  of  dubiety  as  to  the  real  facts.  The 
most  effective  research  cannot  now  supply  enough  evidence  to  determine  the 
true  origin  of  this  Church  ;  and  however  gratifying  to  curiosity  it  would 
be  to  discover  the  dates  of  its  foundation  and  successive  enlargements,  it 
has  become  impossible  to  do  so  from  the  want  of  authentic  documents. 
The  traditionary  legends  of  monkish  writers  are  utterly  insufficient  to 
satisfy  the  judgment  of  any  historian,  in  whose  breast  the  love  of  truth  is 
more  powerful  than  a  slavish  attachment  to  hypothesis ;  yet  we  have 
scarcely  any  other  data  on  which  to  ground  the  annals  of  the  first  ages  of 
this  See  and  Cathedral. 

The  first  conversion  of  the  Britons  to  Christianity,  though  in  its  conse- 
quences of  such  vast  and  incalculable  importance,  is  involved  in  the 
greatest  obscurity ;  as  well  in  regard  to  the  exact  time  at  which  it  took 


FIRST  ESTABLISHMENT  OF  CHRISTIANITY.  1 1 

place,  as  to  the  real  persons  by  whom,   or  under  whose  auspices,  that 
conversion  was  effected.     Ireneus1,  Eusebius2,  and  Theodoret3,  have  been 
considered  as  furnishing  competent  testimony,  "  that  some  of  the  Apostles 
visited  the  British  Isles,   and  that  the  Britons  were  among  the  nations 
which  were  converted  by  the  Apostles."     The  particular  persons  to  whom 
this  honour  is  generally  given,  are  St.  Peter  and  St.  Paul ;  but,  without 
entering  into  the  questionable  testimony  by  which  this  opinion  has  been 
supported,  it  will  be  sufficient  in  this  place  to  remark,  generally,  that 
Cardinal  Baronius  and  other  Roman  Catholic  writers  ascribe  the  promul- 
gation of  Christianity  in  this  island  to  St.  Peter ;  whilst,  on  the  contrary, 
many  Protestant  writers  maintain  that  the  Gospel  was  first  preached  here 
by  St.  Paul :  of  this  latter  opinion  is  the  learned  Dr.  Burgess,  Bishop  of 
St.  David's,    who,  in  a  Sermon,   intituled    "  The  first  Seven  Epochs  of 
the  ancient  British  Church4,"  asserts  the  probability  of  St.  Paul  having 
accompanied  the  family  of  Caractacus  from  Rome,  about  the  year  58 ;  and 
this  conjecture  (founded  on  different  passages  in  the  ancient  historians  and 
fathers  of  the  Church),  the  worthy  prelate  considers  to  be  substantiated 
by  a  record  in  the  British  Triads5,  where  it  is  said  "  that  the  father  of 
Caractacus  went  to  Rome  as  an  hostage  for  his  son,  and  others  of  his 
family ;  that  he  staid  there  seven  years ;  and  that  on  his  return  he  brought 
the  knowledge  of  Christianity  to  his  countrymen  from  Rome." — "  It  is  a 
remarkable   and   very   interesting  fact,"  continues  the  bishop,  "  that  the 
detention  of  the  British  hostages   should   have  been  coincident  with  St. 
Paul's  residence  there  as   a   prisoner;   and  it  was  a  not  less  favourable 
coincidence,  that  they  should  be  released  from  confinement  in  the  same 
year  in  which  St.   Paul   was   set  at   liberty.      Nothing  could   be  more 
convenient  for  St.  Paul's  mission  to  the  Gentiles,  than  the  opportunity 
which  their  return  must  have  afforded  him  of  introducing  the  gospel  into 

1  Iren.  lib.  i.  cap.  2,  3.  2  Euseb.  lib.  iii.  cap.  7.  p.  113. 

3  Theod.  torn.  iv.  serm.  9,  p.  611.  "  Printed  in  1813,  8vo. 

5  Some  of  these  ancient  documents  are  published  in  the  Myvyrian  Archceology,  and  are  partly 
translated  in  Williams's  Dissertation  on  the  Pelagian  Heresy,  p.  14;  and  by  Mr.  Roberts,  in  the 
Appendix  to  his  Collectanea  Cambrica,  p.  293. 


12  WINCHESTER  CATHEDRAL. 

Britain ;   and  nothing  more  probable  than  that  he  should  readily  embrace 
such  an  opportunity." 

Notwithstanding  the  plausibility  of  this  argument,  it  seems  evident  that, 
had  St.  Paul  really  visited  Britain,  a  more  direct  testimony  of  the  fact 
would  have  been  found  than  a  few  obscure  passages  in  the  ancient  fathers ; 
and  though  in  his  Epistle  to  the  Romans,  (chap.  15.)  St.  Paul  twice  men- 
tions his  intention  of  going  into  Spain,  yet  it  is  very  problematical  whether 
that  purpose  was  ever  carried  into  effect.  The  total  silence  also  of  the 
Roman  historians,  as  to  any  Christian  hierarchy  being  established  in  this 
island,  during  the  three  first  centuries  of  the  Roman  dominion  here  (since 
it  appears  from  Ignatius  that  there  could  have  been  no  church  without  a 
succession  of  bishops6),  affords  a  strong  presumption  that,  during  the  above 
period,  the  diffusion  of  Christianity  in  Britain  was  extremely  limited ;  and 
that  it  arose  more  from  accidental  circumstances  than  from  a  settled  plan 
of  conversion. 

The  gradual  spread  of  the  gospel  in  Italy  and  Gaul,  and  the  intercourse 
maintained  between  the  imperial  seat  of  Rome  and  its  dependencies,  were 
unquestionably  the  leading  causes  of  the  introduction  of  Christianity  into 
Britain ;  yet  the  attributing  of  that  event,  personally,  either  to  St.  Paul  or  to 
Lucius,  a  British  king,  who  is  said  to  have  been  seated  at  Venta,  or 
Winchester,  and  to  have  reigned  between  the  years  164  and  190,  appears 
neither  to  be  warranted  by  historical  records  nor  probability. 

That  there  were  certain  individuals  among  the  Britons  who,  in  the 
first  century  after  Christ,  embraced  the  pure  doctrines  which  he  taught 
is  evident,  both  from  Tacitus  and  Martial.  The  former  states,  in  his 
Annals7,  that  a  distinguished  British  lady,  named  Pomponia  Graecina, 
a  Christian,  and  the  wife  of  Aulus  Plautius  (who  had  been  pro-praetor 
of  the  Roman  province  in  this  island),  was  prosecuted  (A.  D.  57),  and 
in  danger  of  losing  her  life  for  her  religion ;  and  the  latter,  in  two 
Epigrams8,  brings  us  acquainted  with  the  virtues  and  beauty  of  Claudia 
Rufina,  another  Christian  female  of  noble  birth,  who  was  also  a  native 

6  Igna.  Epist.  ad  Trail.  5  3.  '  Lib.  xiii.  cap.  32. 

1  Lib.  iv.  Ep.  13  ;  and  lib.  \\.  Ep.  54. 


FIRST  ESTABLISHMENT  OF  CHRISTIANITY.  13 

of  this  island,  and  who  was  married  to  a  senator  of  Rome,  named  Rufus 
Pudens.  This  lady  and  her  husband  are  generally  admitted  to  have  been 
the  persons  of  whom  St.  Paul  speaks  as  Christians,  and  whose  greetings 
he  sends  to  Timothy,  in  that  epistle9  which  he  wrote  when  going  to  appear 
a  second  time  before  Nero,  previously  to  his  martyrdom  in  June,  A.  D.  66. 
The  influence  of  these  ladies  would  most  probably  be  exerted  to  extend 
the  knowledge  of  the  Christian  dispensation  in  their  own  country;  yet 
we  have  the  positive  evidence  of  Pliny,  as  to  the  fact  of  the  Druidical 
superstitions  of  Britain  being  extremely  prevalent,  even  so  late  as  fifty 
years  after  the  death  of  Claudius,  and  although  several  edicts  had  been 
issued  against  Druidism  by  the  Roman  emperors :  his  words  are  "  Britannia 
hodieque  earn  attonite  celebrat,  tantis  ceremoniis,  ut  dedisse  Persis 
videri  possit;"  that  is,  '  the  Britons  of  this  day  are  accustomed  to  use  and 
follow  it,  with  such  admiration  and  as  many  ceremonies,  as  though  they 
had  first  taught  it  unto  the  Persians'10. 

The  most  respectable  of  our  ancient  writers  who  mentions  the  conversion 
of  Lucius  and  the  Britons  under  his  dominion,  is  Venerable  Bede,  whom 
Godwin  presumes  to  have  "  obtained  his  information  out  of  the  old 
Martyrologies" n.  He  says,  that  "  In  the  year  of  Christ's  Incarnation,  156, 
Marcus  Antoninus  Verus,  the  fourteenth  emperor  from  Augustus,  began 
his  government  with  Aurelius  Commodus,  his  brother;  in  whose  time 
Eleutherius,  a  holy  man,  sitting  bishop  of  the  Roman  Church,  Lucius,  a 
king  of  the  Britons,  writ  unto  him  his  letters,  praying  that  by  his  appoint- 
ment and  direction  he  might  be  made  a  Christian ;  and  presently  he 
obtained  the  effect  of  his  godly  desire :  from  which  period  until  the  reign 
of  Dioclesian,  the  Britons  inviolably  held  the  true  faith,  uncorrupted,  in 
peace  and  quietness12." 

Such  is  the  simple  ground-work  of  the  story  of  Lucius ;  but  the  legends 
of  the  monkish  annalists  of  later  days  have  rendered  the  whole  incredible, 

9  2  Tim.  chap.  iv.  v.  21. 

10  In  Vita  Claud,  cap.  xxv. — Vide  Godwin  de  Praesul.  cap.  iii.  "  Godwin,  ib. 
"  Bede's  "  Hist.  Eccles.  Gent.  Ang.  Lib.  Quin.  Edit."  by  Smith,  p.  44. 


14  WINCHESTER  CATHEDRAL. 

by  the  absurd  and  even  impossible  circumstances  which  they  have  thought 
proper  to  attach  to  it.  The  "  true  Roman  Martyrology,"  as  Baronius  calls 
it  (although  a  prior  Martyrology,  written  by  Usuardus,  at  the  command  of 
Carolus  Magnus,  about  the  year  800,  mentions  nothing  concerning  Lucius), 
states  that  Eleutherius  sent  the  two  prelates,  Fugatius,  and  Damianus  or 
Duvianus,  into  Britain,  and  that  they  baptized  Lucius  and  his  queen,  "and, 
in  a  manner,  all  the  people  of  the  land13."  But  the  extensive  nature  of 
this  conversion  (as  told  us  by  the  monks),  will  be  better  understood  from 
the  following  succinct  statement,  which  Bishop  Godwin  has  inserted  in  the 
'  Discourse,'  prefixed  to  his  '  Catalogue  of  the  Bishops  of  England'14. 

"  Whensoever  it  was  that  this  good  Prince  received  the  faith  of  Christ ; 
so  it  fell  out  (our  historians  say),  that  not  only  his  wife  and  family 
accompanied  him  in  that  happy  course,  but  nobles  also  and  commons, 
priests  and  people,  high  and  low,  even  all  the  people  of  this  land  which 
we  now  call  England :  and  that  generally  all  their  idols  were  then  defaced, 
the  temples  of  them  being  converted  into  churches  for  the  service  of  God ; 
the  livings  of  the  idolatrous  priests  appointed  for  the  maintenance  of  the 
priests  of  the  gospel,  and  that,  instead  of  the  twenty-live  flamines  or 
high-priests  of  their  idols,  there  were  ordained  twenty-five  bishops ;  as 
also  for  three  arch  flamines,  three  archbishops;  whereof  one  was  seated  at 
London,  another  at  Yorke,  and  a  third  at  Carlion  in  Monmouthshire." — 
In  a  subsequent  page  the  bishop  says,  "  It  is  recorded  by  most  of  our 
writers  (in  a  manner  all),  that  King  Lucius,  having  founded  many  churches, 
and  afforded  unto  them  many  possessions  with  great  privileges,  he  at  last 
departed  this  life  in  peace,  and  was  buried  at  Gloucester,  the  fourteenth 
yeare  after  his  baptism,  as  some  say ;  the  tenth,  as  other ;  and  againe  (as 
some  other  will  have  it),  the  fourth." 

Such   is   the   substance   of   the    traditions   which  an  inquirer  into  the 

13  " ac  totum  fere  populum."     In  7  Kal.  Jim.    The  old  History  of  Llandaff,  commonly 

called  the  Book  of  St.  Teilo,  says,  that  then  ames  of  the  messengers  sent  by  Lucius  to  Eleutherius, 
were  Elvanus  and  Meduinus,  and  that  the  former  was  constituted  a  bishop  by  Eleutherius,  and 
the  latter  a  doctor  or  teacher,  in  respect  of  their  eloquence  and  knowledge  in  the  Scriptures. 

"  Chap.  iii.  p.  22.  and  p.  35.  Edit.  1615. 


INQUIRY  INTO  THE  REALITY  AND  SOVEREIGNTY  OF  LUCIUS.  15 

church  antiquities  of  Winchester  has  to  examine,  before  he  can  obtain 
any  foundation  for  the  erection  of  genuine  history.  As  the  stream  of  time 
has  rolled  on,  it  is  curious  to  observe  how  greatly  the  minute  rill  of 
information,  given  us  by  Bede,  has  been  amplified  in  succeeding  ages ;  not, 
however,  from  springs  "  pure  and  undefiled,"  but  from  sources  which 
obscure  and  blacken  the  original  current.  Rudborne,  a  monk  of  Win- 
chester, who  lived  about  the  middle  of  the  fifteenth  century,  and  whose 
history,  or  annals,  of  this  cathedral  has  been  published  by  Wharton,  in  his 
"  Anglia  Sacra,"  affords  a  very  curious  illustration  of  the  above  remark ; 
for  he  has  not  only  strung  together  the  various  legendary  accounts  of 
former  writers,  but  has  added  particulars  that  are  not  to  be  found  in  any 
preceding  historian.  The  very  singular  phraseology  in  which  he  has 
enveloped  his  narrative,  may  be  judged  of  from  the  following  translation  of 
the  first  chapter  of  his  History,  as  published  by  Wharton. 

"  Lucius,  the  glorious  Prince  of  Britain,  being  invested  with  power  and 
the  regal  diadem,  hearing  the  report  of  Christianity,  far  transcending  every 
mode  of  human  estimation,  with  much  charitable  zeal,  desired  that  himself 
and  his  kingdom,  and  every  people  subjected  to  him,  should  be  instructed 
in  that  soul-saving  doctrine.  In  the  first  year  of  his  reign  he  sent  certain 
legates  and  learned  nuncios  to  the  Pope,  seeking  peace  and  perpetual 
health,  and  also  that  he  would  shed  a  beam  of  the  freely-granted  river 
from  the  celestial  fountain  of  Christ,  the  Eternal  Sun,  to  their  Prince, 
sighing  for  eternal  life.  At  that  time  the  blessed  Father  Eleutherius  was 
presiding  in  all  the  world,  who,  from  the  blessed  St.  Peter,  the  prince  of 
the  Apostles,  was  the  twelfth  in  succession  to  the  Apostolical  chair.  The 
most  serene  Prince  Lucius  followed  up  the  effect  of  his  most  desired 
proposition.     Now  the  above  mentioned  was  Eleutherius,  the  Holy, 

"  Who  held  the  Key  of  Heaven  from  pole  to  pole, 
Who,  by  God's  permission,  loosened  the  fetters  of  the  world, 
And  unlocked  the  celestial  regions  to  the  pious. 

"About  the  year  of  the  Dominical  Incarnation  164,  as  writeth  the  Venerable 
Bede  in  his  'De  Gestis  Anglorum,'  lib.  i.  cap.  4.  and  Martin  in  his  Chronicles, 


16  WINCHESTER  CATHEDRAL. 

and  Gildas  the  Historian  (the  Ancient  British  writer),  lib.  i.  cap.  7.  two 
learned  priests,  religious  men  and  monks,  named  Faganus  and  Duvianus, 
with  many  of  their  associate  monks,  were  presented  to  the  king;  and  this 
prince  and  all  his  people  were  baptized"15. — 

Although  Rudborne  has  cited  Gildas  as  one  of  his  authorities  for  referring 
the  conversion  of  Lucius  to  the  year  164,  yet  the  short  work,  "  De  Excidio 
Britannia,"  which  we  have  in  print  of  that  writer,  makes  not  the  least 
mention  of  that  prince;  nor  is  there  any  writing  of  his,  now  known  to  be 
extant,  which  refers  to  him.  The  date  too,  as  given  by  Rudborne,  is 
manifestly  wrong,  since  Eleutheriiis  did  not  succeed  to  the  pontificate  till 
after  the  death  of  Soter,  in  177;  but  in  this  the  Winchester  historian  does 
not  stand  single ;  for  the  learned  Usher,  as  stated  by  Carte,  has  collected 
upwards  of  twenty  different  opinions16,  as  to  the  time  when  Lucius  was 
converted,  and  held  his  alleged  correspondence  with  Eleutheriiis. 

Among  the  arguments  employed  by  Carte,  in  his  extended  examination 
of  this  question17,  to  show  that  the  events,  attributed  to  Lucius,  cannot  be 
true,  are  instanced  the  very  slow  progress  made  by  Christianity  on  this 
side  the  Alps,  and  the  non-existence  of  every  kind  of  credible  record 
relating  to  a  succession  of  bishops  in  this  island,  at  any  time  before  the 
middle  of  the  third  century.  "  No  man  of  learning,"  says  this  historian, 
"  however  versed  in  the  study  of  antiquity,  or  how  indefatigable  soever  in 
his  searches  upon  this  subject,  hath  ever  yet  been  able  to  find  out  so  much 
as  the  name  of  any  one  bishop  in  Britain,  except  what  are  founded  upon  the 
legend  of  Lucius,  till  after  the  year  250 ;  the  highest  point  of  time  to  which 
their  succession  of  bishops  ascends  in  all  the  sees  of  Gaul,  except  Lyons 
and  Vienne ; — and  the  true  reason  why  there  was  no  persecution  in  this 
island  (as  there  was  in  other  parts  of  the  Roman  empire),  till  the  time  of 
Dioclesian,  appears  plainly  to  have  been,  because  till  then  there  were  no 
Christians  here  considerable  enough  to  be  remarked." 

Nennius,  speaking  of  Lucius,  informs  us  that  after  his  conversion  he 

15  Rudborne  Hist.  Mag.  lib.  i.  cap.  1.  "  Autiq.  Bril.  cap.  iii.  p.  20. 

17  Hist,  of  Eiig.  vol.  i.  p.  132—140. 


INQUIRY  INTO  THE  REALITY  AND  SOVEREIGNTY  OF  LUCIUS.  17 

was  called,  in  allusion  to  his  name,  Lever  Maur,  or  the  Great  Light,  or 
Splendour™;  and  the  British  Triads'9  are  supposed  to  record  the  same 
person  by  the  appellative  Lleirwg,  or  Lies  (whence  the  Latin  name,  Lucius) 
who  is  stated  in  those  documents  to  have  established  the  first  church  in 
Britain,  although  just  before  that  event  is  attributed  to  Bran. 

After  his  conversion,  Lucius  is  said  to  have  made  request  to  Eleutherius 
for  some  particulars  of  the  Roman  laws,  that  he  might  make  them  a 
foundation  for  a  settled  order  of  government  throughout  his  own  dominions. 
The  answer  returned  by  Eleutherius  is  supposed,  by  Bishop  Godwin,  to 
have  been  first  recorded  "  in  an  old  chronicle,  entituled  Hrutus,  amongst  cer- 
taine  lawes  or  statutes  of  the  Saxons."  There  is  however  much  diversity 
in  the  copies  of  this  epistle,  and  some  of  them  have  additional  sentences. 
In  that  published  by  Usher0,  the  date  is  169 ;  and  the  following  are  the  most 
particular  passages,  as  translated  from  the  Latin,  by  Godwin : — "  Ye  require 
of  us  the  Roman  laws  and  the  Emperors  to  be  sent  over  to  you,  which  you 
would  practice  and  put  in  use  within  your  realm.  The  Roman  laws  and 
the  Emperors  we  may  ever  reprove  ;  but  the  law  of  God  we  may  not.  Ye 
have  received  of  late,  through  God's  mercy,  in  the  kingdom  of  Britain,  the 
law  and  faith  of  Christ;  ye  have  with  you  within  the  realm  both  parts  of 
the  Scriptures.  Out  of  them,  by  God's  grace,  with  the  council  of  your 
realm  take  ye  a  law  ;  and  by  that  law,  through  God's  sufferance,  rule  your 
kingdom  of  Britain  :  for  you  be  God's  vicar  in  your  kingdom. — The  people 
and  folk  of  the  realm  of  Britain  be  yours;  whom,  if  they  be  divided,  ye 
ought  to  gather  in  concord  and  peace,  to  call  them  to  the  faith  and  law  of 
Christ,  to  cherish  and  to  maintain  them,  to  rule  and  govern  them,  so  as  you 
may  keep  everlastingly  with  him  whose  vicar  ye  are." 

Whatever  might  be  the  extent  of  credulity  in  prejudiced  minds,  it  is  clear  to 
the  impartial  historian,  that  the  above  epistle  could  never  be  a  genuine  one ;  for 
the  dominion  of  the  Romans  had  been  so  extensively  spread  over  this  country 
long  prior  to  the  time  at  which  Lucius  is  said  to  have  swayed  the  sceptre, 
that  by  no  possible  means  could  he  have  been  in  possession  of  the  enlarged 

18  Hist.  Brit.  c.  xviii.  ,5  See  Myvyrian  Archaiology.  2°  Antiq.  Brit. 

C 


18     -  WINCHESTER  CATHEDRAL. 

sovereignty  that  is  thus  attributed  to  him.  It  is  admitted  that  the  Romans 
grounding  their  policy  on  the  acknowledged  prejudices  of  human  nature, 
frequently  governed  their  newly-conquered  countries  by  the  agency  of 
native  kings  and  princes,  and  willingly  bestowed  some  portion  of  regal 
authority  on  those  who  were  disposed  to  sacrifice  their  independence  to 
ambition.  The  dominion,  however,  that  was  thus  delegated  by  the  Romans 
was  always  resumed  as  their  conquests  became  consolidated,  and  their 
empire  secured.  In  regard  to  Britain,  wholly  subjugated  as  it  was  long- 
before  the  days  of  Lucius,  it  would  have  been  utterly  inconsistent  with 
every  principle  of  Roman  domination  to  have  permitted  a  native  prince  to 
have  borne  such  an  extended  sway  over  a  country  which  they  had 
divided  into  provinces,  and  placed  under  the  rule  of  their  own  praefects. 
The  "  realm  of  Britain,"  could  never  have  been  subjected  to  Lucius;  nor 
does  it  appear  from  any  Roman  author  that  ever  a  prince  so  named  was  at 
any  time  in  alliance  with  them,  or  was  suffered  to  govern  a  subordinate 
kingdom,  though  even  of  iuferior  extent.  Still  less  can  we  give  credence 
to  the  legends  which  attribute  the  creation  of  so  many  archiepiscopal  and 
other  Sees  to  a  British  king ;  so  long  after  his  country  had  been  subjugated 
by  a  foreign  power,  and  upwards  of  a  century  before  Christianity  was 
protected  by  the  Roman  emperors. 

From  the  preceding  brief  review  of  the  evidence  which  has  been  adduced 
on  this  controverted  subject,  it  must  be  clear  to  the  impartial  reader,  that 
the  story  of  Lucius  is  either  altogether  fabulous,  or  that  Lucius  himself 
was  a  person  whose  situation  and  circumstances  in  life  have  been  greatly 
misrepresented.  The  two  coins,  mentioned  by  Archbishop  Usher21,  (the 
one  silver,  and  the  other  gold,  having  the  figure  of  a  king  on  them  with  a 
cross,  and  the  letters  L.  V.  C.)  which  have  been  so  frequently  referred  to  in 
proof  that  Lucius  was  both  a  King  and  a  Christian,  are  not  so  explicitly 
described  as  to  warrant  a  belief  of  the  affirmative.  The  very  words, 
indeed,  which  the  archbishop  has  employed,  says  Whitaker,  "  renders  the 
fact  infinitely  precarious22."     He  had  seen,  he  affirms,  two  coins,  which 

"  Vide  Usher  De  Prim.  p.  39,  40.  ■  Hist,  of  Manchester,  vol.  i.  p.  405. 


INQUIRY  INTO  THE  REALITY  AND  SOVEREIGNTY  OF  LUCIUS.  J9 

were  marked  with  the  sign  of  the  cross,  "  et  Literis  obscuriaribusqucs  LVC. 
denotare  videbentur ;"  a  sentence  which  throws  a  strong  doubt  on  the 
presumption  of  their  having  been  minted  by  Lucius.  It  appears  from 
Gildas,  also,  as  quoted  by  the  same  historian,  that  no  British  king  was 
allowed  to  coin  money  after  the  Roman  conquest23. 

The  account  given  by  Rudborne,  from  Moracius,  respecting  the  dimensions 
of  the  Cathedral  which  Lucius  is  stated  to  have  erected  at  Winchester,  has 
an  equally  suspicious  air  with  many  of  the  other  circumstances  attributed 
to  that  personage.  It  informs  us,  that  "  Lucius  built  a  Christian  church  from 
the  ground,"  upon  a  scale  of  grandeur  and  magnificence  which  has  never 
since  been  equalled ; — "  its  length  being  209  paces  [about  600  feet],  its 
breadth  80  paces,  its  height  92  paces,  and  its  width,  from  one  horn  [corner] 
across  the  church  to  the  other,  180  paces;"  and  that  this  edifice,  when 
finished,  was  dedicated  in  honour  of  the  Holy  Saviour  by  Fugatius  and 
Duvianus,  who  had  been  sent  to  Britain  from  Rome  by  Pope  Eleutherius ; 
and  who,  likewise,  constituted  abbot  of  this  place,  a  monk  formerly  called 
Devotus1^. 

According  to  the  same  authority,  Lucius  bestowed  on  his  new  church 
the  privileges  of  sanctuary,  (agreeably  to  the  laws  of  Dunwallo  Malmutius, 
a  reputed  British  king,  said  to  have  lived  500  years  before  Christ);  and  also 

23  Hist,  of  Manchester,  vol.  i.  p.  405. 

24  Rudb.  lib.  i.  Rudborne's  words  are  these : — "  Abbatemque  loci  constituerunt  Monachum 
quendam  vocabulo  Devotum."  Milner,  in  his  History  of  Winchester,  vol.  i.  p.  42,  has  strangely  denomi- 
nated Devotus,  "  a  religious  bishop."  An  anonymous  writer  on  Winchester  cathedral  justly  remarks 
on  this  subject  that,  "  In  attributing  the  consecration  of  this  cathedral  to  Romish  missionaries,  it  has 
been  wished  to  infer  that  the  see  of  Rome  had  always  spiritual  authority  over  Britain ;  and  that 
Eleutherius,  by  this  act,  obtained  the  same  power  over  Winchester,  which  his  successors  claimed 
a  thousand  years  after.  The  very  contrary,  however,  is  the  fact;  and  whatever  might  be  the  state 
of  religious  knowledge  in  this  country  during  the  life  of  Lucius,  even  bishop  Milner  is  constrained 
to  admit,  that,  "  it  seemed  best  to  him  and  his  prelates  [without  any  reference  to  the  bishop  of 
Rome]  that  the  same  hierarchy  should  be  observed  which  had  before  obtained  among  the  Flamines, 
or  heathen  priests.  According  to  this,  Loudon,  York,  and  Caerleon,  became  metropolitan  sees ; 
and  hence,  Venta,  although  the  favourite  of  Lucius,  and  probably  the  capital  of  his  dominions,  was 
left  destitute  of  that  pre-eminence  to  which,  as  the  chief  city  of  the  west,  it  was  otherwise  entitled.'' 


20  WINCHESTER  CATHEDRAL. 

annexed  to  it  a  monastery,  whose  inmates  were  of  the  order  of  those 
instituted  by  St.  Mark,  at  Alexandria25.  The  dimensions  of  the  monastery 
are  stated  to  have  been  as  follows:  "  in  length,  from  the  eastern  part  of  the 
church  towards  the  old  Temple  of  Concord,  100  paces ;  in  breadth,  towards 
the  new  Temple  of  Apollo,  80  paces :  from  the  north-east  part,  in  length 
lb'O  paces,  in  breadth  98 :  from  the  western  ground  (plagd)  of  the  church, 
in  length  190  paces,  in  breadth  100:  from  the  southern  ground,  in  length 
45  paces,  in  breadth  58  paces." 

The  striking  absurdity  of  Rudborne,  or  rather  of  Moracius,  whom  he 
follows,  in  carrying  up  the  privilege  of  sanctuary  to  such  an  early  period26, 
could  be  equalled  ouly  by  his  error  in  assigning  the  antiquity  of  the 
monastic  profession  to  an  era  so  remote  from  the  true  one.  Even  Milner 
himself  (though  sufficiently  credulous  on  many  things  advanced  by  this 
writer)  withholds  his  assent  to  the  latter  statement,  and  declares  it  to  be 
"  not  warranted  by  ecclesiastical  monuments27." 

Rudborne  says,  that  the  new  church  was  dedicated  in  the  fifth  year  of 
the  conversion  of  the  kingdom ;  or  as  he  afterwards  more  particularly 
records  it,  on  the  4th  of  the  kalends  of  November,  in  the  year  of  grace  109. 
His  chronology,  however,  is  extremely  defective;  and  by  no  means  to  be 
depended  on,  unless  corroborated  by  other  authorities.  The  possessions 
and  treasures  of  the  Flatnines,  he  tells  us,  of  this  city,  were  given  by 
Lucius  to  the  bishops  and  monks  of  the  new  foundation28. 

The  ambiguity  which  attends  the  period  of  the  decease  of  Lucius,  and 

lS  Philo,  the  Jew,  calls  them  Thevapcules  :  i.e.  a  Jewish  order  of  monks  devoted  to  contemplation. 

*6  Bingham,  in  his  Orig.  Eccles.  vol.  iii.  p.  291,  says,  that  "  the  right  of  sanctuary  began  to  be 
a  privilege  of  churches  from  the  time  of  Constantine,  though  there  are  no  laws  about  it  older  than 
Theodosius,  either  in  the  Justinian  or  the  Theodosian  Code."  There  were  no  monks  till  after  the 
middle  of  the  third  century. 

J7  Hist,  of  Winchester,  vol.  I.  p.  42,  n.  In  another  part  he  says,  that  although  Rudborne  "  takes 
great  pains  to  persuade  us  that  the  Winchester  monks  were  of  an  order  anterior  to  the  ages  both 
of  St.  Benedict  and  St.  Antony,  it  would  be  loss  of  time  to  confute  an  account  so  glaringly 
improbable."     lb.  vol.  ii.  p.  3,  n. 

28  Rudb.  lib.  i.e.  3. 


INQUIRY  INTO  THE  REALITY  AND  SOVEREIGNTY  OF  LUCIUS.      21 

the  uncertainty  of  the  place  of  his  burial,  have  been  often  adduced  as 
arguments  against  the  credibility  of  his  reputed  sway ;  and  it  is  certain 
that  the  darkness  in  which  those  circumstances  are  involved,  is  calculated 
to  excite  considerable  suspicion.  Were  the  accounts  true,  that  Lucius 
had  possessed  such  extended  sovereignty  as  to  occasion  the  general 
establishment  of  Christianity  in  this  island,  it  is  scarcely  possible  to  believe 
that  he  could  have  descended  so  obscurely  to  the  grave,  as  to  leave  the 
time  of  his  death  unascertained,  and  the  place  of  his  interment  undecided. 
Winchester,  York,  and  Gloucester,  have  all  been  assigned  as  the  scene  of 
the  latter ;  yet  the  German  writers  report,  "  that  a  little  before  his  decease, 
either  resigning  his  crown,  or  being  dispossessed  of  it  by  the  Romans,  he 
went  abroad,  and  preached  the  gospel  in  Bavaria,  and  in  the  country  of  the 
Grisons29.''  Bishop  Godwin  refers  to  R.  Vitus,  as  saying,  that  "  King 
Lucius,  after  a  certain  space  forsaking  his  kingdom,  became  a  clergyman; 
and  preaching  the  gospel  in  divers  countries  of  France  and  Germany, 
suffered  martyrdom,  at  last,  at  a  place  called  Curiae30." 

The  dynasty  of  Lucius  is  stated  to  have  terminated  with  his  own  life,  as 
the  Romans  afterwards  governed  directly  by  their  own  officers,  and  not  by 
native  tributary  princes.  The  religious  establishment,  however,  which  he 
had  fixed  at  Winchester,  is  said  by  Rudborne,  to  have  retained  its 
privileges  and  continued  in  repose,  till  the  great  persecution  carried  on 
against  the  Christians  by  the  Emperors  Dioclesian  and  Maximian,  was 
extended  into  Britain,  (about  the  end  of  the  third  or  beginning  of  the 
fourth  century),  at  which  period  the  church  and  monastery,  attributed  to 
Lucius,  were  levelled  with  the  ground,  and  all  the  ecclesiastics  either 
slaughtered  or  dispersed31. 

The  glory  of  quelling  the  persecution  in  this  island  is  ascribed  to 
Constantius  Chlorus ;  whose  son  and  successor,  Constantine  the  Great,  by 
his  famous  edict  in  the  year  312,  restored  the  Christians  to  the  rights  of 
humanity    and    civil   justice.      The    church  of  Venta  was   then  rebuilt, 

29  Milner's  Hist,  of  Wiuchester,  vol.  i.  p.  43.  3°  Cat.  of  Eng.  Bishops,  p.  35. 

3'  Rudb.  lib.  i.  c.  4. 


22  WINCHESTER  CATHEDRAL. 

according  to  Rudborne,  upon  the  same  site,  and  in  a  similar  form  (that  of  a 
cross)  to  the  former  one ;  but  on  a  much  smaller  scale,  the  expenses  being 
defrayed  by  the  offerings  of  the  faithful  in  Christ32.  When  finished  it  was 
dedicated,  at  the  request  of  the  Abbot  Deodatus,  by  Constans,  the  then 
bishop,  in  honour  of  St.  Amphibalus33,  whom  the  monkish  writers  record  to 
have  suffered  martyrdom  at  Verulam,  whither  he  had  sought  refuge  in  the 
abode  of  St.  Alban,  during  the  Dioclesian  persecution;  but  having  been 
discovered,  he  was  put  to  death,  as  was  also  his  kind  host  for  affording 
him  shelter  and  entertainment. 

After  the  withdrawing  of  the  Roman  troops  from  Britain,  on  account  of 
the  increasing  calamities  of  the  Roman  Empire,  Venta  obtained  the  rank 
of  a  metropolis ;  for  here  the  British  King,  Vortigern,  or  Gortheryn,  and 
his  successors  Ambrosius  and  Uther  Pendragon,  fixed  their  principal 
residence :  yet  no  particulars  are  extant  of  its  ecclesiastical  history, 
during  this  period,  than  what  are  afforded  by  Rudborue,  who  barely  states, 
that  the  monks  coutinued  to  enjoy  their  privileges  in  security  and  peace, 
"  devoutly  engaged  in  singing  hymns  and  holy  songs,"  till  the  coming  of 
Cerdic,  the  Saxon  chief,  and  founder  of  the  West-Saxon  kingdom.  This 
prince  (after  defeating  the  united  army  of  the  Britons,  under  Natanleod, 
in  the  New  Forest,)  besieged  and  obtained  possession  of  Venta,  about  the 
year  51G,  at.  which  time  all  the  monks  were  slain,  and  the  Cathedral  was 
converted  into  a  heathen  temple34,  and  "  made  subservient  to  the  gloomy 

"  "  Reedificata  est  Ecclesia  Wyntoniensis  secundo  ab  Christi  fidelium  oblationibus."  Rudb. 
Hi.  i.  c.  6. 

"  Ibid.  Rudborne  describes  St.  Amphibalus  as  "  one  of  the  brotherhood"  of  this  church.  The 
Bishop  Constans,  mentioned  in  the  text,  who  is  said  to  have  been  the  son  of  the  Emperor 
Constantine ;  and  who,  after  the  successful  usurpation  of  his  father,  about  the  year  407,  having 
been  "  tempted,  or  compelled,  sacrilegiously  to  desert  the  peaceful  obscurity  of  the  monastic 
life,"  was  himself  invested  with  the  imperial  purple,  and  left  to  command  in  Spain  ;  where,  on  the 
revolt  of  Gerontius,  his  bravest  general,  he  was  made  prisoner,  and  put  to  death.  Vide  Gibbon's 
Decline,  &c.  of  the  Roman  Empire,  vol.  v.  p.  342. 

54  Rudb.  Hist.  Hi.  ii.  c.  1. — "  In  loco  quern  de  Christi  Ecclesia,  l.  e.  Wyntouiensi,  Monachis 
interfectis,  Pagani  templum  fecerant  Dagon." 


ESTABLISHMENT  OF  A  SEE  AT  WINCHESTER.  23 

and  impure  rites  of  Thor,  Woden,  Frea,  and  Tuisco35."  The  name  of  the 
city,  itself,  was  also  changed,  and  from  Caer-Gwent,  and  Venta-Belgarum,  it 
became  Winton-ceaster ;  and  hence  Winchester  by  an  easy  corruption. 

In  the  year  519,  as  most  of  our  historians  agree,  the  victorious  Cerdic 
was  crowned  king  of  the  West  Saxons  (in  conjunction  with  Kynric,  his 
son)  in  the  church,  or  temple  at  Winchester;  wherein  also,  having  greatly 
extended  his  kingdom  by  new  conquests,  and  increased  his  subjects  by 
fresh  colonies  of  Jutes  and  Saxons,  he  was  again  crowned  about  twelve 
years  afterwards  :  here,  likewise,  he  was  buried,  on  his  decease  in  534. 

Though  the  immediate  successors  of  Cerdic  considerably  extended  their 
dominions,  yet  they  continued  to  make  Winchester  their  principal  seat. 
No  event  of  particular  importance,  however,  is  recorded  concerning  the 
Cathedral  Church,  till  after  the  year  635,  when  the  arrival  of  the  missionary, 
Birinus,  whom  Pope  Honorius  had  deputed  to  preach  the  gospel  in  those 
parts  of  Britain  that  were  still  involved  in  Pagan  darkness,  entirely  changed 
the  state  of  affairs.  This  prelate,  whose  country  and  origin  are  dubious,  is 
said  to  have  been  a  monk  at  Rome ;  but,  for  the  purposes  of  his  mission, 
he  was  ordained  a  bishop  at  Genoa,  and  thence,  proceeding  through 
France,  he  took  shipping  for  Britain.  The  sceptre  of  the  West  Saxon 
kingdom  was,  at  that  period,  swayed  by  Kinegils  and  his  son  Quilchelm ; 
and  Birinus,  having  obtained  a  favourable  reception  at  the  court  of  those 
Princes,  (through  the  opportune  presence  of  the  religious  Oswald,  King  of 
the  Northumbrians,  who  was  then  soliciting  the  daughter  of  Kinegils  in 
marriage)  commenced  his  labours  in  this  city.  His  pious  endeavours  were 
quickly  rewarded  by  the  conversion  of  Kinegils  and  many  of  his  people36; 

35  From  these  deities  of  the  Jutes  and  Saxons,  the  names  are  derived  of  four  of  our  week  days. 
See  Verstegan.  The  Jutes,  called  also  Giotti  and  Gevissi,  formed  the  principal  tribe  that  established 
the  West  Saxon  kingdom. 

36  The  sudden  influence  which  Birinus  obtained  over  the  minds  of  the  Saxons,  is,  agreeably  to  the 
monkish  legends  of  that  age,  attributed  to  the  fame  of  a  miracle,  which  attended  his  embarkation 
for  this  island,  and  is  thus  described  by  Dr.  Milner  : — 

"  Proceeding  from  Genoa,  through  France,  our  apostle  came  to  the  sea-port  on  the  channel, 
from  which  he  was  to  embark  for  our  island.  Here,  having  performed  the  sacred  mysteries,  he  left 
behind  him  what  is  called  a  corporal  [in  allusion  to  the  body  of  Christ]  containing  the  blessed 


24  WINCHESTER  CATHEDRAL. 

and  it  appears  from  the  respective  histories  of  Bede  and  Malmsbury,  that 
King  Oswald  acted  in  the  character  of  godfather  to  Kinegils  when  the 
latter  was  baptized. 

Before  Birinus  quitted  Rome,  he  pledged  his  word  to  the  Pope,  that  he 
would  promulgate  Christianity  in  those  parts  of  Britain  where  the  light  of 
the  gospel  had  never  yet  been  spread ;  with  this  intent,  and  with  the  consent 
of  Kinegils  and  Oswald,  he  removed  to  Dorchester,  iu  Oxfordshire,  which 
was  then  a  considerable  town,  and  apparently  the  place  were  Quilchelm 
kept  his  court17,  as  that  monarch  received  baptism  there  in  the  following 

sacrament,  which  lie  did  not  recollect  until  the  vessel,  in  which  he  sailed,  was  some  way  out  at  sea. 
It  was  in  vain  to  argue  the  case  with  the  Pagan  sailors  who  steered  the  ship,  and  it  was  impossible 
for  him  to  leave  his  treasure  behind  him.  In  this  extremity,  supported  by  a  strong  faith,  he  stepped 
out  of  the  ship  upon  the  waters,  which  became  firm  under  his  feet,  and  walked  in  this  manner  to 
the  laud.  Having  secured  what  he  was  anxious  about,  he  returned  in  the  same  manner  on  board 
the  vessel,  which  had  remained  stationary  in  the  place  where  he  had  left  it.  The  ship's  crew  were 
of  the  nation  to  which  he  was  sent,  and  being  struck  with  the  miracle  they  had  witnessed,  lent  a 
docile  ear  to  his  instructions  :  thus  our  apostle  began  the  conversion  of  the  West-Saxons  before  he 
landed  upon  their  territory."     Hist,  of  Win.  vol.  \.p.  89. 

This  legend  is  recorded  by  several  ancient  writers,  and  Dr.  Milner  regards  it  as  a  prodigy  so 
well  attested,  that  those,  he  says,  "  who  have  had  the  greatest  interest  to  deny  it,  have  not  dared 
openly  to  do  so."  The  following  remark  on  this  passage  is  extracted  from  a  recent  description  of 
the  Cathedral : — "  Milner's  concluding  assertion  is  singularly  bold  and  fanatical.  The  persons 
alluded  to  as  not  daring  to  deny  it,  are  Bishop  Godwin  and  the  truth-telling  Fox  :  the  former  takes 
no  notice  whatever  of  this  compound  miracle,  wisely  judging  it  beneath  contempt ;  and  the  latter 
bestows  on  it  the  only  correct  appellation  iu  our  language,  that  of  a  lie." 

37  The  town  of  Dorchester  is  situated  near  the  river  Thames,  about  ten  miles  south  of  Oxford. 
It  was  anciently  occupied  by  the  Romans,  many  of  whose  coins,  urns,  &c.  have  been  found  there, 
and  considerable  entrenchments  still  remain  in  the  vicinity.  The  church  is  a  very  large  and 
curious  building,  and  affords  numerous  vestiges  of  its  former  splendour.  In  the  windows  are  some 
remains  of  ancient  painted  glass,  which  some  years  ago  were  collected  from  different  parts  of  the 
edifice,  and  put  up  in  the  chancel:  among  the  subjects  that  continue  whole  is  a  full  length 
figure  of  St.  Birinus,  as  well  as  several  small  compartments  relating  to  his  history.  The  windows 
in  the  chancel  are  very  curious  and  singular  :  that  on  the  north  side  is  large  and  lofty,  divided  into 
four  days  by  three  mullions,  which  internally  assume  the  form  of  branches  of  trees.  This  is 
intended  to  represent  the  genealogical  tree  of  Jesse,  whose  figure  is  prostrate  at  the  bottom,  and 
several  smaller  statues  are  displayed  in  other  parts  of  the  tree.  Among  the  tombs  is  a  fine 
effigy  of  a  Crusader,  in  mail  armour;  aud  also  the  figure  of  another  armed  knight,  well  executed, 


ESTABLISHMENT  OF  A  SEE  AT  WINCHESTER. — A.D.  636-643.  25 

year  (anno  636)  :  three  years  afterwards  Cuthred,  his  son,  was  baptized  in 
the  same  city,  Birinus  himself  being  his  sponsor. 

From  this  era  the  ecclesiastical  history  of  Winchester  becomes  more 
certain,  as  the  concurring  testimony  of  different  historians  substantiate 
the  leading  facts;  for  whatever  has  been  affirmed  on  the  authority  of 
Rudborne,  as  to  the  existence  of  a  Bishopric  in  this  city,  prior  to  the 
Saxon  times,  is  extremely  doubtful ;  the  historians  most  to  be  depended 
on  being  unanimous  in  ascribing  the  foundation  both  of  the  See  and  the 
Cathedral  to  Kenewalsh,  the  son  and  successor  of  Kinegils. 

Though  Birinus  had  established  his  episcopal  seat  at  Dorchester,  (which 
had  been  given  to  him  by  Kinegils),  yet  that  appears  to  have  been  done 
provisionally,  only  "  till  a  church  were  built  in  the  royal  city,  worthy  of 
such  a  priest38."  For  this  purpose  Kinegils  collected  a  great  quantity  of 
materials ;  and  he  intended,  according  to  the  Winchester  Annalist,  to 
bestow  on  the  new  foundation  all  the  land  round  this  city,  to  the  extent  of 
seven  leagues39.  Being  seized,  however,  with  a  mortal  illness  before  he 
had  completed  his  design,  he  caused  his  son  Kenewalsh  to  swear,  in  the 
presence  of  Birinus,  "  that  he  would  punctually  fulfil  these  his  pious 
intentions."  This  was  in  the  year  643 ;  when  dying,  his  remains  were  interred 
within  the  pale  of  the  new  church,  of  which  he  had  begun  the  foundation40. 

but  much  broken.  There  is,  likewise,  the  effigy  of  a  bishop,  in  ponlificalibus,  and  two  stone 
coffins  ;  the  latter  were  dug  up,  the  one  about  seven,  the  other  about  twelve  years  ago,  in  the  south 
aile,  within  eighteen  inches  of  the  surface  ;  each  of  these  is  formed  out  of  a  single  stone.  Several 
other  churches  are  said  to  have  formerly  stood  in  this  town  ;  and  many  human  bones  and  vestiges 
of  antient  sepulture  are  occasionally  met  with  in  digging  in  various  parts  of  the  neighbourhood. 
The  site  of  the  ancient  Episcopal  Palace  is  still  pointed  out  in  the  appurtenances  to  a  farm-house 
closely  adjacent  to  the  town. 

33  "  Iste  dedit  S.  Birino  Civitatem  Dorcacestram ;  ut  sederet  interim  in  ea,  donee  conderet 
Ecclesiamtantosacerdotedignaminregia  civitate."— Ann.  Eccl.  Winton.  in  Ang.  Sacra,  vol.  1,  128. 

39  "  In  votis  enim  ejus  [Kinegils]  erat  in  Wintonia  aedificaie  templum  praecipuum;  et  collectis 
jam  plurimis  ad  opus  sedificii,  terram  totam  ambientem  Wintoniam  a  centro  Wintoniae  usque  ad 
circumferentiam  ab  onini  parte  linea  exeunte  septem  leucas  habentem  ajdificandre  Ecclesias  in 
dotem  dare  disposuit. — Ann.  Eccl.  Winton.  ibid. 

40  «  _et  in  Wyntonia,  quam  fuudare  incceperat,  honorifice  sepelitur.'' — Rudb.ftft.  ii.  c.l.  ibid.  189. 

D 


26  WINCHESTER  CATHEDRAL. 

Kenewalsh  was  a  Pagan,  and  during  several  years  he  neglected  the 
execution  of  his  oath  ;  but  having  been  dispossessed  of  his  throne  by  Penda, 
King  of  Mercia,  (whose  daughter  he  had  married,  and  afterwards 
repudiated,)  he  became  a  convert  to  Christianity,  at  the  court  of  Anna,  the 
pious  King  of  the  East  Angles,  to  which  he  had  fled  for  an  as\lum.  Being 
afterwards  restored  to  his  kingdom,  through  the  interposition  of  his  friends, 
and  particularly  of  his  kinsman,  Cuthred,  he  proceeded  with  the  building 
of  the  Cathedral,  and  completed  it  about  the  year  648,  in  a  style  of 
considerable  splendour  for  that  age*1.  It  was  then  dedicated  by  St. 
Birinus,  as  he  is  styled  in  the  Roman  Calendar,  in  honour  of  the  Holy 
Trinity,  and  of  St.  Peter  and  St.  Paul;  and  the  conventual  buildings, 
which  had  been  also  restored  by  Kenewalsh,  were  replenished  either  with 
secular  or  regular  canons,  but  most  probably  the  former;  as  the  unnatural 
celibacy  of  the  Romish  clergy  had  not,  at  that  period,  obtained  such  a  pre- 
dominance in  this  country,  as  it  subsequently  did,  under  the  tyrannic  sway 
of  the  famous  St.  Dunstan.  Birinus  afterwards  returned  to  Dorchester, 
where  he  died,  and  was  buried,  in  the  year  640 ;  but  his  remains  were 
translated  to  Winchester  by  Bishop  Hedda,  on  the  final  removal  of  the 
see  to  the  latter  city. 

Agilbert,  or  Angilbert,  a  native  of  France,  who  had  long  studied  in 
Ireland,  (which  at  that  period  seems  to  have  been  eminently  distinguished 
for  its  schools  and  literature),  was  prevailed  on  by  Kenewalsh  to  succeed 
Birinus,  with  whom  he  had  been  previously  associated  in  promulgating  the 
gospel.  The  foreign  accents  of  this  prelate,  however,  proved  disagreeable 
to  the  Saxon  King;  and  the  latter,  about  the  year  660,  divided  the  diocess 
into  two  portions ;  assigning  to  the  see  of  Dorchester  the  jurisdiction  over 
the  northern  part  of  Wessex,  and  establishing  Winchester  as  the  see  of  the 
southern  part.  This  era,  therefore,  strictly  speaking,  must  be  considered  as 
that  of  the  foundation  of  the  Bishopric  of  Winchester. 

41  "  — Templum  Deo,  per  id  ternporis,  pulcherrimum,  construeret," — are  the  words  of  William 
of  Malmsbury.  "  De  Gest.  Reg."  /.  1,  c.  2.  Rud  borne  says,  "  Ecclesiam  pulcherrimam  construxit 
in  Wyntonia."    "  Ann.  Eccl.  Winton."  p.  288. 


DORCHESTER  AND  WINCHESTER  UNITED. A.  D.  643-676.  27 

Agilbert,  says  Bishop  Godwin,  "  taking  this  matter  very  grievously  (the 
rather  because  it  was  done  altogether  without  either  his  consent  or  know- 
ledge) returned  in  a  great  chafe  into  his  own  country,  where  soon  after  he 
was  made  bishop  of  Paris42."     Through  this  abandonment  of  his  duties,  the 
direction  of  both  sees  became  vested  in  Wina,  an  Englishman  of  great 
talents,  whom  Kenewalsh  had  raised  to  the  episcopal  seat  at  Winchester, 
but  who,  three  years  afterwards,  was  again  expelled  by  that  King ;  though 
from  what  cause  historians  have  neglected  to  record43.    Both  sees  were  now 
kept  vacant  four  years;  when  Kenewalsh,  becoming  alarmed  by  some  defeats 
in  battle  and  other  adversities,  (which  he  attributed  to  his  late  neglect  of 
religion,)  dispatched  an  embassy  to  request  Agilbert  to  return  to  his  former 
diocess.     This,  Agilbert  declined,  but  recommended  his  nephew  Eleuthe- 
rius  as  a  fit  person  to  be  appointed  in  his  stead.     He  was  accordingly 
received  with  much  welcome  both  by  the  prince  and  people,  and  in  the 
year  670  was  consecrated  bishop  over  the  entire  diocess,  by  Theodore, 
Archbishop  of  Canterbury.     He  chiefly  resided  in   Winchester,    and   is 
recorded  to  have  been  very   sedulous   in   the  discharge    of  his  duties. 
Amongst   other  pious  works,    he    assisted    St.  Aldhehn   in   raising   the 
hermitage  of  Maidulph,  an  Irish  nobleman,  into   the  famous  Abbey  of 
Malmsbury;  which  afterwards  became  so  deservedly  celebrated  as  the 
principal  school  and  seat  of  learning  in  the  west  of  England.    He  died  in  674, 
and  was  buried  in  this  Church  ;  in  which,  also  about  the  same  period,  King 
Kenewalsh  himself  was  interred  ;  he  having  previously  endowed  the  new 
establishment  with  all  the  lands  designed  by  his  father  for  that  purpose, 
together  with  the  manors  of  Downton,  Alresford,  and   Worthy44.     His 
kinsman,  Escuin,  or  Escwine,  who  had  been  raised  to  the  throne  on  the 
expulsion  of  Sexburga  (Kenewalsh's  widow)  died  about  the  year  676,  and 

42  Cat.  of  Eug.  Bishops,  p.  210. 

43  Wina,  after  his  expulsion,  took  refuge  in  Mercia ;  of  whose  sovereign,  Wulf  here,  or  Wulphere, 
he  is  said  to  have  purchased  the  bishopric  of  London,  about  the  year  666  ;  he  "  being  the  first 
Simonist,"  says  Godwin,  that  is  mentioned  in  our  country. 

44  Ann.  Winton.  anno  639. 


2B  WINCHESTER  CATHEDRAL. 

was  deposited  here  with  his  predecessors  ;  as  was  likewise  his  successor, 
Kentwin,  (a  son  to  Kinegils),  who  died  in  685. 

After  the  death  of  Bishop  Eleutherius,  the  vacant  see  was  bestowed  on 
Hedda,  Abbot  of  Streneschal,  or  Whitby,  in  Yorkshire;  whom  Bede 
testifies  to  have  been  rather  a  good  and  just  man  than  profoundly  learned. 
By  him  the  seat  of  the  diocess  was  formally  translated  from  Dorchester, 
about  the  year  676,  and  settled  at  Winchester;  whither  also,  he  removed 
the  sainted  remains  of  Birinus.  Hedda,  dying  about  the  year  705,  was 
interred  in  this  Cathedral  :  Bede  reports  that  many  miracles  were  wrought 
at  his  tomb,  the  fame  of  which  appears  to  have  led  to  his  canonization  hy 
the  Romish  Church. 

At  the  period  of  Hedda's  decease,  the  West  Saxon  kingdom  had  been 
greatly  enlarged  by  new  conquests ;  and  the  knowledge  of  Christianity 
having,  in  consequence,  been  more  extensively  promulgated,  it  became 
necessary  again  to  divide  the  diocess  into  two  distinct  sees.  This  act  of 
jurisdiction,  according  to  Godwin45,  was  executed  by  the  sole  authority  of 
the  famous  King  Ina;  yet  William  of  Malmsbury  states  it  to  have  been 
done  by  an  Episcopal  Synod*6.  The  new  See  was  fixed  at  Sherborne,  in 
Dorsetshire,  and  had  assigned  to  it  the  counties  of  Berks,  Dorset, 
Somerset,  Wilts,  Devon,  and  Cornwall.  The  See  of  Winchester  retained 
the  counties  of  Hants,  Surrey,  Sussex,  and  the  Isle  of  Wight.  The  learned 
St.  Aldhelm,  Abbot  of  Malmsbury,  was  then  made  Bishop  of  Sherborne; 
and  Daniel,  a  monk  of  the  same  foundation,  and  also  a  renowned  scholar, 
was  raised  to  the  Bishopric  of  AVinchester.  In  his  time  (anno  711)  another 
division  of  this  diocess  was  effected  by  the  erection  of  Sussex  into  an 
Episcopal  province,  and  fixing  its  See  at  the  monastery  of  Selsea.or  Seolsey ; 
which  seat  was  subsequently  removed  to  Chichester.  A  few  years  afterwards 
King  Ina,  influenced  by  religious  zeal,  resigned  his  crown,  and  with  his 
pious  Queen,  Ethelburga,  proceeded  to  Rome  in  disguise,  having  previously 

45  De  Pracsul.  p.  205. 

46  "  Svnodali  ergo  concilio  diocesis,  ultra  uiodun)  protensa,  in  duas  sedes  divisa."   Malm,  in  Vit. 
St.  Aldhelm,  Aug.  Sac.  tot.  ii.  p.  20. 


CORONATION  OF  KING  EGBERT. — A.  D.  741-800.  29 

refounded  the  Abbey  of  Glastonbury,  and  given  eighty  hides  of  land,  in 
the  Isle  of  Wight,  to  this  church47.  Athelard,  Ina's  nephew  and  successor, 
died  in  741,  and  was  interred  at  Winchester,  together  with  his  sister, 
Frideswitha. 

In  the  year  744,  Bishop  Daniel,  who  had  presided  over  this  see  during 
upwards  of  forty  years,  relinquished  his  charge  through  the  infirmities  of 
age  ;  and  re-assuming  the  habit  of  a  monk,  retired  to  his  original  solitude 
at  Malmsbury,  where  he  ended  his  days.  Venerable  Bede,  in  the  Preface 
to  his  Ecclesiastical  History,  has  acknowledged  his  literary  obligations  to 
this  prelate;  who,  besides  some  other  works,  was  the  writer  of  a  life  of  St. 
Chad,  and  of  Histories  of  the  South  Saxons  and  the  Isle  of  Wight. 

During  the  supremacy  of  the  eight  succeeding  bishops,  namely,  Humfred, 
Kinebard,  Athelard  (who  had  been  Abbot  of  Malmsbury,  and  was 
translated  from  Winchester  to  Canterbury  in  793),  Egbald,  Dudda,  or 
Dudd,  Kinebert,  or  Cinebord,  Almund,  and  Wighten,  no  event  of 
particular  importance  occurred  relating  to  this  church,  with  the  exception, 
of  the  burials  here  of  the  West  Saxon  Kings,  Cuthred,  Sigebert,  and 
Kynewulph;  and  the  memorable  coronation  of  King  Egbert,  in  the  year 
827.  This  prince,  who  in  the  early  part  of  his  life  had  been  banished  by 
King  Brithric,  had  so  diligently  studied  the  example  of  the  great  Charle- 
magne, as  to  become  his  rival  on  this  side  of  the  water,  when  called  to  the 
West  Saxon  throne,  on  the  death  of  Brithric,  in  800.  After  many  severe 
battles,  he  obtained  the  ascendancy  over  all  the  other  Saxon  states,  and, 
uniting  the  whole  into  one  Monarchy,  caused  himself  to  be  solemnly 
crowned  King  of  all  Britain  in  Winchester  Cathedral,  and  in  presence  of 
the  assembled  nobles  from  every  part  of  the  country.  On  this  occasion,  by 
an  edict  dated  from  this  city,  he  formally  abolished  all  distinctions  of 
Saxons,  Jutes,  and  English;  commanding  that  all  his  subjects  should  in 
future  be  called  by  the  latter  name  only,  and  the  country  be  called  England. 


47  Ina  died  at  Rome,  in  the  year  728,  according  to  the  Saxon  Chronicle  ;  but  his  Queen,  having 
returned  to  England,  retired  to  the  Abbey  of  Barking,  in  Essex,  (of  which  her  sister  was  abbess) 
and  died  there  in  741. 


30  WINCHESTER  CATHEDRAL. 

Bishop  Wighten,  who  is  supposed  to  have  had  the  honour  of  crowning 
Egbert,  died  within  two  or  three  years  after  that  event,  and  was  succeeded 
by  Herefrith  ;  of  whom  nothing  more  is  recorded  than  the  circumstance 
of  his  being  slain  in  the  year  833,  together  with  Wigforth,  Bishop  of 
Sherborne,  in  the  disastrous  battle  of  Charmouth,  in  Dorsetshire,  whither 
these  prelates  had  attended  the  King  to  oppose  the  Danes,  who  had  landed 
on  that  coast  in  great  force.  Eadmund,  or  Edmund,  the  next  bishop, 
governed  the  diocess  only  a  few  months  ;  when,  dying,  he  was  succeeded 
by  the  venerable  Helmstan,  or  Uelinstan,  (as  he  is  styled  by  Rudbome), 
who  was  a  canon  of  this  church,  and  had  been  entrusted  with  the  educa- 
tion of  Egbert's  son,  Ethelwulph.  This  young  Prince  is  thought  to  have 
been  intended  for  a  religious  life,  and  it  is  certain  that  both  his  inclinations 
and  his  talents  were  far  better  adapted  for  the  direction  of  a  church  than 
the  government  of  a  kingdom.  His  more  immediate  tutor  was  the  famous 
Swithun,  or Sivithin,  (as the  name  has  been  spelt  in  modern  times;)  "  the 
opinion  of  whose  holiness,"  says  Godwin,  "  hath  procured  him  the 
reputation  of  a  Saint."  Under  this  preceptor  he  became,  first,  a  canon, 
and  afterwards  sub-dean  of  this  Cathedral;  and  he  seems  to  have  held  the 
latter  situation  when  advanced  to  the  throne  on  the  decease  of  King 
Egbert,  in  837'".  Several  ancient  writers  state,  that  the  demise  of  Bishop 
Helmstan  occurred  about  the  same  period,  and  that  Ethelwulph  was 
himself  raised  to  the  vacant  see;  yet  the  probability  is,  that  he  was  never 
actually  consecrated,  though  he  might  have  been  elected  to  the  episcopal 
dignity.  However  this  may  be,  it  appears  that  the  prince,  being  in  holy 
orders  in  this  monastery,  had  a  dispensation  from  Pope  Leo  the  Third  to 
enable  him  to  assume  the  crown. 

Rudbome  says,  that  Helmstan  being  dead,  Ethelwulph,  in  the  fifteenth 
year  of  his  reign,  and  in  the  year  852,  ordered  the  most  pious  Swithun  to  be 
preferred   to   this  see'9;    yet  it  would  seem  from  other  historians,  that 

48  —  patre  dcfuncto,  quia  alius  legitinius  lucres  doo  extaret,  exgradu  Subdiaconi  Wintoniensis  in 
Regem  translatus  est,  concedente  Lcoue  illius  uouiinis  Papa  tertio.  Will.  Malm.  Dc  Poutif.  /.  ii. 
in  Rer.  Ang.  Scrip,  p.  242.  Vide  also,  Joan.  Walliugford,  in  Curoii.  Ranulph.  Higden.  Ad.  An. 
836.     Rudb.  Hist.  Maj.  /.  iii.  c.  2.  M  Vide  Hist.  Maj.  /.  iii.  c.  2. 


ST.  SWITHUN. — ESTABLISHMENT  OF  TYTHES. — A.  D.  852-857.  31 

Swithun  must  have  been  appointed  bishop  here  many  years  before.  This 
famed  prelate  was  a  native  either  of  the  city  or  suburbs  of  Winchester; 
and,  early  in  life,  he  became  a  canon  of  this  Church.  He  was  highly 
distinguished  for  his  piety  and  knowledge  of  sacred  literature;  and  William 
of  Malmsbury  styles  him  a  "  treasury  of  virtues,"  the  most  conspicuous 
of  which  were  his  meekness  and  humility.  The  influence  which  he  had 
obtained  over  the  youthful  mind  of  Ethelwulph,  he  continued  to  possess  in 
the  maturer  age  of  that  prince  ;  and  it  is  recorded  to  have  been  by  his  advice, 
that  Ethelwulph,  in  a  "  Mycel  Synod,"  granted  his  famous  charter  for  the 
general  establishment  of  tythes,  in  the  year  854  or  855S0.  This  important 
deed  was  executed  at  Winchester,  as  appears  from  the  charter  itself,  as 
copied  in  the  histories  of  Matthew  of  Westminster,  Ingulphus,  Rudborne, 
and  other  writers.  "  The  instrument  testifies,  that  it  was  subscribed  by 
Ethelwulph  himself,  and  by  his  two  vassals,  Burred,  King  of  Mercia,  and 
Edmund,  King  of  the  East  Angles  ;  as  also  by  a  great  number  of  nobles, 
prelates,  &c.  in  the  Cathedral  Church  at  Winchester,  before  the  high  altar; 
and  that,  being  thus  signed,  it  was,  by  way  of  greater  solemnity,  placed  by 
the  King  upon  the  altar51."  Ethelwulph  died  in  857,  and  was  buried  near 
Egbert,  his  father,  in  this  Church  ;  the  possessions  of  which  had  been  much 
augmented  by  these  princes. 

Through  the  counsels  of  Swithun,  King  Ethelbald,  (Ethelwulph's 
successor,)  raised,  fortifications  round  the  Cathedral  and  cloisters,  in  order 
to  protect  them  from  the  destructive  fury  of  the  Danes,  who  had  now 
begun  to  make  frequent  incursions  into  different  parts  of  the  kingdom,  with 
large  armies.  The  good  effects  of  this  measure  were  soon  experienced,  for 
in  the  next  reign,  that  of  Ethelbert,  the  Danes  landed  a  considerable  force 
at  Southampton,  and  advancing  to  Winchester,  made  themselves  masters 
of  the  city,  wherein  they  committed  the  most  barbarous  and  lamentable 

io  Malm.  De  Gest.  Reg.     Butler's  "  Lives  of  the  Fathers,"  &c.  vol.  iv.p.  196. 

51  Miln.  Hist,  of  Win.  vol.  i.  p.  120,  121.  Besides  the  charter  mentioned  above,  there  is  another 
extant  to  the  same  effect,  which  Ethelwulph  is  said  to  have  granted  in  the  year  854,  at  the  feast  of 
Easter,  and  is  dated  at  the  Palace  of  Wilton.  The  latter  charter  is  given  in  Dugdale's  Monasticon, 
but  it  is  generally  considered  to  be  spurious. 


32  WINCHESTER  CATHEDRAL. 

excesses ;  but  the  Cathedral,  with  its  adjoining  offices,  appear  to  have 
escaped  their  rage,  a  circumstance  only  to  be  accounted  for  by  supposing 
the  whole  to  have  been  completely  secured  from  their  depredations.  The 
Danes,  on  retreating  to  their  ships,  were  routed  with  great  slaughter,  by  the 
Earls  of  Hampshire  and  Berkshire;  and  the  immense  spoils  which  they  had 
made  in  this  city  were  recovered.  These  events  appear  to  have  taken 
place  about  860 ;  two  or  three  years  after  which  St.  Swithun  died,  and 
agreeably  to  his  own  desire,  was  interred  here,  in  the  church-yard.  He  is 
said  to  have  been  an  especial  benefactor  to  Winchester,  and  to  have  either 
originally  constructed,  or  rebuilt,  the  principal  city-bridge52.  He  has  the 
praise  likewise  of  building  a  number  of  churches  in  those  parishes  where 
none  had  before  existed :  the  monkish  annalists,  however,  not  being 
content  with  the  renown  really  due  to  his  sanctity  and  merits,  have 
attributed  to  him  various  miracles.  Godwin  says,  that  "  his  learning 
questionless  was  great53;"  and  Kudborne  affirms,  that  Ethelwulph's 
youngest  son,  Alfred,  whose  immortal  actions  have  procured  him  the 
surname  of  Great,  was  in  his  very  infancy  committed  to  the  care  and 
tuition  of  this  prelate5*. 

Alkkith,  or  Adfcrlh,  the  next  bishop,  a  man  of  great  learning, 
governed  this  see  "  discreetly  and  wisely"  about  eleven  years,  after  which 
he  appears  to  have  been  translated  to  Canterbury,  and  is  distinguished  in 
the  annals  of  that  city  by   the  name  of  Alhelred.      His  successor  was 

s'  Wartou,  in  his  History  of  Euglish  Poetry,  vol.  i.  p.  15,  has  quoted  the  following  passage  from  a 
very  ancient  versification  of  the  Lives  of  the  Saints : — 

&epnt  <t>tontfjan  Jji?  bustjopricfte  to  al  gooune&'e  Dtougfj : 
Cfjc  to '03 in-  ,il  so  of  IDnncljcjitre  (je  amcnDeo  mouglj. 
jrfbr  h,c  lette  t(je  jitronge  bruge,  voittjout  the  tounc  arete, 
3[nb  fono  tljcrcto  Inm  and  ston  anti  tlje  tootfitnen  tfjat  tfjer  toere. 

5J  Cat.  of  Eng.  Bish.p.  213.  "  How  miraculously  be  made  whole  a  basket  of  egges  that  were  all 
broken,  and  some  oilier  thinges  accounted  miracles  in  our  histories,  who  so  list  may  reade  in 
Matthew  Westminster,  in  his  report  of  the  yeerc  862,  at  what  lime,  July  2,  this  bishop  died."  lb. 
William  of  Malmsbury  states  that  be  died  in  863. 

54  Hist.  Maj.  /.  3,  c.  vi. 


BATTLE  OF  KTHANDUNE. 879,  &C.  33 

Dunbert,  who  is  recorded  to  have  settled  certain  lands  upon  this  Cathedral, 
for  its  repairs,  which  measure  had  become  necessary  through  the  devasta- 
tions committed  here  by  the  Danes  ;  who,  after  several  desperate  battles 
with  the  Princes  Ethel  red  and  Alfred,  had  penetrated  to  Winchester, 
where,  obtaining  possession  of  the  Church,  they  massacred  every  individual 
belonging  to  it  that  fell  into  their  power55. 

On  the  death  of  Ethelred,  who  had  been  mortally  wounded  in  battle, 
in  the  year  872,  his  brother  Alfred  was  crowned  king,  in  Winchester 
Cathedral;  but  after  a  perturbed  sway  of  several  years,  he  was,  at  length, 
forced  by  the  Danes  to  seek  an  asylum  in  the  abode  of  a  swine-herd,  or 
neat-herd,  in  the  Isle  of  Athelney,  in  Somersetshire;  amidst  the  almost 
impassible  marshes  formed  by  the  conflux  of  the  Perrot  and  the  Thone. 
After  an  inglorious  obscurity  of  some  months,  he  suddenly  emerged  from 
this  retreat,  and  with  a  united  band  of  faithful  partizans  (which  had  been 
privately  assembled  on  the  eastern  borders  of  Selwood  Forest)  he  surprised 
and  defeated  the  Danish  army  at  Elhandune,  or  Heddington,  in  Wiltshire5'"'. 
This  victory  led  the  way  to  new  achievements,  and  Alfred's  subsequent 
successes  restored  to  him  his  capital  and  kingdom.  Hence  Winchester  again 
became  the  seat  of  government,  and  its  Cathedral  establishment  was  once 
more  replenished  with  secular  canons. 

Bishop  Dunbert  died  in  the  year  879,  and  was  succeeded  by  Denewulf, 
or  Denulf;  of  whom  ancient  writers  report,  that  he  was  the  very  herdsman 
in  whose  cottage  and  service  Alfred  had. been  concealed  at  Athelney. 
Godwin  says,  that  the  king  "  having  recovered  the  peaceable  possession 
of  his  crown,  was  not  unmindful  of  his  old  master,  in  whom  perceiving  an 
excellent  sharpness  of  wit,  he  caused  him  (though  it  were  now  late,  he 
being  a  man  growne)  to  study,  and  having  obtained  some  competency  in 
learning,  he  preferred  him  to  the  bishopricke  of  Winchester57."     He  proved 

55  Rudborne  places  this  event  in  866 ;  but  the  more  probable  date  is  the  year  871,  as  assigned  by 
Wharton,  in  Ang.  Sac.  vol.  i.  p.  206,  n. 

56  Heddington  is  about  six  miles  south  of  Chippenham.  See  an  account  of  this  battle,  with 
observations  on  its  supposed  site,  in  my  account  of  Wiltshire :  Beauties  of  England,  vol.  xv.,  also 
Whitaker's  "  Life  of  St.  Nebt."  *  Cat.  of  Eng.  Bish.  p.  215. 

E 


34  MANCHESTER  CATHEDRAL. 

an  active  and  able  prelate ;  and,  as  appears  from  the  researches  of  the 
learned  Spelman,  was  one  of  the  king's  chief  counsellors58. 

The  Great  Alfred,  in  his  latter  years,  began  the  foundation  of  a  magnifi- 
cent abbey  in  the  Cathedral  Cemetery  at  Winchester,  for  the  purpose  of 
retaining  in  England  his  friend  and  chaplain,  Griinbald  ;  who  had  been 
originally  a  monk  at  St.  Bertin's  monastery,  in  Artois,  and  had  been  invited 
into  England  by  the  king,  to  assist  in  establishing  an  University.  Whitaker, 
in  his  '  Life  of  St.  INeot,'  contends  that  the  first  English  University,  or 
public  school,  was  founded  at  Winchester,  and  not  at  Oxford,  as  generally 
asserted  and  believed.  Alfred  also  intended  the  new  abbey  as  a  burial  place 
for  himself  and  his  family  ;  but  dying  before  its  completion  (in  900  or  901), 
he  Mas  provisionally  interred  in  the  Cathedral,  under  a  mouument  of 
porphyry  marble,  from  which  his  remains  were  afterwards  translated  to  the 
Neu-cii-JJj/iislre,  as  his  foundation  was  then  termed. 

Denewulf,  according  to  Matthew  of  Westminster,  was  succeeded  by 
Bishop  Athelm;  who,  in  the  year  888,  travelled  to  Rome  with  the  alms 
collected  by  King  Alfred  and  Archbishop  Plegmund.  His  successor,  as 
appears  from  the  same  writer,  was  Bertulf;  whom  Alfred, in  the  year  897, 
appointed  one  of  the  guardians  of  the  realm,  to  defend  it  against  the 
Danes59.  Neither  of  these  prelates  are  named  by  Rudborne ;  who,  on  the 
contrary,  states,  that  Denevyulf  held  this  see  twenty-four  years;  and  that 
Edward  the  Rider  exchanged  with  him  a  certain  quantity  of  land,  for  that 
of  the  cemetery  and  other  ground  belonging  to  the  Cathedral,  on  which  the 
new  monastery  was  built00.  If  this  account  be  true,  there  is  evidently  no 
time  for  the  succession  of  Athelm  and  Bertulf;  as  Denewulfs  decease, 
(when  calculated  from  the  date  of  that  of  Dunbert  his  predecessor)  could 
not  have  happened  till  the  year 903. 

The  chronological  difficulties  which  attend  the  ecclesiastical  history  of 
Winchester  about  this  era,  are  probably  inexplicable01;  and  they  have  been 
the  more  involved  through  the  endeavours  of  the  Roman  Catholic  writers 
to  trace  the  direct  supremacy  of  the  Papal  See  over  the  English  Church  to 

58  In  Vit.  Alfr.  p.  102.  "  Vide  Godwin.  De  Presul.  under  Winchester. 

60  Rudb.  Hist.  Maj.  /.  iii.  c.  7.  6'  Vide  VAliarton's  Angl.  Sac.  vol.  i-  p.  209,  n. 


CONSECRATION  OF  SEVEN  BISHOPS. — 905.  35 

the  period  now  mentioned.  It  is  stated  by  Mahnsbury62,  under  the  date 
904,  that  Pope  Formosus  having-  been  informed  that  the  West  Saxon  sees 
had  remained  vacant  during  the  space  of  seven  years,  sent  a  Bull  into 
England,  excommunicating  the  King  and  all  his  subjects,  on  account  of 
this  irregularity  ;  and  that,  in  consequence,  the  King  (who  must  have  been 
Edward  the  Elder)  caused  Plegmund,  Archbishop  of  Canterbury,  to 
assemble,  at  Winchester,  a  general  Council,  or  Synod,  (of  bishops,  abbots, 
and  other  dignified  persons,)  in  which  it  was  determined  that  the  vacancies 
should  not  only  be  filled,  but  that  three  new  Sees  should  be  established  in 
the  West  Saxon  states.  The  archbishop,  who  had  presided  at  the  meeting,  is 
then  said  to  have  proceeded  to  Rome,  to  get  the  censure  taken  off,  and  on 
his  return  home,  to  have  consecrated  seven  new  bishops  in  one  day.  The 
year  generally  assigned  for  this  remarkable  consecration  is  905  ;  but  Sir  H. 
Spelman  and  Johnson  refer  it  to  908. 

Against  the  presumed  authenticity  of  the  above  Bull,  it  has  been  fatally 
objected,  that  Pope  Formosus  died  in  895,  or  896 ;  and  therefore  could  never 
have  signed  such  an  instrument  in  904.  To  solve  this  difficulty,  Baronius 
conceives  that  Malmsbury's  date  is  wrong,  and  should  have  been  894;  yet 
if  this  were  the  fact,  the  sovereign  excommunicated  must  have  been  Alfred  ; 
yet  no  historian  has  ever  glanced  at  such  an  event  in  respect  to  that 
monarch.  Other  difficulties,  equally  insuperable,  attend  this  conjecture. 
Johnson,  in  "  Ecclesiastical  Laws,"  &c.  refers  this  Bull  to  Pope  Sergius, 
by  which  means,  he  says,  "  all  runs  clear."  "  We  cannot  wonder,"  he 
says,  "  if  the  monks  chose  to  report  this  papal  act  as  done  by  Formosus, 
who  was  a  popular  Pope,  and  made  more  popular  by  the  barbarous  treat- 
ment of  his  dead  corpse  and  memory,  than  by  such  a  monster  of  a  man  and 
Pope,  as  Sergius." 

That  the  West  Saxon  demesne  was  divided  into  several  distinct  Sees 
about  this  time ;  and  that  seven  Bishops  were  actually  consecrated  on  one 
day  by  Plegmund,  are  circumstances  so  positively  affirmed  by  various 
historians,  that  their  validity  cannot  consistently  be  questioned.  Three  of 
the  new  Sees  were  taken  from  the  diocess  of  Sherborne,  and  were  fixed  at 
Wells,  for  Somersetshire;  at  Crediton,  or  Kyrton,  for  Devonshire;  and  at 

6!  Malm.  De  Gest.  Res  ./.  ii. 


36  WINCHESTER  CATHEDRAL. 

Petrock's-Stow,  for  Cornwall:  by  this  arrangement  Dorsetshire,  Wiltshire, 
and  Berkshire,  were  the  only  counties  that  remained  subordinate  to 
Sherborne.  The  diocess  of  Winchester  was  left  to  its  former  limits ;  but 
among  the  seven  Bishops  (all  of  whom  were  consecrated  at  Canterbury,) 
we  find  that  one,  named  Kenulf,  or  Ceolwulph,  was  appointed  for  the 
ancient  See  of  Dorchester,  in  Oxfordshire63. 

The  prelate  now  chosen  to  preside  over  this  diocess,  was  Frithstan, 
who  had  been  a  scholar  of  St.  Grimbald,  and  a  canon  in  the  New  Minster 
in  this  city.  He  Mas  much  renowned  for  his  piety  and  learning,  and  having 
governed  this  See,  in  an  exemplary  manner,  about  twenty-two  years,  he 
resigned  his  bishopric  to  Brinstan,  or  liimstaii, (whom  he  had  previously 
consecrated),  and  after  passing  the  remainder  of  his  da\s  in  devotional 
exercises,  died  in  932.  Brinstan  was  originally  one  of  the  secular  clergy 
belonging  to  the  Cathedral,  but  he  afterwards  assumed  the  cowl  in  St.  Grim- 
bald's  new  abbey  :  his  most  prominent  virtues  were  charity  and  humility  ; 
and  he  was  accustomed  to  walk  round  the  church-yards  by  night,  praying 
for  the  dead64 :  he  died  on  the  feast  of  All  Souls,  934,  whilst  in  the  act  of 
prayer,  in  his  oratory.  In  the  following  year  he  was  succeeded  by 
Elphege  the  First,  surnamed  the  Bald,  who  had  been  a  monk  of 
Glastonbury,  and  was  uncle  to  the  famous  St.  Dunstau,  whom  he  raised  to 
the  order  of  priesthood  in  this  Cathedral.  He  is  said  to  have  excelled  in 
all  the  Christian  virtues,  and  to  have  bequeathed  his  lands  to  certain 
churches  and  monasteries  in  Winchester ;  subject,  however,  to  the  pay- 
ment of  some  annuities  to  relations:  he  died  in  the  year  951.  "  Of  these 
three  bishops,"  says  Godwin,  "  divers  miracles  are  reported  in  histories, 
which  need  not  be  here  rehearsed."  They  were  all  buried  in  this 
Church,  and  are  all  ranked  as  saints  in  the  Roman  Calendar. 

Elsin,  or  Alfin,  the  next  bishop,  was  a  man  of  royal  blood,  and  of 
extraordinary  learning;  but  he  has  had  the  misfortune  to  be  greatly  calum- 

M  Will.  Malm.  Rudb.  Malt.  West.  Rapin  says,  that  "  though  Malmsbury  and  Higden 
affirm  the  new-erected  Bishopricks  had  the  Pope's  continuation,  it  is  certain  at  that  time,  and  for 
more  than  200  years  after,  there  was  no  such  thing  required."     Hist,  of  Eug.  vol.  \.p.  113. 

64  One  night,  on  finishing  his  devotions  among  the  tombs,  (in  the  cemetery  of  St.  Anas(asius),  his 
'  Rcquiescant  in  pace'  is  recorded  to  have  been  loudly  answered  by  an  infinite  multitude  of  voices 
from  the  sepulchre,  ejaculating  '  Amen:     Vide  Rudb.  Hist.  Maj  /.  iii.  c  8. 


OPPOSITION  OF  EDWY  AND  DUNSTAN.  37 

mated  through  aiding  King  Edwy  to  repress  the  tyranny  and  insolence  of  the 
monks65.  In  his  time,  anno  955,  the  remains  of  Edwy's  predecessor,  Edgar, 
were  interred  in  Winchester  Cathedral,  with  great  solemnity,  by  Runs  tan  ; 
who  having  been  sent  for  to  administer  the  sacrament  to  the  expiring  King, 
came  not  till  too  late  :  yet  he  had  the  hardihood  to  testify,  that,  on  his 
journey,  he  had  been  assured  by  a  celestial  voice  of  the  happiness  of  the 
deceased  sovereign66 ! 

On  the  decease  of  Archbishop  Odo,  in  958,  Elsin  was  translated  to  the 
See  of  Canterbury,  to  which  he  appears  to  have  been  nominated  by  the 
King,  from  his  affinity  to  the  blood-royal ;  though  his  enemies  state  that  he 
obtained  his  election  by  bribery  and  corrupt  intrigues.     The  manner  of  his 

65  The  coronation  of  Edwy  (a  youth  of  fourteen)  at  Winchester,  was  attended  by  some  remarkable 
events,  which  in  their  consequences,  are  thought  to  have  had  great  influence  over  the  affairs  of  this 
church.  The  generality  of  the  monkish  historians  concur  in  representing  that  Edwy  had  been 
corrupted  by  a  lascivious  female  of  high  birth  and  great  beauty,  named  Algiva,  who  had  a  daughter 
equally  shameless;  and  that  he  withdrew  from  the  company  of  his  nobles,  at  the  coronation  feast, 
in  order  to  solace  himself  in  their  lewd  society  The  guests,  indignant  at  this  treatment,  ordered 
his  tutor,  Dunstan  (who  was  then  Abbot  of  Glastonbury),  and  Kinsey,  Bishop  of  Lichfield,  to  con- 
duct the  youth  back  to  the  assembly;  and  Dunstan  had  the  boldness  to  reprimand  him  for  thus 
inconsiderately  giving  way  to  his  passions.  Edwy  was  highly  exasperated  at  being  thus  reproved, 
and,  being  yet  more  irritated  by  Dunstan's  general  arrogance,  he  deprived  that  ambitious  prelate 
of  all  his  preferments,  and  forced  him  into  exile.  Still  further  to  divest  him  of  his  influence,  he 
expelled  all  the  monks  of  his  order  from  their  several  monasteries,  and  replaced  them  by  secular 
clergy.  This  procedure,  however,  proved  the  ruin  of  Edwy  ;  for  the  clamours  of  the  monks  were 
so  great,  that  a  successful  rebellion  was  excited  against  him,  and  more  than  half  his  kingdom  sub- 
mitted to  the  sway  of  Edgar,  his  brother ;  who  immediately  recalled  Dunstan  from  banishment,  and 
made  him  Bishop  of  Worcester.  Edwy  died  in  959;  and  Edgar  having  succeeded  to  the  entire 
possession  of  the  monarchy,  promoted  Dunstan  to  the  Archiepiscopal  See  of  Canterbury.  The 
historian  of  Ramsey  Abbey  mentions  nothing  of  the  coronation  feast,  but  traces  Edwy's  aversion  to 
the  monks  to  his  having  been  offended  by  St.  Dunstan,  and  Archbishop  Odo ;  who  had  obliged 
him  "  to  repudiate  a  certain  young  and  beauteous  kinswoman  of  his,  with  whom  he  had  contracted 
an  illicit  marriage."     Hist.  Ramesiensis,  I.  i.  c.  7- 

66  This  tale  is  related  by  most  of  the  monkish  writers ;  yet  they  add  also,  as  if  to  make  it  the 
more  ludicrously  absurd,  that  Dunstan's  horse,  "  trembling  at  the  thunder  of  the  angelic  voice," 
fell  dead  under  him,  "astounded  at  the  prodigious  noise."  Vide  Rudb.  Hist.  Maj.  /.  iii.  c.  10.  Will. 
Malm.    Rog.  Hoveden.    Mat.  West.    Osborn.    Hist.  Ram. /.  i.e. 7. 


38  WINCHESTER  CATHEDRAL. 

death  was  remarkable,  for,  "  being  impatient  to  procure  the  papal  confir- 
mation and  pall,  he  hastened  to  Rome  in  the  most  unseasonable  weather; 
when,  in  crossing  the  Alps,  he  experienced  such  intense  cold,  as  induced 
him  to  cause  the  bodies  of  the  horses,  on  which  he  and  his  companions 
rode,  to  be  cut  open,  in  order  to  preserve  his  own  vital  heat,  by  plunging 
his  feet  into  them  ;  but  this  expedient  failing,  he  died  amidst  the  snow67." 
His  body  was  brought  to  England  and  deposited  in  this  Church ;  in  the 
government  of  which  he  had  been  succeeded  by  Brithelm,  of  whom 
nothing  more  is  recorded,  than  that  he  held  the  See  about  five  years,  and 
died  in  .063. 

The  next  bishop  was  the  famous  St.  Ethelwold,  a  native  of  Winchester, 
and  of  respectable  parentage.  He  commenced  his  studies,  and  entered 
into  holy  orders,  in  this  city;  but  afterwards  became  a  monk  and  dean  of 
Glastonbury,  under  Dunstan,  by  whose  influence  with  King  Edred  he  was 
made  Abbot  of  the  newly-restored  monastery  of  Abingdon,  in  Berkshire. 
Hence,  according  to  Milner,  "  he  was  forcibly  withdrawn,  for  the  purpose 
of  undertaking  the  pastoral  government  of  this,  his  native  city ;"  but  the 
rather,  as  appeared  by  his  actions,  with  the  view  of  aiding  Dunstan  (who 
was  now  seated  in  the  archiepiscopal  chair  at  Canterbury)  in  the  accom- 
plishment of  his  long-cherished  design  of  establishing  a  general  celibacy 
of  the  clergy.  To  effect  this,  all  the  secular  canous,  who  refused  to 
repudiate  their  wives,  and  conform  to  the  observances  of  the  Benedictine 
Order,  were  expelled  from  the  Cathedrals  and  larger  Monasteries,  under  a 
commission  granted  by  King  Edgar.  In  the  very  year  of  his  consecration, 
Ethelwold  forcibly  ejected  the  secular  clergy  of  this  Church,  who,  among 
other  vices,  of  which  they  were  accused,  are  represented  as  gluttons, 
drunkards,  and    adulterers68.     This    expulsion  was  effected   with  all  the 

67  Milner's  Winchester,  vol.  i.  p.  139,  from  William  of  Malmsbury.  Rudborue,  &c.  These 
writers  state,  that  some  such  fearful  vengeance  had  been  foretold  to  him,  in  a  vision,  by  Odo;  in 
consequence  of  his  having  despitefully  spurned  at  the  tomb  of  that  prelate  in  Canterbury  Cathedral. 

68  This  alleged  depravity  is  said  to  have  been  a  consequence,  partly,  of  the  early  licentiousness 
and  irreligion  of  King  Edwy,  (as  alluded  to  in  note  65),  and  partly,  of  there  having  been  such  a 
prelate  as  Elsin  seated  in  the  episcopal  chair.     Vide  Miln.  Hist.  vol.  i.  p.  165. 


SECULAR  CLERGY: — MIRACLES.  3.9 

promptitude  of  determined  authority.  "  He  ordered,"  says  Milner,  from 
the  old  historians,  "  a  proper  number  of  cowls  to  be  brought  into  the  choir, 
in  the  midst  of  the  canons;  and  after  a  pathetic  discourse  on  the  sanctity 
of  their  state  of  life,  he  left  it  to  their  choice,  either  to  put  on  those 
religious  habits,  and  embrace'the  monastic  state,  or  quit  the  service  of  the 
Cathedral.  Three  of  the  number  were  content  to  enter  on  this  strict 
course  of  life  ;  the  rest  gave  up  their  stalls  in  the  choir,  which  were  soon 
after  filled  by  a  colony  of  [Benedictine]  monks  from  Abingdon69."  In  the 
following  year  he  also  expelled  the  canons  of  the  New  Minster,  who  are 
said  to  have  been  even  more  hardened  in  wickedness  than  those  of  the 
Cathedral10. 

On  the  accession  of  Edward,  surnamed  the  Martyr,  (anno  975)  Elfrida, 
his  step-mother,  attempted  to  counteract  Dunstan's  influence,  and  is  said 
to  have  caused  three  abbies,  which  Ethelwold  had  founded,  to  be 
suppressed,  and  their  possessions  to  be  given  to  married  clergymen71. 
This,  and  other  opposition  to  his  grand  designs,  occasioned  Dunstan  to 
assemble  a  Synod  in  the  refectory  of  the  Cathedral  monastery  in  this  city, 
in  which  it  was  debated  whether  the  regular,  or  the  secular,  foundations, 

69  History  of  Winchester,  vol.  i.  p.  166. 

70  The  monks  aver  that  some  of  the  displaced  canons,  not  brooking  the  disgrace  they  had 
sustained,  carried  their  resentment  so  far  as  to  attempt  to  poison  St.  Ethelwold ;  but  that  the 
saint,  though  suffering  excruciating  torment  in  consequence  of  swallowing  the  potion  they  had 
prepared  for  him,  was  suddenly  restored  to  health,  through  his  prayers  to  God,  and  confidence  in 
Christ's  promises. 

"  Elfrida's  conduct,  in  this  instance,  is  stated  to  have  arisen  from  being  defeated  in  her  design  of 
raising  her  own  son,  Ethelbert,  to  the  throne  (in  place  of  Edward)  by  the  firmness  of  the  Saints 
Dunstan,  Oswald,  and  Ethelwold.  How  highly  those  personages  were  estimated  by  the  monks, 
may  be  seen  from  the  following  passage : — 

'These  three  brilliant  lights,  namely,  Dunstan,  Oswald,  and  JEtMwold,  by  the  three  candlesticks 
placed  at  Canterbury,  Worcester,  and  Winchester,  (the  Lord  so  disposing  it)  irradiated  the  three 
parts  of  the  English  world  with  such  a  brightness,  shining  from  the  true  Light,  that  they  seemed  to 
contend  with  even  the  very  stars  of  the  firmament ;  and  were  deservedly  (by  some  men  living) 
accounted  to  be  formed  by  a  miracle,  through  the  unusual  pre-eminence  of  so  great  a  sanctity.' 
Hist.  Ram.  c.  xiii.    In  Decern.  Scrip. 


40  WINCHESTER  CATHEDRAL. 

should  be  dissolved.  From  the  opinions  of  the  majority,  it  seemed 
probable  that  the  question  would  have  been  decided  against  the  monks ;  but 
a  voice,  said  to  be  supernatural,  issuing  from  a  crucifix,  which  hung  aloft  in 
the  room,  is  recorded  to  have  determined  it  in  their  favour7-' !  In  that  ase 
indeed,  miracles  abounded,  particularly  in  respect  to  Dunstan  ;  whom  the 
monkish  writers  represent  as  being  so  peculiarly  favoured  by  heaven,  that 
there  was  scarcely  an  event  of  his  life,  of  any  importance,  but  what  was 
accompanied  by  some  prodigy. 

Ethelwold,  leaving  his  conduct  to  the  secular  clergy  out  of  consideration, 
appears  to  have  been  a  munificent  and  charitable  prelate.  He  either 
founded  or  rebuilt  the  several  churches  and  monasteries  of  Ely,  Peter- 
borough, and  Thorney;  besides  assisting  in  other  monastic  establishments. 
His  grand  undertaking,  however,  was  the  rebuilding  of  his  own  Cathedral 
Church,  (which  was  now,  for  the  first  time,  furnished  with  a  crypt,  or 
crypts,  under  the  east  end73),  and  on  its  completion,  in  980,  he  re-consecrated 
it  with  great  solemnity,  in  the  presence  of  King  Ethelred,  Archbishop 
Dunstan,  and  eight  bishops,  besides  a  numerous  assemblage  of  nobles  and 
o-entry.  On  this  occasion,  to  its  former  patrons  St.  Peter  and  St.  Paul,  was 
added  the  name  of  St.  Switluin,  whose  remains  had  been  previously 
removed  from  the  church-yard,  and  re-interred  under  a  magnificent  shrine 
that  had  been  provided  for  the  purpose  by  King  Edgar.  The  fame  of  the 
many  miracles  wrought  by  St.  Swithun's  intercession,  was  the  cause  of  his 
relics  being  thus  honoured7';  and  hence-forward,  till  the  period  of  the 
Dissolution,  this  establishment  was  distinguished  by  the  name  of  St. 
Swithun's  Church  and  Priory. 

Amonsr  Ethelwold's  public  charities  it  is  recorded,  to  his  immortal  honour, 
that  in  the  time  of  a  great  famine,  he  brake  all  the  plate  of  his  Church,  and 
gave  it  to  the  poor;  saying,  that  "  the  Church  might  be  again  provided  with 
necessary  ornaments,  but  that  if  the  poor  were  starved,  they  could  not  be 

*•  Vide  Will.  Malm.  /.  ii.  c .  9.  Osborn.  Rudb.  &c. 

73  "  In  super  occultisstuduisti  et  addere  cryptas."     Wolstan.  Ep.  ad.  S.  Elph. 

m  Will.  Malm.  De  Pontif. 


BISHOPS  ELPHEGE  AND  KENULPH. — A.  D.  984-1006.  41 

recovered."  This  prelate  died  in  984,  and  was  interred  in  the  southern 
crypt  of  his  own  Church75. 

St.  Elphege  the  Second,  surnamed  the  Martyr,  was  in  the  same  year 
consecrated  to  this  See,  by  Dunstan;  his  austerities  and  extraordinary 
abstinence,  which,  in  those  days,  were  considered  as  proofs  of  superior 
sanctity,  having  recommended  him  to  the  Archbishop  as  a  fit  person  to 
succeed  Ethelwold.  He  was  born  of  a  noble  family,  and  in  early  youth 
became  a  monk  at  Deerhurst,  in  Gloucestershire.  He  was  afterwards 
Prior  of  Glastonbury,  "  which  place,  after  a  season,"  says  Godwin,  "he 
left,  and  gave  himself  to  a  very  strait  kind  of  life  at  Bath,  for  which  he  was 
so  much  admired,  (the  rather  because  he  was  a  gentleman  of  great  lineage) 
that  many  went  about  to  imitate  him,  and  joining  themselves  to  him,  made 
him  their  governor,  by  the  name  of  an  Abbot76."  He  was  thence  promoted 
to  this  See,  which  he  governed  in  an  exemplary  manner  during  twenty-two 
years  :  he  was  particularly  attentive  to  the  poor ;  and  is  recorded  to  have 
first  introduced  the  use  of  Organs  into  his  Cathedral.  In  the  year  1006,  he 
was  raised  to  the  Archbishopric  of  Canterbury,  which  he  continued  to 
possess  till  1013,  when  he  was  barbarously  massacred  by  the  Danes,  at 
Greenwich,  in  Kent,  after  a  captivity  of  seven  months.  Hence,  and  from 
his  devotional  exercises,  and  extraordinary  and  unnatural  abstemiousness, 
(which  Osbern  says  had  reduced  his  body  to  a  seeming  skeleton77),  he  is 
ranked,  in  the  Roman  Calendar,  both  as  a  saint  and  a  martyr. 

Kentjlph,  or  Elsius,  Abbot  of  Peterborough,  was  made  Bishop  of  Win- 
chester on  the  translation  of  Elphege  to  Canterbury.     Godwin  says  he  was 

75  Capgrave  states,  that  the  episcopal  Chair  of  St.  Ethelwold  long  remained  an  object  of  popular 
veneration ;  it  being  believed,  that  if  those  who  sat  in  it  gave  way  to  sloth  and  drowsiness,  they 
were  punished  by  terrific  visions  and  painful  sensations ! 

76  Cat.  of  English  Bishops,  p.  60".  Elphege's  place  of  retirement  at  Bath  had  been  previously  a 
monastery  founded  by  King  Offa,  about  775,  but  afterwards  destroyed  by  the  Danes.  John  de 
Villule,  a  French  physician,  who  had  been  made  Bishop  of  Wells,  purchased  Bath  of  William  Rufus, 
for  500  marks,  and  subsequently  transferred  thither  his  Episcopal  See  ;  for  the  reception  of  which 
he  rebuilt  the  Abbey  which  Elphege  had  founded,  and  which,  with  great  part  of  the  city,  had  been 
destroyed  by  fire.     lb.  p.  362. 

»  In  Vit.  Will.  Malm. 

F 


42  WINCHESTER  CATHEDRAL. 

"  a  man  infamous  for  simony  and  aspiring  by  corrupt  means  to  this  place;" 
which  he  enjoyed  but  little  more  than  one  year,  being  "  called  by  death 
from  his  dear-bought  preferment78."  He  was  interred  in  this  Church ;  as 
was  likewise  his  successor  Brithwold,  or  Ethelwold,  who  governed  this 
See  till  his  decease  in  101579.  He  was  succeeded  by  Elsin,  or  Alsin ; 
whom  Godwin  has  erroneously  stated  to  have  been  exalted  to  Canterbury 
in  1038,  but  whom  most  of  the  ancient  historians  affirm  to  have  died  in 
1032S0 :    he  also  was  buried  in  this  Cathedral. 

Alwyn,  a  Norman  by  birth,  and  kinsman  to  Queen  Emma,  was  next 
raised  to  this  bishopric,  through  the  Queen's  influence  with  Canute,  her 
second  husband;  who,  on  the  decease  of  Edmund  Ironside,  about  two 
years  before,  had  obtained  the  entire  sovereignty  of  the  kingdom,  and  fixed 
his  capital  in  this  city.  Emma,  "  the  pearl  of  Normandy,"  was  daughter 
to  Duke  Richard,  who  appointed  Alwyn  to  accompany  her  to  England 
in  quality  of  counsellor,  or  guardian  ;  previously  to  her  first  marriage  with 
Ethelred-the-Unready.  Alwyn  continued  at.  the  English  court,  and  whilst 
yet  a  layman,  was  made  Earl  of  Southampton,  and  invested  with  a  command 
against  the  Danes  ;  but  after  the  peace  between  Edmund  and  Canute 
had  left  him  at  liberty  to  pursue  his  own  inclinations  for  a  religious  life,  he 
became  a  monk  of  Winchester  about  the  year  1010'.  He  was  soon  after- 
wards raised  to  the  office  of  sacristan ;  a  circumstance  that,  has  been 
supposed  to  account  for  the  profusion  of  rich  gifts  bestowed  on  this 
Cathedral  by  King  Canute,  Besides  a  large  and  costly  shrine  for  con- 
taining the  remains  of  St.  Birinus,  that  sovereign  presented  the  church 
with  a  prodigious  chandelier,  of  solid  silver,  various  ensigns,  and  other 
costly  ornaments  of  plate  and  jewels  ;  but  the  most  extraordinary  of  all  his 
gifts  was  that  of  his  royal  crown,  (which  he  ordered  to  be  placed  over  the 
crucifix  of  the  high  altar)  having  vowed  never  more  to  wear  such  an 
emblem  of  authority,  from  the  time  that,  when  seated  on  the  beach,  near 
Southampton,  he  proved  to  his  attendants,  by  commanding  in  vain  the 

,8  Cat.  of  English  Bishops,  p.  '217. 

'■>  Vide  Wharton's  Notes  on  Rudb.  Aug.  Sacra,  vol.  i.  p.  227.  to  lb. 


FIERY  ORDEAL  OF  QUEEN  EMMA. — A.  D.  1047.  43 

flowing  tide  not  to  approach  his  feet,  the  extravagance  and  impiety  of  their 
flattery,  in  extolling  his  power  as  equal  to  that  of  the  almighty  Lord  of 
the  Ocean.  Canute  died  in  the  year  1036,  and  was  deposited  before  the 
high  altar  in  this  Church ;  five  years  afterwards  the  body  of  his  cruel  and 
gluttonous  son,  Hardicanute,  was  buried  near  the  same  spot. 

Edward,  surnamed  the  Confessor,  from  his  presumed  sanctity,  was  next 
exalted  to  the  throne  by  the  general  voice  of  the  people ;  and  his  coronation 
was  conducted  with  great  splendour  in  this  Cathedral81.  During  his  reign 
a  remarkable  trial  of  that  mode  of  judgment  practised  by  the  Saxons, 
called  the  fiery-Ordeal,  is  recorded  to  have  been  made  on  the  person  of 
Queen  Emma,  who,  among  other  calumnies,  had  been  falsely  accused  of 
a  criminal  intercourse  with  Bishop  Alwyn.  This  story  coming,  at  length, 
to  the  knowledge  of  the  Queen,  (who  had  been  treated  with  much  rigour 
by  her  son,  and  obliged  to  retire  to  the  Abbey  of  Wherwell,  near  this  city), 
she  insisted  on  undergoing  the  proof  of  her  guilt  or  innocence  by  the  fiery 
ordeal ;  and  Winchester  Cathedral  was  appointed  as  the  place  of  trial. 
Here,  in  presence  of  the  King,  and  a  crowded  assembly  of  all  ranks,  she 
is  stated  to  have  walked  unhurt,  though  bare-footed,  over  nine  red  hot 
plough-shares ;  and  in  memory  of  her  extraordinary  deliverance  to  have 
given  nine  manors  to  this  Church  :  a  similar  number  is  said  to  have  been 
bestowed  by  Bishop  Alwyn ;  and  three  others  (those  of  Portland,  Wey- 
mouth, and  Wyke)  by  Edward  himself,  whose  indignation  against  his 
mother,  for  marrying  Canute,  is  affirmed  to  have  been  removed  by  this 
event82.     Alwyn  died  in  the  year  1047,  and  Queen  Emma  in  1052:  they 

81  On  this  occasion  Edward  granted  a  Charter  to  the  Cathedral,  ordering  the  donation  of  half  a 
mark  to  the  Precentor,  or  Master  of  the  Choir ;  and  a  cask  of  wine,  and  a  hundred  cakes  of  white 
bread  to  the  Convent,  as  often  as  a  King  of  England  should  wear  his  crown  within  the  city  of  Win- 
chester. The  privileges  of  this  grant  were  subsequently  extended  to  the  monasteries  of  Westmin- 
ster and  Worcester. 

82  The  whole  story  of  Queen  Emma  and  the  plough-shares  (which,  to  give  apparent  credibility  to 
the  tale,  are  said  to  have  been  buried  in  the  west  cloister  of  the  Cathedral,)  can  be  regarded  only  as 
a  romantic  fiction.  So  far,  indeed,  as  it  is  now  possible  to  trace  its  origin,  it  seems  to  have  first 
appeared  in  the  guise  of  poetry  ;  and  was  sung,  with  the  popular  ballads  relating  to  Winchester,  in 


44  WINCHESTER  CATHEDRAL. 

were  both  interred  in  the  Cathedral,  and  are  recorded  as  its  special  friends 
and  benefactors. 

The  last  Bishop  of  Winchester,  prior  to  the  Norman  invasion,  was 
Stigand,  who  had  been  chaplain  to  Edward  the  Confessor,  and  was 
translated  hither,  on  the  death  of  Alwyn,  from  Elmham,  in  Norfolk,  a  see 
that  was  subsequently  removed  to  Norwich83.  Five  years  afterwards,  on 
the  banishment  of  Robert  Gemeticensis  for  seditious  practices,  he  was 
raised  to  the  archbishopric  of  Canterbury,  which  he  continued  to  hold  in 
conjunction  with  Winchester,  till  the  year  1070,  (at  which  time  he  was 
formally  deposed,  with  many  other  prelates,)  in  a  great  Council  or  Convo- 
cation of  the  Clergy,  held  in  this  city,  under  Hermenfride,  Bishop  ofSion, 
the  Pope's  Legate.  Stigand  is  reputed  to  have  been  a  very  subtle  and 
covetous  man,  and  withal  rich  and  powerful,  but  very  unlearned.  His 
principal  misfortunes  arose  from  his  having  had  the  boldness  to  appear  at 
the  head  of  the  Kentish  men,  when  they  assembled  in  arms  at  Swanscombe, 
in  Kent,  to  demand  from  William  the  Norman  a  full  confirmation  of  their 
ancient  liberties;  and  although  that  chieftain,  in  acceding  to  their  request, 
had  eugaged  never  to  suffer  it  to  become  a  ground  of  offence,  yet  the 
displeasure  which  he  hence  conceived  against  IStigand  was  immoveable. 
For  awhile,  however,  he  concealed  his  dislike  under  a  specious,  yet 
hypocritical,  respect;  but  almost  immediately  after  the  Council  had 
deprived  the  archbishop  of  his  dignities,  he  committed  him  to  close 
imprisonment  in  Winchester  Castle;  where,  says  Godwin,  he  was  "very 
hardly  used,  being  scarcely  allowed  meat  enough  to  hold  life  and  soul 
together."  This  harsh  treatment,  (which  is  thought  to  have  been  design- 
edly inflicted,  to  force  him  to  disclose  where  his  treasures  were  concealed) 
is  said  to  have  affected  his  mind;  and  he  died  with  chagrin,  or  voluntary 

the  Priory  Hall,  on  the  translation  of  Bishop  Orleton  to  this  See,  in  the  year  1338.  (Vide  Warton's 
History  of  English  Poetry,  vol.  i.  p.  89.)  Higden,  who  wrote  ahout  the  middle  of  the  same 
century,  relates  it  at  length  in  his  Poly-Chronicon  ;  but  the  more  ancient  historians,  as  Ailred 
Piievallensis,  Mahusbury,  Dunelmensis,  Huntingdon,  and  Hoveden,  are  entirely  silent  on  the  subject: 
the  principal  later  writers  who  mention  it  are,  Brompton,  Knighton,  Rudbome,  and  Harpsfield. 

■-■  See  History  of  Norwich  Cathedral,  p.  12,  wherein  is  some  account  of  Stigand. 


BISHOP  STIGAND. — A.  D.   1070.  45 

famine84,  within  a  few  months  after  his  deprivation.  "  After  his  death,  a 
little  key  was  found  about  his  necke,  the  locke  whereof  being  carefully 
sought  out,  shewed  a  note  or  direction  of  infinite  treasures  hid  under 
ground  in  divers  places:  all  that  the  king  pursed  in  his  owne  coffers85.'' 
He  was  buried  in  this  Cathedral ;  to  which,  according  to  the  Winchester 
Annalist86,  he  gave  a  "  prodigious  large"  and  costly  crucifix,  with  its 
attendant  images  (St.  John  and  the  Virgin) ;  but  Rudborne87  says,  that  the 
said  crucifix  was  given  to  the  Church  by  the  King,  who  had  found  it  in 
Stigand's  treasury.  It  was  afterwards  placed  over  the  screen  at  the 
entrance  into  the  choir. 

84  Cat.  of  Eng.  Bishops,  p.  72.  The  grand  charges  against  Stiganrl  were,  that  he  had  presumed 
to  wear  the  pall  of  his  predecessor  Gemeticensis,  in  the  See  of  Canterbury,  without  having  been  duly 
inducted  by  the  Pope;  and  had  also  kept  possession  of  the  Sees  both  of  Winchester  and  Canterbury 
at  the  same  time.  The  latter  crime,  however,  if  such  it  were,  had  never  been  objected  against  the 
famous  Saints  Dunstan  and  Oswald  ;  the  former  of  whom  held  Worcesterand  London  together,  and 
the  latter  Worcester  and  York.  The  fact  is,  that  the  great  Council  at  Winchester  was  purposely 
assembled  to  deprive  the  English  clergy  of  their  preferments,  in  order  that  the  same  might  be  be- 
stowed on  foreigners.  William  was  the  first  sovereign  who  completely  subjected  the  independence 
of  the  English  church  to  papal  authority. 

85  Cat.  of  Eng.  Bish.  p.  73. 

86  Angl.  Sac.  vol.  i.  p.  294.  87  Ibid.  p.  251. 


46  WINCHESTER  CATHEDRAL. 


HISTORICAL   NOTICES  OF  THE  MUNICIPAL  STATE,  SEE,  AND  BISHOPS  OF  WIN- 
CHESTER, UNDER  THE  ANGLO-NORMAN  DYNASTY  : ORIGIN  AND  BUILDING 

OF    THE  PRESENT   CATHEDRAL: — DATES    AND    STYLES  OF  THE    DIFFERENT 
PARTS  OF  THAT  EDIFICE. 

A  new  and  important  era  in  ecclesiastical  history  was  formed  under  the 
Anglo-Norman  dynasty,  and  Winchester  was  chosen,  soon  after  the  con- 
quest, as  the  place  for  the  assembly  of  prelates,  monks,  &c.  in  different 
Synods.  These  were  formed  to  give  some  semblance  of  justice  or  can- 
dour to  the  arbitrary  proceedings  of  the  Norman  bishops.  Lanfranc,  late 
Abbot  of  Bee  in  Normandy,  was  first  advanced  to  the  chair  of  Canterbury' 
from  which  Stigand  had  been  recently  expelled;  Walkelyn,  a  chaplain  and 
relation  to  the  late  Duke  of  Normandy,  was  promoted  to  Winchester,  and 
other  priests  from  the  Continent  were  advanced  to  other  English  sees  and 
monasteries.  The  politic  monarch  knew  the  influence  of  the  clergy  over 
the  people,  and  therefore  prudently  and  cunningly  assigned  all  or  most  of 
the  chief  offices  to  his  dependants,  relatives,  and  ostensible  friends.  Thus 
he  very  soon  obtained  an  uncontrolled  right,  or  power  over  "  the  established 
clergy,  and  treated  them  as  his  captives  :  he  destroyed  many  of  their 
churches,  he  stript  most,  if  not  all  of  them,  of  their  rich  furniture;  he  laid 
a  taxatiou  of  men  and  arms  to  serve  him  in  his  expeditions,  upon  the  lands 
of  the  bishops  and  prelates,  and  obliged  them  to  secular  services  unknown 
to  their  predecessors;  he  caused  many  churches,  with  their  tithes,  to  be 
converted  into  lay-fees  for  the  maintaining  his  military  officers  and  men  of 
arms;  the  tithes  of  other  churches,  which  were  mostly  served  by  English 
priests,  he  caused  to  be  appropriated  toabbies,  which  were  governed,  if  not 
filled  by  Normans1."  These  acts  maybe  regarded  as  productive  of  a  bold  and 

'  Johnson's  "  Ecclesiastical  Laws,"  &c.  vol.  ii.     Preface  to  Laufranc's  Canons. 


CANONS  AT  WINCHESTER. — A.  D.   1070,  &C.  47 

daring  reformation,  or  revolution,  in  the  ecclesiastical  government;  and, 
according  to  Dr.  Milner,  it  was  the  third  of  the  kind  that  had  occurred  in 
England.  Walkelyn,  on  taking  possession  of  his  See,  at  first  proposed  to 
expel  all  the  monks,  but  Lanfranc  urged  him  rather  to  continue  and  govern 
them  strictly  by  St. Benedict's  rule;  Simeon,  a  brother  of  the  bishop,  was  ap- 
pointed Prior.  In  the  Councils  held  at  Winchester  in  1070,  1071,  and  107fi, 
the  clergy,  with  Lanfranc  at  their  head,  formed  a  series  of  Canonsa,  or  laws, 
levelled  at  the  Saxons,  and  framed  to  justify  and  protect  themselves. 
Among  the  alterations  now  effected,  was  the  new  modelling  of  the  laws, 
language,  and  customs  of  the  kingdom.  Every  thing  was  to  be  Norman,  and 
even  the  English  or  Saxon  language  was  to  be  abolished  :  Winchester  was 
the  residence  of  the  court,  and  we  may  safely  infer,  was  fully  occupied  by 
the  officers,  priests,  and  followers  of  the  king.  A  new  royal  castle  was 
commenced  here :  the  curfew,  or  eight  o'clock-bell,  was  first  rung  at 
Winton,  to  warn  all  persons  to  retire  to  bed,  or  to  extinguish  fire  at  that 
hour:  and  a  command  is  said  to  have  been  issued  hence  to  depopulate 
the  entire  tract  or  district  which  now  forms  the  New-Forest3:  that  in- 

2  The  heads  of  a  few  of  the  Canons  will  serve  to  characterise  the  monastic  manners  of  the  times, 
and  the  spirit  of  the  legislators : — 1.  Of  Bishops  and  Abbots  coming  in  by  Simonical  heresy  : — 
2.  Of  ordaining  men  promiscuously,  from  bribery: — 3.  Of  the  life  and  conversation  of  such  men  : — 
4.  Bishops  to  celebrate  councils  twice  a  year ;  and,  5,  have  free  power  over  the  clergy  and  laity  of 
their  diocesses  : — 6.  Laymen  to  pay  tithes  as  it  is  written  : — 7-  That  none  invade  the  goods  of  the 
church : — 8.  That  clerks  and  monks  be  duly  reverenced,  or  offenders  to  be  anathematised : — 9.  No 
Bishop  to  hold  two  Sees: — 10.  Corpses  not  to  be  buried  in  churches: — 11.  Bishops  only  to  give 
penance  for  gross  crimes.  The  penances  required  from  soldiers  are  absurd,  cruel,  and  impolitic  ; 
and  are  irreconcileable  to  the  military  character  of  the  monarch,  who  had  obtained  his  post  and 
power  by  arms.  The  soldier  who  killed  a  man  in  battle,  to  do  penance  for  one  year;  and  a  year 
more  for  every  person  he  knew  he  had  killed. 

3  The  extent  of  the  royal  command,  as  to  the  formation  of  the  forest  and  sweeping  away  22 — 
36 — 52,  or  even  60  parish  churches,  as  variously  represented,  is  a  subject  of  dispute  with  different 
writers.  The  old  chroniclers  assert  it,  and  also  represent  that  the  death  of  the  Conqueror's  sons, 
Richard,  and  William  Rufus,  and  his  grandson,  Henry,  in  the  New  Forest,  were  all  marks  of  the 
offended  Deity's  vengeance  for  such  an  impious  offence.  Some  modern  authors  disbelieve  the  re- 
lation, and  show  it  to  be  founded  in  the  misrepresentation  and  exaggeration  of  those  cloistered  an- 
nalists who  hated  the  monarch,  and  sought  every  opportunity  to  traduce  his  character.  See  this  subject 


48  WINCHESTER  CATHEDRAL. 

quisitorial  edict  of  ascertaining  and  registering  the  whole  landed  property 
of  the  realm  in  the  '  Domesday  Book,'  or  '  Roll  of  Winchester,'  was  issued 
from  this  city  A.  D.  1083,  and  here  that  important  record  was  kept : 
but  another  more  material  event,  as  relating  to  our  present  subject,  and 
the  stability  of  the  See,  was  the  commencement  of  a  large  and  magnificent 
Cathedral,  by  the  Norman  bishop,  in  1079.  The  old  historians  clearly 
intimate,  that  he  began  the  church  from  its  foundation,  and  raised  it  at  his 
own  expence,  although  the  same  writers  admit,  that  the  former  edifice,  by 
Ethelwold,  had  not  been  erected  more  than  a  century.  Some  of  these 
also  relate  that  the  bishop  employed  a  little  finesse  at  the  very  beginning  of 
his  work,  but  which,  according  to  Dr.  Milner,  "  proved  the  greatness  of  the 
undertaking,  and  generosity  of  the  Conqueror."  The  prelate,  wanting 
timber  for  his  new  fabric,  solicited  some  from  the  monarch,  who  granted  him 
as  much  from  his  wood  of  Hanepinges,  or  Hampege,  near  Winchester,  as  he 
could  cut  down  and  carry  away  in  three  days.  Taking  advantage  of  this 
unqualifying  grant,  he  employed  all  the  men,  horses,  carts,  &c.  he  could 
obtain,  and  levelled  and  carried  away  the  whole  of  the  said  wood,  or  "  forest," 
within  the  prescribed  time.  This  act,  Dr.  Milner  says,  so  "  prodigiously 
incensed"  the  monarch,  that  he  refused  to  see  the  bishop ;  but  the  latter, 
in  disguise,  contrived  to  obtain  an  interview,  and  explained  that  he  had 
not  exceeded  the  monarch's  prescribed  time  of  three  days,  &c.  when  the 
king  mildly  remarked,  '  Most  assuredly,  Waihilyn,  I  was  too  liberal  in  my 
grant,  and  you  too  exacting  in  the  use  made  of  it*.'  It  appears  that  this  event 
occurred  in  the  last  year  of  the  Conqueror's  life  ;  and  it  is  said  that  the 
bishop  continued  the  building  for  seven  years  after  that  event,  when,  1093, 
the  Church  and  conventual  offices  were  so  near  completion,  that  "almost 
all  the  hishops  and  abbots  of  England  assembled  in  this  city  to  honour  the 
solemn  dedication  of  them,  which  took  place  July  1. 5,  being  the  festival  of 

fully  investigated  and  developed  ill  "  Beauties  of  England,"  tut.  vi.  Hampshire.  Gilpin's 
"  Remarks  on  Forest  Scenery,"—  and  Lewis's  "  Historical  Inquiries  concerning  Forests  and  Forest 
Laws,"4to.  1811. 

4  Annates.  Wint.  an.  10UG. 


OPPRESSION  OF  WILLIAM  RUFUS. — A.  D.   1098.  49 

St.  Swithun,  the  patron  saint  of  the  place5."  The  Annalist  strangely  and 
mysteriously  asserts  that  on  the  very  next  day,  the  workmen  began  to 
demolish  the  ancient  fabric,  which  was  completely  cleared  away  within  a 
year,  excepting  the  great  altar  and  one  "  portico."  Thus  it  is  plainly  implied, 
that  Ethelwold's  church  was  on  a  different  site  to  that  of  Walkelyn's ;  and 
if  the  language  of  Rudborne  is  to  be  understood  and  believed,  the  whole 
edifice  was  new  built  from  the  foundation.  Walkelyn  did  not  long  survive 
the  finishing  of  his  church,  but  according  to  the  monkish  annalist,  fell  a 
sacrifice  to  his  devotion  to  that  beloved  pile.  The  second  Norman  monarch, 
William  Rufus,  sent  a  peremptory  order  from  Normandy,  in  1098,  to  the 
bishop,  requiring  an  immediate  remittance  of  "  C.C.  libras"  an  "  enormous 
sum,"  says  Milner,  "  according  to  the  value  of  money  in  those  days." 
This  sum  could  not  be  readily  raised,  without  sacrificing  the  treasures  of 
the  church,  or  withholding  the  accustomed  support  of  the  poor.  In  this 
predicament  the  prelate  prayed  to  be  released  from  the  miseries  of  such  a 
life,  and  accordingly  he  died  within  ten  days  after  the  summons  had  been 
delivered.  Rufus  therefore  seized  the  revenues  of  this  See  as  he  had 
previously  those  of  others6;  but  this  sacrilegious  invasion  of  ecclesiastical 
property,  according  to  the  same  writer,  was  visited  by  "  divine  wrath,"  and 
punished  by  an  untimely  death.  He  was  killed  by  an  arrow  from  the  bow  of 
one  of  his  associates  in  the  chase,  and  his  body  was  conveyed  in  a  cart  to  our 
Cathedral,  "  the  blood  dripping  from  it  all  the  way,"  says  Malmsbury.  It 
was  interred  under  the  tower,  "  attended  by  mauy  of  the  nobility,  though 
lamented  by  few:"  which  tower,  according  to  the  same  author,  fell  the 
next  year,  i.e.  1101;  but  Annals  of  Wilton  say  1 107.  "  Though  I  forbear  to 
mention  the  different  opinions  on  this  subject,  least  I  should  seem  to  assent 
too  readily  to  unsupported  trifles ;  more  especially  as  the  building  might 
have  fallen,  through  imperfect  construction,  even  though  he  had  never  been 
buried  there7."     Considering  the  time  this  was  written,  and  the  education 

5  Milner,  "  History,  &c.  of  Winchester,"  vol.  i.  p.  195,  from  Ann.  Win.  an.  1093. 

6  At  the  day  of  his  death,  says  Malmsbury,  he  held  three  bishoprics  and  twelve  vacant  abbies. 
i  Malmsbury,  "  History  of  the  Kings  of  England,"  by  Sharpe,  4to.l815. 

G 


50  WINCHESTER  CATHEDRAL. 

and  situation  of  the  writer,  this  may  be  regarded  as  extraordinary  language, 
and    expressive  of  extraordinary    sentiments.     Had    Rudborne  been  in- 
fluenced by  similar  feelings,  we  should  have  pursued  our  narrative  with 
more  satisfaction  and  probability.     Immediately  on  the  decease  of  Rufus, 
Henry,  his  younger  brother,  seized  the  treasury  of  the  palace,  &c.  and  was 
readily  elected  to  the  vacant  throne.     Soon  afterwards  he  married  Matilda, 
a  descendant  of  the  West  Saxon  Kings,  and  promoted  William  Giffard, 
his  Chancellor,  to  this  See ;  but  he  was  not  consecrated,  nor  did  he  even  re- 
ceive episcopal  jurisdiction,  till  seven  years  afterwards.     This  delay  arose 
from  the  disputes,  then  existing,  "  concerning  the  receiving  ecclesiastical 
investitures  from  lay-persons,  by  the  pastoral  staff  and  ring8."    Henry  I.  and 
Anselm,  Archbishop  of  Canterbury,  had  long  contested  this  point :  but  the 
dispute  was  settled  by  a  synod  in  London,  which  declared  that  no  king,  nor 
lay-hand,  should  be  qualified  to  invest  any  bishop  or  abbot  with  a  pastoral 
staff  or  a  ring  :  and  Anselm  consents  "  that  none  elected  to  any  prelacy  shall 
be  denyed  consecration  upon  account  of  the  homage  which  he  does  to  the 
king'."  Thus  adjusted,  our  bishop,  who  had  been  banished,  was  recalled  and 
formally  instituted  and  consecrated  in  1  107.    Though  he  does  not  appear  to 
have  done  much  for  his  own  church  or  society,  he  is  complimented  for  found- 
ing the  college  and  church  of  St.  Mary  Overy,  Southwark,  London;  aeon- 
vent  of  Cistercian10  monks  at  Waverley,  near  Farnham,  Surrey;  and  also 
another  for  Nuns,  at  Taunton.     In  1 1 10  he  removed  the  monks,  &c.  of  the 
New  Minster  from  the  north  side  of  the  Cathedral,  to  a  place  called  Hyde- 
Meadow,  at  the  northern  extremity  of  the  city. 

It  may  not  be  amiss  to  notice  the  state  of  Winchester  about  this  time. 
As  the  residence  of  the  monarch,  it  was  also  chosen  by  many  of  his  chief 
dependant  nobles  :  here  was  also  the  royal  treasury,  royal  mint,  repository 
of  public  records,  episcopal  palace  and  cathedral ;  three  royal  monasteries, 

8  Milu.  Wiu.  i.  203. 

'  See  Malmsbury's  History,  &c.  and  Sharpc's  translation,  for  copies  of  the  supplicatory,  persua- 
sive, and  argumeutative  letters  written  by  Pope  Pascal  to  the  king  and  to  Anselm,  on  this  subject. 

10  This  Order  is  particularly  and  very  liberally  commended  by  William  of  Maluisbury.  See  De 
Regis,  lib.  v.  and  Sharpe's  translation. 


BISHOP  DE  BLOIS,  AND  KING  STEPHEN.  51 

besides  other  inferior  religious  houses;  and,  according  to  Dr.  Milner,  "  an 
incredible  number  of  parish  churches  and  chapels."  The  same  author, 
from  Trussel,  goes  on  to  represent  the  extent  of  the  city  as  "  incredible" 
as  its  number  of  churches,  by  saying  that  its  buildings  extended  "  a  mile 
in  every  direction  further  than  they  do  at  present;  on  the  north  to 
Worthy  ;  on  the  west  to  Week  ;  on  the  south  to  St.  Cross  ;  and  on  the  east 
to  St.  Magdalen's  Hill."  Although  this  representation  appears  a  little 
hyperbolical,  yet  we  can  readily  believe  that  Winchester,  at  its  zenith  of 
prosperity,  was  more  populous  than  at  present :  in  those  insecure  and 
warring  times,  few  persons  however  would  raise  permanent  buildings 
beyond  the  protection  of  the  fortified  walls  and  bastion  towers11.  It  was 
about  this  time  that  our  bishop  built  his  castle  at  Wolvesey,  at  the  south- 
east angle  of  this  city,  also  other  castles  at  his  manors  of  Farnham,  Taun- 
ton, Merden,  Waltham,  and  Downton. 

The  civil  wars  between  Stephen  and  Matilda  occasioned  new  commotions 
in,  and  destruction  to,  Winchester.  The  usurping  monarch,  on  the  death 
of  his  uncle,  hastened  from  Boulogne  to  this  city,  where  his  brother,  Henry 
de  Blois,  was  bishop  and  Pope's  legate;  and  through  the  influence  of  that 
prelate  he  seized  the  treasures  of  the  royal  palace,  amounting,  according 
to  Malmsbury,  to  100,000/.  in  money,  besides  plate,  jewels,  &c.  He  soon 
afterwards  seized  the  castles  of  the  bishops12,  and  committed  other  violences 

"  The  Roman  boundary  walls  of  this  city  must  have  been  strong  and  lofty  at  that  time.  In  the 
year  1125,  several  persons  were  summoned  from  different  parts  of  the  realm  to  assemble  at  Win- 
chester, to  answer  certain  charges  for  debasing  the  current  coin ;  and  all  were  convicted,  and 
sentenced  to  lose  their  right  hands.  Three  mint-masters  of  this  city  were  however  found  inno- 
cent, and  acquitted.  A  standard  yard  measure  was  settled  by  the  king  at  this  time,  and  deposited, 
with  other  standards  of  weight  and  measure,  in  this  city.  Among  these  was  the  famed  Winchester- 
bushel.     See  Whitaker's  "  History  of  St.  Germans." 

12  In  spite  of  a  solemn  oath  before  a  council  of  the  nobility  at  Oxford,  swearing  "  he  would  not 
retain  vacant  prelacies,  but  fill  them  with  persons  canonically  elected  ;  that  he  would  not  disturb 
either  clergy  or  laity  in  the  enjoyment  of  their  woods,  as  the  late  King  Henry  had  dome ;  nor  sue 
any  body  for  hunting  or  taking  venison;  that  he  would  remit  the  tax  of  Danegeld,"  &c.  These 
and  many  other  indulgencies  and  immunities  were  promised  to  the  people,  and  ratified  by  solemn 
obligatinos :  but  the  political  oaths  of  this  ruler,  like  those  of  many  others,  seem  only  to  have  been 
made  for  expediency  and  state  policy. 


52  WINCHESTER  CATHEDRAL. 

against  the  clergy,  which  occasioned  the  latter  to  assemble  a  synod  in  this 
city,  August  30,  1139,  and  remonstrate  against  such  oppressive  proceed- 
ings. Our  present  bishop  employed  his  influence  to  preserve  allegiance  to 
the  monarch,  but  the  latter,  disregarding  the  clergy  and  citizens,  hastened 
from  them  to  London,  which  confirmed  the  indignation  of  both  classes  against 
him.  The  castle  of  Winchester  was  soon  seized  for  the  Empress,  and  after 
some  struggle  with  the  bishop  and  his  party,  the  Empress  herself  was 
admitted  into  the  city.  This  was  only  a  prelude  to  civil  hostilities;  for  the 
bishop,  though  at  first  apparently  friendly  to  the  new  female  monarch,  soon 
thought  it  proper  to  strengthen  and  fortify  his  castle  of  Wolvesey. 
This  was  invested  by  the  Empress's  troops,  under  the  command  of  her 
natural  brother,  the  Earl  of  Gloucester,  and  her  uncle,  David,  King  of 
Scotland.  Stephen's  military  partizans  were  immediately  rallied  to 
relieve  the  bishop,  and  a  long  protracted  scene  of  warfare  ensued.  The 
whole  city,  and  all  its  approaches,  were  occupied  by  soldiers.  To  repel 
his  assailants,  and  punish  the  citizens,  the  bishop  "  caused  wild-fire  and 
combustible  matter  to  be  thrown  out  of  his  fortified  palace,  upon  the 
houses  of  the  townsmen,  and  reduced  a  great  part  of  them  to  ashes.  In 
this  fire  were  burnt  above  twenty  churches,  besides  the  nunnery  within  the 
walls,  and  the  abbey  of  Hyde,  without;  the  bishop  laying  hold  of  the 
opportunity  to  seize,  for  his  own  use,  a  golden  cross,  given  to  the  last  of 
these  convents,  by  King  Cauute,  set  with  precious  stones,  (of  which  he 
made  30  marks  of  gold  and  500  of  silver),  and  three  royal  diadems,  with  as 
many  stands  of  the  purest  Arabian  gold,  adorned  with  jewels  and  wrought 
in  the  most  curious  manner13."  In  this  state  of  civil  discord  and  slaughter 
Winchester  continued  for  seven. weeks,  during  which  time  the  Empress  and 
her  adherents  were  shut  up  within  the  walls  of  the  castle.  On  the  evening  of 

13  Carte's  History  of  England,  vol.  i.  p.  540,  from  Flor.  Wig.  Cont.  Stow  quotes  an  authority 
which  states  that  forty  churches  were  burnt.  Milner  thus  enumerates  the  ravages  committed  at 
this  time,  "  they  destroyed,  first  the  adjoining  Abbey  of  St.  Mary,  then  the  whole  north,  which 
was  infinitely  the  most  populous  part  of  the  city  ;  together  with  twenty  churches,  the  royal  palace, 
which  had  been  lately  built  in  that  quarter,  the  suburb  of  Hyde,  with  the  magnificent  monastery  of 
St.  Grimbald,  erected  there  in  the  preceding  reign." 


ROYAL  AND  CLERICAL  WARS  :   TEMP.  BP.  DE  BLOIS.  53 

Holy-rood  day,  the  bishop  devised  a  plan  to  deceive  and  conquer  his 
opponents.  He  issued  a  proclamation  that  peace  should  prevail  on  that 
sacred  festival,  and  that  the  gates  of  the  city  should  be  opened.  The 
Empress,  with  some  of  her  friends,  and  an  escort  of  forces,  escaped  early  in 
the  morning,  but  not  without  a  conflict,  and  some  of  her  best  officers  were 
taken  prisoners.  Dr.  Milner,  on  the  authority  of  "  Brompton,  Knighton, 
Trussel,  and  others,"  says  that  the  Empress  devised  the  following  stratagem 
to  effect  her  escape  from  Winchester.  After  representing  herself  as  dan- 
gerously ill  for  some  days,  it  was  proclaimed  that  she  was  dead:  and 
that  her  corpse  was  to  be  conveyed,  on  a  horse  litter,  through  the  army  of 
the  besiegers  for  interment.  She  thus  escaped  the  outposts,  and  then  mount- 
ing her  horse,  proceeded  with  her  small  retinue  to  Ludgershall,  Devizes,  and 
thence  on  to  Gloucester.  The  intrigues  and  duplicity  of  the  bishop  at  length 
met  with  a  check  by  an  order  from  the  Pope  to  relinquish  his  legatine 
power,  with  all  its  authority  and  influence.  This  was  a  severe  blow  to  his 
ambition,  as  he  had  frequently  contested  the  authority  even  of  the  Arch- 
bishop of  Canterbury.  Indeed  at  one  time  he  petitioned  Pope  Lucius  II.  to 
raise  the  See  of  Winchester  into  an  archbishopric14,  and  to  subject  the  six 
Sees  of  Salisbury,  Exeter,  Wells,  Chichester,  Hereford,  and  Worcester  to  it, 
and  to  make  a  seventh  See  of  Hyde-Abbey. 

From  the  devastations  and  disasters  which  Winchester  experienced 
during  these  royal  and  clerical  wars,  it  never  recovered  ;  and  from  this 
period  it  loses  the  principal  part  of  that  interest  which  arises  from  exciting 
the  hopes  and  fears  of  the  reader.  In  the  reign  of  Henry  the  Second,  it 
appears  that  the  bishop  had  fled  with  his  treasures  to  the  Continent,  which 
provoked  the  monarch  to  seize  on  and  dismantle  his  three  castles  of  Wol- 
vesey,  Waltham,  and  Merden15 :  the  ruins  of  Winchester  were,  however, 
partly  restored,  a  mayor  was  appointed  to  govern  its  internal  police,  and 

,4  Carte.  Hist.  Engl,  from  Mat.  Paris  and  Rudborne.  This  prelate  is  said  to  have  been  the  first 
to  have  introduced  the  practice  of  appealing  to  Rome;  "  and,  on  this  account,  as  well  as  others, 
deserved  very  ill  of  this  church  and  nation."     Johnson,  Eccles.  Laws. 

,s  Dr.  Milner,  i.  219,  observes,  "  this  can  only  be  understood  of  the  ditches,  barbacan,  and  other 
outworks. — Rad.  Diceto,  in  his  Ymagines,  Hist,  says  the  king  destroyed  all  the  bishop's  six  castles." 


54  WINCHESTER  CATHEDRAL. 

this  was  the  first  town  in  England  thus  governed :  in  the  next  reign  it 
was  invested  with  the  privilege  of  a  corporation,  by  which  it  formed  "  an 
independent  state  in  the  heart  of  the  kmgdorn."  The  Abbot  of  Hyde- 
Abbey  instituted  a  suit  against  the  bishop  to  make  him  account  for  the 
grand  crucifix,  and  other  valuables,  which  he  had  pilfered  from  that  house. 
The  royal  treasury  was  still  kept  at  Winchester,  and  to  that  city  Richard 
Cceur-de-Lion  hastened  after  the  death  of  his  father,  and  took  possession  of 
valuables  to  the  amount  of  900,0001.  In  this  Cathedral  he  was  also  solemnly 
crowned,  a  second  time,  on  the  17th  of  April,  1 194.  This  second  coronation 
he  demanded,  on  returning  to  his  kingdom  after  having  suffered  imprisonment 
in  the  duugeon  of  Trivallis1'*'.  On  first  coming  to  this  city  he  dispossessed 
the  Cathedral  "  of  its  two  manors,  and  the  bishop  of  the  royal  castle  and 
county  of  Winchester17."  The  reign  of  John  is  distinguished  in  the  Annals 
of  Winchester  for  some  important  grants  to  the  city,  and  by  its  immediate 
participation  in  a  violent  quarrel,  which  lasted  six  years,  between  the  King 
and  the  Pope,  about  the  election  of  Stephen  Langton.  This  person  was 
forced  on  the  clergy  and  nation  by  the  Romau  Pontiff,  who  through  the 
medium  of  Pandulph,  the  legate,  also  compelled  the  king  to  submit  to 
a  mortifying  and  degraded  humiliation  to  the  papal  throne.  He  was  next 
excommunicated;  assumed  contrition,  but  only  to  act  with  treachery  and 
tyranny ;  which  caused  the  barons,  at  the  instigation  of  the  Winchester 
prelate,  to  confederate  against  him,  and  compel  him  to  sign  Magna  Charta. 
Winchester  was  afterwards  conquered  and  occupied  by  French  troops,  who 
committed  great  devastation  on  the  castles  of  the  king  and  bishop.  Under 
the  next  reign  and  next  prelacy,  our  city  was  again  restored  ;  but  towards 
the  end  of  the  reign,  much  opposition  arose  between  the  monarch  and 
monks  about  the  election  of  a  bishop. 

Having  now  furnished  a  general  view  of  the  progressive  history  of  Win- 
chester and  its  See,  up  to  the  beginning  of  the  thirteenth  century,  we  shall 
direct  our  whole  attention  to  the  Cathedral,  its  offices  and  officers.  By 
what  has  been  already  stated,  it  appears  that  the  present  church  was  built 

16  Milner,  "  from  an  ancient  historian  of  great  credit,"  gives  a  particular  account  of  this  corona- 
tion.    Hist.  Winchester,  i.  240.  '7  Milner,  from  Rog.  Hovedon. 


LETTER  FROM  MR.  GAREETT  TO  THE  AUTHOR.  55 

by  Walkelyn,  "  from  the  foundation ;"  but  many  antiquaries  contest  this 
point,  and  assign  parts  of  it  to  a  much  earlier  date.  On  this  subject  I  am 
willing  to  attend  to  the  opinions  and  reasonings  of  all ;  and  therefore 
willingly  give  publicity  to  the  following  letter,  from  the  gentleman  appointed 
by  the  Dean  and  Chapter  to  superintend  the  architectural  repairs,  &c.  of 
the  Church. 

"  Dear  Sir, 

"  I  have  at  length  undertaken  to  arrange,  upon  paper,  the  ideas  that 
have  from  time  to  time  arisen  in  my  mind,  relative  to  the  styles  and  dates 
of  the  several  parts  of  that  interesting  and  venerable  fabric,  the  Cathedral 
Church  of  this  city. 

"  It  is  not  without  much  diffidence,  that  I  undertake  to  express  my 
opinion  upon  a  subject,  which  has  engaged  the  attention  of  antiquaries  of 
eminent  learning  and  ingenuity.  I  shall,  however,  rind  some  apology  in  the 
consideration  that  different  conclusions  have  been  drawn  from  the  historical 
information  they  have  collected ;  a  circumstance  which  shows  that  such 
information,  though  very  essential  to  our  inquiry,  cannot  be  entirely 
depended  upon,  without  a  patient  and  scrupulous  survey  of  the  existing 
parts  of  the  fabric,  which,  I  believe,  it  may  with  confidence  be  said,  will 
afford  ample  evidence  to  warrant  us  in  premising  generally,  that  the  ancient 
historians  of  the  Cathedral,  either  from  misconception  of  the  authorities 
from  which  their  information  was  derived,  or  from  their  zeal  to  extol  the 
munificence  of  the  several  benefactors  to  the  fabric,  must  have  greatly 
exaggerated  the  description  of  the  works  performed  at  different  periods. 

"  Having  thus  prepared  a  foundation  we  shall  be  able  to  trace  without 
great  difficulty,  the  works  of  the  illustrious  sovereigns  and  prelates  who 
have  been  most  eminently  distinguished  by  their  zeal  and  munificence,  as 
founders  or  improvers  of  this  ancient  structure,  from  the  commencement 
of  the  fourth  century  down  to  the  period  of  the  Reformation. 

"  One  of  the  latest  historians  of  this  edifice,  Dr.  Milner,  and  the  au- 
thorities he  cites,  inform  us  that  a  basilic  of  vast  extent  and  magnificence 


50  WINCHESTER  CATHEDRAL. 

was  erected  for  the  purpose  of  Christian  worship  so  early  as  the  second 
century,  upon  the  site  which  the  Cathedral  now  occupies:  of  such  an 
edifice  it  cannot  be  pretended  that  any  part  can  now  remain  to  be  identi- 
fied, for  we  are  told  by  the  same  authority,  that  after  it  "  had  subsisted 
about  120  years  it  was  levelled  with  the  ground."  It  is,  however,  probable, 
as  will  hereafter  be  shown,  that  some  part  of  the  foundation  of  such  a 
structure  may  be  still  existing. 

"  After  the  destruction  of  the  first  edifice,  it  is  said  to  have  been  rebuilt, 
from  the  foundation,  no  less  than  four  times  in  the  short  space  of  780 
years.  The  improbability  of  this  seems  to  have  staggered  the  belief  of  Dr. 
Milner,  who  relates  it ;  for  he  tells  us  it  is  probable  that  Ethel  wold  "  not  only 
made  use  of  the  loose  materials  of  the  ancient  building,  but  also  incorpo- 
rated such  parts  of  it  as  he  found  of  sufficient  strength  to  be  left  stand- 
ing;" and  the  same  author,  when  he  speaks  of  the  rebuilding  of  this  vast 
structure  by  Walkelyn,  says,  "  It  was  not  then  from  any  real  necessity  of 
such  a  work,  that  our  first  INorman  bishop  rebuilt  the  Cathedral ;  but  the 
fact  is,  the  Normans  in  general,  being  a  high  spirited  people,  held  the 
Saxons,  with  all  their  arts,  learning,  and  whatever  belonged  to  them,  in 
the  most  sovereign  contempt." 

From  the  historical  notices  we  meet  with,  we  shall  find  no  difficulty  in 
admitting,  that  great  improvements  were  made  in  the  fabric  of  the 
Cathedral  at,  or  about,  the  following  stated  periods:  viz.  in  the  year  313, 
"  by  the  contributions  of  private  Christians,"  when  Constans  was  bishop  of 
the  See;  about  the  year  584,  by  the  Saxon  King,  Kenewalch;  about  the 
year  980,  by  Bishop  Ethelwold;  and  again,  in  the  year  1079,  by  Bishop 
Walkelyn,  of  whom  it  is  particularly  recorded,  that  he  built  the  tower, 
which  was  at  that  time  considered  a  stupendous  work ;  and  that  he  cut 
down  the  whole  of  an  extensive  wood  to  supply  the  timber  necessary  for 
the  completion  of  the  edifice.  This  we  may  readily  admit ;  but  when  we 
attentively  compare  the  architecture,  and  the  workmanship  of  the  tower, 
with  that  of  the  greater  part  of  the  adjoining  transept,  we  shall  not  hesitate 
to  ascribe  to  the  latter  a  much  earlier  date ;  for  it  is  not  difficult  to  trace 


LETTER  FROM  MR.  GARBETT  :  WALKELYn's  WORK.  57 

distinctly,  the  junction  of  the  Norman  with  the  Saxon  work,  not  only  by 
the  superiority  of  the  masonry18,  but  by  the  shape  of  the  arches.  The  two 
arches  of  every  story,  on  each  side  of  the  transept  next  to  the  tower,  and 
the  respective  piers  between  them,  were  evidently  rebuilt  with  the  tower; 
and  this  may  be  considered  the  extent  of  Walkelyn's  work  in  masonry,  as 
far  as  respects  the  Cathedral.  In  addition  to  this,  which  was  certainly  a 
work  of  considerable  magnitude,  it  may  with  great  reason  be  admitted,  that 
he  entirely  new  roofed  the  whole  of  the  transept  and  nave  in  a  manner  that 
might  well  entitle  it  to  be  termed,  new  and  magnificent;  and  when  we  view 
the  greater  part  of  the  roof  that  now  remains,  we  shall  not  be  surprised  at 
what  is  related  of  a  whole  wood  being  cleared  to  furnish  the  timber 
necessary  for  the  purpose. 

"  The  Norman  roof  now  remaining,  is  that  of  the  whole  of  the  transept 
south  of  the  tower,  and  that  of  the  whole  nave  west  of  the  tower,  with  the 
exception  of  about  fifty  feet  in  length  from  the  west  end,  which  was 
evidently  destroyed  by  fire;  though  it  is  not  known  at  what  period,  or  by 
what  accident  the  conflagration  was  occasioned  :  there  is,  however,  reason 
to  suppose,  from  the  appearance  of  the  timber,  as  well  as  from  the  mode  of 
construction,  that  this  new  part  of  the  roof  cannot  be  of  higher  antiquity 
than  the  seventeenth  century. 

"  The  roof  of  the  transept,  northward  of  the  tower,  being  of  a  construction 
very  different  from  that  of  the  nave,  and  southern  part  of  the  transept,  we 
must  conclude  that  the  decay  of  the  Norman  roof  in  that  situation  was 
more  rapid,  and  that  it  required  renewal  before  the  other  parts;  for  we 
cannotsuppose  that  Walkelyn  would  have  left  this  part  incomplete. 

"  It  is  presumed  that  what  has  been  said  of  the  architecture  and  work- 
manship of  the  tower  and  transept,  will  prove  that  some  portions  .of  the 
latter  existed  previous  to  the  time  when  Walkelyn  is  said  to  have  rebuilt  it 
from  the  ground.  It  now  remains  to  show,  that  in  the  ancient  parts  there 
now  exists  the  clearest  evidence  of  additions  to  the  fabric,  at  a  period  still 

18  The  improved  workmanship  of  the  Norman  builders  may  be  most  clearly  -seen  in  the  facing  of 
the  stone,  and  also  in  the  joints,  where  the  mortar  is  not  equal  to  a  fourth  part  of  that  used  in  the 
Saxon  work. 

H 


58  WINCHESTER  CATHEDRAL. 

more  remote ;  this  is  to  be  seen  in  the  design,  rather  than  in  the  execution 
of  the  work.  The  alteration  now  speaking  of,  was  probably  the  work  of 
Ethelwold,  and  consisted  of  an  increase  of  the  substance,  and  alteration  of 
the  shape,  of  four  principal  pillars  of  the  transept,  unquestionably  for  the 
purpose  of  supporting  a  tower  at  the  extremity  of  each  of  the  side  ailes. 
It  may  be  objected,  that  there  is  no  historical  notice  or  tradition  of  the 
existence  of  such  towers,  but  the  evidence  of  the  present  state  of  the 
structure  is  of  the  most  decisive  nature ;  for  the  imposts  of  the  arches  which 
supported  the  flanks  of  such  towers,  are  now  to  be  seen  distinctly  in  the 
spaces  between  the  roof  and  vaulting  of  the  ailes ;  and  whoever  examines 
with  due  attention  the  side  arches  of  the  third  story  of  the  transept,  will 
perceive  that  those  nearest  the  extremities,  (into  which  windows  have  been 
introduced)  were  notoriginally  windows,  but  open  arches  of  communication 
within  the  edifice,  similar  to  those  between  the  body  and  ailes. 

"  We  now  come  to  the  investigation  of  the  work  of  a  period  still  more 
remote,  which  is  the  Crypt,  under  the  part  of  the  church  between  the  high 
altar  and  the  Virgin  Chapel.  The  workmanship  in  this  crypt,  though  plain 
and  simple  in  its  design,  is  far  superior  to  any  that  is  to  be  seen  in  the 
whole  edifice,  excepting  those  parts  which  will  be  hereafter  spoken  of 
as  the  works  of  de  Lucy  and  Fox.  This  work  is  as  much  superior  to 
that  of  the  greater  crypt,  to  which  it  adjoins,  as  the  Norman  is  to  the 
Saxon  work  in  the  transept;  but  its  inferior  dimensions  seem  to  indicate 
that  it  is  not  the  work  of  the  high-spirited  Walkelyn,  and  the  circular 
termination  shows  it  is  not  the  work  of  a  much  later  period ;  we  may  there- 
fore conclude  that  this  is  a  remnant  of  the  work  of  our  pious  British 
or  Roman  ancestors,  in  the  early  part  of  the  fourth  century :  and  in  con- 
formity with  the  observations  before  made  upon  the  existing  appearances 
of  the  fabric,  as  well  as  with  the  historical  notices  mentioned  by  Milner, 
and  his  authorities,  we  may  proceed  to  define  the  works  of  the  various 
builders  from  that  period  down  to  the  eleventh  century  in  the  following 
portions. 

"  The  work  of  King  Kenewalch,  now  remaining,  may  be  supposed  to 
include  the  first  story  of  the  transept,  with  the  exception  of  the  part  before 


LETTER  FROM  MR.  GARBETT  :  SAXON  CRYPTS,  &C.  59 

described  as  being  rebuilt  by  the  Norman  bishop,  and  some  other  innova- 
tions in  the  windows:  we  may  also  conclude,  that  much  of  the  work,  of 
that  sovereign  remains  in  the  pillars  of  the  nave,  though  they  have  since 
been  re-moulded,  and  probably  much  repaired,  in  prosecuting  the  works  of 
the  munificent  prelate,  Wykeham. 

"  It  may  be  observed,  that  in  the  transept  a  new  set  off  appears  at  the 
base  of  the  second  tier  of  Saxon  arches,  to  which  it  is  presumed  the  work 
of  Kenewalch  was  taken  down  by  Bishop  Ethelwold,  and  that  the  work 
of  the  latter  was  continued  from  thence  upwards,  to  the  height  of  the  pre- 
sent parapet,  including  the  towers  before  spoken  of,  as  well  as  an  increase 
in  the  length  of  the  nave;  the  whole  length  of  which  is  evidently  of  Saxon 
workmanship,  as  appears  by  the  columns  that  continue  above  the  vaulting, 
where  the  masonry  is  of  the  same  coarse  kind  as  that  before  described,  in 
contradistinction  to  the  Norman  work.  The  further  work  of  Ethelwold 
may  be  seen  in  the  greater  Crypt,  upon  which  he  of  course  added  a  super- 
structure, though  the  work  now  standing  over  that  foundation  is  of  a  much 
later  date,  which  will  be  spoken  of  in  its  place.  With  respect  to  timber 
roofing,  we  must  suppose  that  Ethelwold  made  use  of  such  as  he  found 
upon  the  old  building,  for  when  we  admit  so  great  a  part  to  have  been 
renewed  by  Walkelyn,  we  cannot  suppose  that  he  rejected  what  had  been 
new  within  the  short  space  of  one  hundred  years,  when  we  find  that  which 
he  used  has  endured  more  than  seven  hundred  years.  Milner  tells  us  posi- 
tively, that  Ethelwold  first  enriched  the  Cathedral  '  with  its  subterraneous 
crypts  which  it  before  had  wanted  :'  this  is  certainly  at  variance  with  what 
I  have  suggested  relative  to  the  lesser  Crypt ;  to  reconcile  which  it  may  be 
presumed  that  Milner's  authority  (which  in  that  instance  is  not  cited)  may 
have  meant  that  the  Cathedral  was  deficient  in  that  respect,  or  that  it 
wanted  crypts  proportionate  to  the  general  scale  of  the  edifice,  and  not 
that  it  had  no  crypt.  We  now  come  to  the  work  of  Walkelyn,  which,  it 
is  presumed,  has  been  sufficiently  proved  to  be  Confined  to  the  building  of 
the  central  Tower  and  such  parts  of  the  edifice  as  immediately  abutted 
upon  it,  and  to  the  new  roofing  of  the  transept  and  nave. 

"  I  agree  with  Dr.  Milner  in  the  supposition  that  Walkelyn's  work  did 


60  WINCHESTER  CATHEDRAL. 

not  extend  eastward  of  the  present  tower,  but  a  considerable  part  of  the 
Saxon  edifice  remained  standing  in  that  situation,  including  the  smaller 
Tower  which  Rudborne  informs  us  fell  upon  Rufus's  tomb.  The  tower 
thus  mentioned  I  conceive  to  have  been  one  of  those  which  stood  at  the 
eastern  extremity  of  each  of  the  side  ailes  of  the  choir,  similar  to  those  I 
have  before  described  as  once  terminating  the  side  ailes  of  the  transept. 
An  examination  of  the  crypt  will  show  that  additions  had  been  made  to 
the  walls  of  the  substructure,  at  a  period  subsequent  to  their  first  erection, 
which  cannot  easily  be  accounted  for,  otherwise  than  for  the  support  of  the 
towers  thus  assigned  to  that  situation;  and  the  fall  of  one  of  them  towards 
Rufus's  tomb  may  be  reasonably  accounted  for  from  the  evident  circum- 
stance of  the  foundation  in  that  direction  being  less  substantial  than  that 
of  the  opposite  side. 

"  Before  we  come  to  an  examination  of  the  works  of  Bishop  de  Lucy,  it 
may  be  observed,  that  an  architectural  innovation,  probably  one  of  the  first 
specimens  of  the  pointed  arch  in  this  country,  as  an  integral  ornament,  is 
to  be  seen  in  the  wall  inclosing  a  part  of  the  south-west  aile  of  the  tran- 
sept. This  work  may  be  reasonably  attributed  to  Bishop  de  Hlois :  it 
seems  to  appear  as  an  experiment  to  try  the  effect  of  the  pointed  arch, 
compared  with  the  semicircular  one,  aud  it  is  curious  to  observe  the  pre- 
dilection that  seems  to  have  prevailed  in  favour  of  the  former,  as  that  is 
placed  in  a  situation  to  be  viewed  with  greater  advantage  than  the  other, 
aud  is  also  more  prominently  ornamented. 

"  We  now  come  to  the  work  of  de  Lucy,  in  the  consideration  of  which 
we  are  again  interrupted  by  a  tower  of  the  old  Saxon  Church,  that  was 
left  standing  in  the  part  eastward  of  the  choir  by  Walkelyn  ;  and  this 
occasions  some  difficulty  in  understanding  what  was  the  state  of  that  part 
of  the  fabric  when  de  Lucy  began  his  work  ;  for  we  are  to  recollect,  that 
the  weather-cock  falling  from  the  tower  in  the  year  1214,  broke  the  shrine 
of  St.  Swithun,  which,  Dr.  Milner  justly  observes,  must  have  stood  near 
the  high  altar,  and  was  not  likely  to  have  been  struck  by  a  heavy  body 
falling  from  the  present  tower.  We  may  therefore  attribute  this  accident 
to  the  failure  of  one  of  the  old  towers,  before  described  as  having  stood  at 


LETTER  FROM  MR.  GARBETT:    DE  LUCY'S  WORKS.  61 

the  extremities  of  the  side  ailes  of  the  choir,  in  which  situation  the  high 
altar  must  have  been  placed  nearly  between  them.  The  difficulty  which 
next  occurs  is  to  find  the  situation  of  the  tower  so  particularly  stated  to 
have  been  begun  and  finished  in  the  year  1200.  The  works  of  this  munifi- 
cent prelate,  now  remaining,  will,  I  conceive,  justify  a  conclusion  that  a 
tower  built  under  his  direction  would  have  been  of  sufficient  strength  to  have 
continued  to  the  present  time  ;  nor  have  we  any  reason  to  believe  him  so 
deficient  in  judgment  as  to  have  placed  it  in  a  situation  to  interfere  with 
any  future  improvement  of  the  part  containing  the  high  altar,  which  must 
at  that  time  have  been  the  most  ancient  part  of  the  whole  fabric  :  by  these 
considerations  we  shall  be  induced  to  look  for  de  Lucy's  tower  at  the 
eastern  part  of  his  work,  and  we  may  therefore  accordingly  recognize  a 
portion  of  it  in  the  western  part  of  the  present  Lady  Chapel,  which  has 
evidently  been  of  greater  height  at  some  former  period  than  it  is  at  present; 
as  part  of  the  staircases  that  led  to  another  story  are  now  to  be  traced, 
though  they  are  nearly  filled  up  by  rough  masonry  in  effecting  subsequent 
alterations. 

"  With  respect  to  the  other  works  executed  by  de  Lucy,  there  is  some 
reason  to  suspect,  however  extraordinary  it  may  appear,  that  he  did  not 
absolutely  take  down  the  whole  walls  of  that  part  of  the  Church  situated 
between  the  old  high  altar  and  his  new  tower,  but  that  the  upper  part  of  the 
ancient  walls  were  by  some  means  supported  while  the  arches  and  pillars 
were  inserted  under  them ;  for  there  are  indications  of  those  walls  having 
been  ornamented,  above  the  present  vaulting,  with  sculpture  of  a  very  singu- 
lar pattern,  which  is  so  situated  that  it  can  hardly  be  considered  as  the 
accidental  application  of  old  materials  re-used ;  it  may,  however,  be 
observed,  that  in  all  (even  the  most  ancient)  parts  of  the  fabric  old 
materials,  exhibiting  mutilated  mouldings,  and  other  ornaments,  are  to  be 
seen  indiscriminately  used  in  the  successive  repairs  and  alterations,  from 
the  time  of  the  Saxons  down  to  a  very  late  period. 

"  In  returning  to  the  work  of  de  Lucy,  we  may  see  cause  to  believe  that 
a  considerable  alteration  was  made  in  his  plan  after  his  decease,  at  which 
time  the  work  had  not  probably  proceeded  further  than  the  vaulting  of  the 


G2  WINCHESTER  CATHEDRAL. 

central  aile,  or  nave  of  that  part  of  the  Church,  and  the  walls  of  the  small 
chapels  north  and  south  of  the  then  new  tower,  or  Lady  Chapel :  the  width 
of  these  small  chapels  I  conceive  to  be  the  width  intended  by  de  Lucy 
for  his  whole  work,  as  by  adhering  to  this  he  would  have  preserved  the 
ancient  proportions,  which  were  evidently  violated  by  increasing  that  width 
to  meet  the  extreme  width  of  the  second  Saxon  edifice.  The  ill  effect  of 
this  innovation  is  to  be  seen  in  various  ways  ;  first,  in  the  disproportionate 
appearance  of  the  side  ailes,  compared  with  the  centre,  or  nave ;  secondly, 
in  the  defective  state  of  the  walls,  which  are  forced  much  out  of  their  per- 
pendicular by  the  pressure  of  the  vaulting  of  the  side  ailes  of  such  extra- 
ordinary width :  this  failure,  however,  may  be  partly  attributed  to  the 
circumstance  of  the  outer  walls  being  built  upon  new  ground,  while  the 
opposite  pillars  stood  upon  the  solid  foundation  of  the  ancient  crypt;  and 
thirdly,  in  the  unequal  and  unfinished  appearance  of  the  east  ends  of  the 
ailes;  but  although  these  defects  occurred  in  the  design,  it  must  be 
observed,  that  the  workmanship  of  this  period  far  surpassed  any  thing  that 
preceded  it :  the  joints  in  the  masonry  are  hardly  to  be  perceived,  and  no 
stroke  of  a  tool  is  to  be  seen  on  the  surface;  the  mouldings  are  wrought 
with  accuracy,  and  the  foliage  of  the  capitals  is  sculptured  with  boldness 
and  elegance.  The  staircases  contained  in  the  two  turrets  of  the  eastern  ends 
of  these  ailes  are,  1  believe,  unique :  they  certainly  exceed  every  thing  I  have 
seen  or  heard  of  in  that  way.  One  hardly  knows  which  to  admire  most,  the 
elegance  of  the  design  or  the  accuracy  of  the  execution :  I  imagine  those 
staircases  must  have  led  to  some  otfices  frequented  by  superiors  of  the 
establishment. 

"  It  does  not  appear  from  any  historical  notice  that  I  have  met  with,  that 
any  considerable  repair,  or  improvement,  was  made  in  the  Cathedral  after 
the  completion  of  Bishop  de  Lucy's  undertaking  till  the  time  of  William 
de  Edington ;  a  prelate  who,  Dr.  Milner  says,  was  '  in  his  virtues  and 
talents  only  inferior  to  Wykeham  himself,'  and  *  that  justice  has  never 
been  done  to  the  memory  of  this  benefactor  of  our  Cathedral.'  This 
passage  seems  to  insinuate  that  Edington  must  have  executed  other  works 
than  those  described  by  Bishop  Lowth  in  his  Life  of  Wykeham  ;  and  here 


LETTER  FROM  MR.  GARBETT  :    BISHOP  EDINGTON's  WORK.  63 

it  may  be  observed,  that  another  writer  upon  ecclesiastical  architecture,  the 
Rev.  J.  Dallaway,  in  one  of  the  tables  at  the  end  of  his  work,  purporting  to 
exhibit  the  dates,  dimensions,  and  names  of  the  founders  of  the  various 
parts  of  the  English  Cathedrals,  mentions  the  building  of  the  choir  of  our 
Cathedral,  138  feet  in  length  and  86  in  width;  and  also  the  Lady  Chapel, 
54  feet  in  length,  as  the  works  of  Edington  in  the  year  1350.  The  same 
table  mentions  the  tower,  133  feet  high,  as  the  work  of  Godfrey  de  Lucy,  in 
the  year  1 190  ;  and  the  presbytery,  93  feet  long,  and  86  wide,  as  the  work 
of  T.  Langton,  in  the  year  1493.  Here  we  find  the  dates  correspond  with 
other  accounts  of  the  times  when  the  respective  prelates  held  the  see.  The 
part  of  this  statement,  relative  to  the  work  of  de  Lucy,  certainly  appears  to 
be  at  variance  with  other  accounts,  which  seem  to  be  admitted  as  authentic, 
and  are  corroborated  by  the  style  of  the  architecture ;  but  that  part  which 
relates  to  Edington,  though  no  authority  is  cited,  appears  worthy  of  con- 
sideration, as  I  am  not  aware  of  any  authentic  account  relative  to  that  part 
of  the  fabric.  For  though  Dr.  Milner,  speaking  of  the  part  of  the 
Cathedral  '  between  the  tower  and  the  low  ailes  of  de  Lucy,'  says,  '  that 
great  and  good  prelate,  Fox,  undertook  to  rebuild  it;'  yet  I  cannot  suppose 
that  a  person  so  well  acquainted  with  the  various  styles  of  ancient  architec- 
ture could  mean,  that  the  pillars  and  arches  of  the  presbytery,  with  the 
windows  over  them,  could  have  been  executed  by  the  same  persons,  or  in 
the  same  age,  as  those  of  the  side  ailes  adjoining ;  those  works  are  in 
reality  very  different,  both  in  design  and  in  execution,  and  I  am  therefore 
inclined  to  believe  that  Mr.  Dallaway  has  obtained  some  information  upon 
the  point  that  escaped  the  industrious  researches  of  Dr.  Milner.  From 
these  circumstances,  and  from  the  appearance  of  the  work  itself,  it  seems 
highly  probable  that  the  part  between  the  tower  and  the  altar-screen  was 
built  by  Edington,  and  that  the  Stalls  in  the  choir  were  also  the  work  of 
the  same  prelate,  or  of  his  executors;  for  upon  minute  inspection  it  may 
be  found  that  there  are  many  similarities  in  the  execution  of  these  works, 
and  those  about  his  tomb  and  its  inclosure.  I  pass  by,  at  present,  the  part 
between  the  altar  screen  and  the  work  of  de  Lucy,  considering  that  to  be 


64  WINCHESTER  CATHEDRAL. 

the  work  of  another  benefactor,  and  proceed  to  the  west  end  of  the  fabric, 
where  I  agree  with  Dr.  Milner,  that  Edington,  or  his  executors,  completed 
'  the  two  first  windows  from  the  great  west  window,  with  the  correspond- 
ing buttresses,  and  one  pinnacle  on  the  north  side  of  the  church ;  as  like- 
wise the  first  window  towards  the  west,  with  the  buttress  and  pinnacle  on 
the  south  side.'  I  am  further  of  opinion,  that  the  two  west  windows  of  the 
side  ailes  were  executed  at  the  same  time,  and  probably  the  two  hexagonal 
turrets ;  these  certainly  appear  to  have  been  carried  as  high  as  the  present 
parapet  before  any  alteration  was  made  in  the  design  in  consequence  of 
Wykeham's  undertaking,  as  it  may  be  seen  that  a  cornice,  evidently 
intended  to  have  been  continued  from  the  turrets  along  the  outer  wall  of  the 
nave,  is  suddenly  broken  oft*  and  another  cornice  begun,  at  some  height 
above  it.  It  is  also  evident  that  the  sloping  parapets,  running  from  the 
hexagonal  turrets,  over  the  windows  of  the  west  end  of  the  ailes,  are  carried 
several  feet  higher  than  they  were  designed  to  be  by  Edington  ;  as  part  of 
the  course  of  stone,  intended  to  project  over  the  junction  of  the  lead 
covering  of  the  roof,  with  the  inside  of  the  wall,  is  now  to  be  seen  ;  by 
which  we  discover  that  the  small  moulding  upon  the  second  ornamented 
space  over  the  window  was  intended  as  the  extreme  height  of  that  part. 
The  nature  of  the  ornaments  in  the  parts  now  under  consideration  was 
certainly  calculated  to  justify  the  observations  of  Bishop  Lowth,  that  '  in 
the  year  J371  some  work  of  this  kind  was  carrying  on  at  a  great  expense;' 
but  whether  it  included  the  great  western  window  or  not,  is  doubtful.  I 
am  of  opinion  that  the  sum  provided  by  Bishop  Edington  was  expended 
before  the  intended  work  was  completed,  for  whatever  was  done  at  that 
time  must  have  fallen  far  short  of  what  was  really  necessary ;  since  we  are 
informed  by  Bishop  Lowth,  that  upon  Wykeham's  visitation  of  the  Cathe- 
dral in  13U319,  '  the  fabric  of  the  Church  was  greatly  out  of  repair,  and 
the  estates  allotted  to  that  use  were  very  insufficient  for  it.  The  bishop 
ordered,  that  the  Prior  for  the  time  being,  should  pay  100/.  a  year  for  seven 
years  ensuing,  and  the  Sub-prior  and  Convent  J 00  marks  in  like  manner,  for 

■»  Lowlli's  Life  of  Wykcham,  third  edit  p.  103. 


LETTER  FROM  MR.  GARBETT  :  WYKEHAm's  WORK.  65 

this  service;  over  and  above  the  profits  of  all  estates  so  allotted,  and  all 
gifts  and  legacies.'  Now  it  is  difficult  to  conceive,  that  the  nave  or  ailes 
could,  at  that  time,  have  been  so  much  dilapidated  as  to  call  for  this  extra- 
ordinary injunction,  when  we  see  the  transept  at  this  time  so  nearly  in  its 
original  state ;  we  must  therefore  attribute  the  defect  to  the  unfinished  state 
of  the  work  begun  by  Edington. 

"  We  now  come  to  an  investigation  of  the  improvements  made  in  this 
venerable  structure  by  a  prelate  justly  celebrated  for  the  profound  skill  and 
taste  displayed  in  the  various  works  executed  under  his  auspices,  and 
through  his  boundless  munificence.  En  the  subject  before  us  we  view  the 
last  ivorlc  of  William  of  WyJceham,  commenced  in  the  70th  year  of  his 
age,  and  prosecuted  with  diligence  throughout  the  remaining  ten  years  of 
his  life ;  though  it  is  to  be  regretted  that  we  cannot  with  certainty  deter- 
mine the  extent  of  the  work  executed  during  that  time.  Dr.  Milner  has 
discovered  that  Wykeham  did  not  absolutely  take  down  so  much  of  the 
ancient  fabric  as  his  learned  biographer  supposed  he  did,  and  this  we  may 
readily  admit ;  but  it  is  to  be  observed,  that  Bishop  Lowth  quotes  Rud- 
borne  as  his  authority,  and  if  Dr.  Milner  has  himself  been  mistaken 
respecting  what  he  represents  as  the  work  of  Bishop  Fox,  we  shall  not  feel 
much  difficulty  in  supposing  that  similar  mistakes  have  arisen  respecting 
the  extent  of  the  works  executed  at  more  distant  periods  by  Ethel  wold 
and  Walkelyn,  as  previously  assumed.  In  proceeding  to  trace  the  works  of 
"Wykeham,  we  have  an  unerring  guide  in  the  Bishop's  own  Will,  as  far  as  it 
is  applicable  to  this  purpose.  By  it  we  find,  that  within  fifteen  months 
previous  to  his  decease,  so  much  of  his  undertaking  remained  unfinished 
that  he  directed  3000  marks  to  be  applyed  for  its  completion  (a  sum  far 
exceeding  what  he  had  formerly  directed  the  prior  and  convent  to  expend 
in  seven  years)  :  and  we  find  by  his  directing  the  walls,  the  windows,  and 
the  vault  to  be  finished  throughout  according  to  the  new  mode  in  which  he 
had  already  completed  some  parts  on  the  south  side,  that  a  considerable 
part  on  the  north  side  still  remained  unfinished :  but  as  we  find  no  mention 
of  the  great  west  window,  we  may  conclude  that  he  commenced  his  work 
in  that  part.     I  have  before  expressed  some  doubt  whether  this  window 

i 


66  WINCHESTER  CATHEDRAL. 

was  the  work  of  Edington,  or  Wykeham ;  but  when  it  is  considered  that 
there  is  a  peculiarity  in  the  upper  compartment  very  unlike  any  part  of 
Edington's,  and  invariably  followed  through  the  whole  of  Wykeham's 
windows  ;  and  when  we  see  the  outer  face  of  the  wall  over  the  window,  and 
the  face  of  the  wall  making  the  gable  end  of  the  roof,  ornamented  with 
mouldings  and  compartments  accordant  with  the  known  taste  of  Wyke- 
ham, we  can  hardly  hesitate  to  pronounce  it  his  work:  we  may  also  with 
confidence  attribute  to  him  the  judicious  and  elegant  alteration  of  the  Saxon 
pillars,  the  whole  of  the  windows  of  the  nave  and  of  the  ailes,  (excepting 
those  before  attributed  to  Edington,)  and  the  vaulting  of  the  ailes  with 
which  the  flying  buttresses  are  so  ingeniously  combined  for  resisting  the 
pressure  of  the  greater  vault.  But  when  we  compare  the  vaulting  of  the 
ailes  with  that  of  the  nave,  stupendous  as  we  must  acknowledge  the  latter 
to  be,  we  cannot  but  feel  that  the  former  presents  a  much  more  finished 
appearance,  and  that  the  genius  of  Wykeham  had  ceased  to  direct  the 
operation.  The  vault  of  the  nave  may  therefore  be  considered  as  the  work 
of  Wykeham's  executors,  probably  assisted  by  his  successor,  Cardinal 
Beaufort,  who  is  described  by  Dr.  Milner  as  a  great  benefactor  to  the 
Cathedral,  though  he  does  not  particularize  his  works.  I  think  it  highly 
probable,  that  in  addition  to  a  share  in  the  vaulting  of  the  nave,  the 
Cardinal  erected  the  Portals  which  make  so  fine  a  feature  in  the  western 
facade  ;  and  that  he  also  added  the  two  side  windows,  eastward  of  the  altar 
.screen,  as  well  as  the  Screen  itself,  and  the  beautiful  row  of  canopies  facing 
eastward,  in  Bishop  de  Lucy's  part  of  the  Church,  as  I  conceive  those  to 
be  works  of  an  earlier  date  than  Bishop  Fox,  to  whom  Dr.  Milner  ascribes 
them ;  besides  the  works  of  Fox  are  always  to  be  known  by  his  arms  and 
devices,  of  which  these  inimitable  specimens  of  art  are  quite  destitute. 

"  When  William  of  Waynflete  succeeded  Beaufort  in  the  See,  we  may 
presume  that  the  Cathedral  was  in  the  most  satisfactory  state  of  repair ;  as 
we  do  not  find  by  his  biographer,  Dr.  Chandler,  that  he  undertook  any 
repair  or  embellishment  of  the  fabric,  except  his  own  sepulchral  Chantry. 
We  may,  however,  be  assured,  that  a  prelate  possessing  in  so  eminent  a 
degree    the  liberality  as  well    as  the  talents   of   his  great  predecessor, 


LETTER  FROM  MR.  GARBETT  :  LADY  CHAPEL.  67 

Wykeham,  would  not  have  withheld  his  assistance,  if  any  part  of  the  fabric 
had  remained  in  an  unfinished  state.  It  cannot  be  necessary  for  me  to  say 
any  thing  of  a  monument  so  well  known  as  the  chantry  of  this  prelate, 
further  than  to  express  my  opinion  that  as  it  would  not  be  desirable  to  see 
in  that  situation  an  exact  copy  of  its  opposite  neighbour,  the  stately  and 
well  executed  sepulchral  chantry  of  Beaufort,  so  it  would  be  extremely 
difficult,  if  not  impossible,  to  devise  a  more  elegant  and  fit  companion 
for  it. 

"  The  next  work  in  chronological  order  is  the  alteration  and  addition  to  the 
Lady  Chapel,  which  Dr.  Milner  sufficiently  proves  to  have  been  executed 
by  the  Priors,  Hunton  and  Silkstede,  though  the  latter  may  probably  have 
been  assisted  by  Bishop  Courteney.  The  old  part  of  the  Lady  Chapel 
must  have  been  previously  vaulted,  as  appears  by  the  disposition  of  the 
ornaments  on  the  east  and  west  sides:  we  cannot  say  much  in  praise 
of  this  work  of  good  Prior  Silkstede,  as  far  as  respects  the  vaulting,  the 
columns,  and  the  windows,  though  the  ornaments  below  the  windows,  both 
outside  and  within,  are  entitled  not  only  to  notice  but  to  admiration,  as. 
well  for  the  design  as  for  the  execution  ;  and  of  the  linings  and  fittings  of 
this  chapel,  in  carved  oak,  it  is  impossible  to  speak  in  terms  that  can  do 
justice  to  the  subject.  The  chastness  of  the  design  will,  I  believe,  be 
generally  considered  to  have  a  more  pleasing  effect  than  the  profusion  of 
ornaments  spread  over  the  neighbouring  Chapel,  which  was  fitted  up  by 
Bishop  Langton  about  the  same  time,  for  his  sepulchral  chantry,  and 
exhibits  many  beautiful  specimens  of  carved  oak,  though  they  are  rather 
too  much  crowded  to  be  seen  with  advantage.  This  chapel,  however,  as 
well  as  the  opposite  one  on  the  north  side,  appears  to  have  been  previously 
occupied  as  private  oratories ;  as  there  are  ranges  of  niches  in  the  eastern 
walls,  of  a  style  at  least  as  early  as  the  time  of  Bishop  Edington. 

"  It  now  remains  to  point  out  the  works  of  Bishop  Fox,  the  last  who 
has  been  distinguished  by  any  extensive  repair  or  improvement  of  the 
fabric  of  the  Cathedral ;  and  though  we  may  not  ascribe  to  this  prelate  the 
whole  of  the  works  supposed  by  some  to  have  been  executed  by  him,  yet  it 
must  be  acknowledged,  that  in  taste,  in  skill,  and  in  munificence,  he  is 


68  WINCHESTER  CATHEDRAL. 

entitled  to  be  considered  as  the  worthy  successor  of  Wykehara  and  of 
Waynflete.  His  works  in  the  Cathedral  I  conceive  to  be  the  two  turrets  at 
the  eastern  extremity  of  the  presbytery,  with  the  magnificent  window 
between  them,  and  the  whole  of  the  ornamented  wall  over  it,  terminating 
with  an  elegant  tabernacle  ornamented  by  the  pelicau,  his  favourite  emblem, 
and  contaiuing  his  statue,  in  stone.  It  ought  not  to  escape  observation,  that 
the  outside  label  of  this  window  springs  from  two  corbel  busts,  representing 
a  king  and  a  bishop,  both  finely  sculptured,  and  in  the  highest  state  of 
preservation:  and  when  it  is  considered  that  the  art  of  sculpture  was  at 
that  time  in  a  flourishing  state,  it  is  probable  that  these  busts  may  be  true 
portraits  of  King  Henry  the  Seventh  and  of  Bishop  Fox.  The  timber-framed 
Vaulting  of  the  presbytery  is  also  the  undoubted  work  of  Fox,  and  in  this, 
as  well  as  in  the  east  window,  he  has  shown  great  taste  and  judgment,  by 
consulting  the  models  before  him,  in  the  western  window  and  in  the  vaulting 
of  the  nave,  upon  both  of  which  he  has  improved.  It  is  also  unquestion- 
able that  this  prelate  rebuilt,  from  the  foundation,  (that  is  from  the  walls  of 
the  crypt,)  the  whole  of  the  Ailes,  north  and  south  of  the  presbytery, 
including  their  windows,  •  roofing,  and  stone  vaulting,  with  the  flying 
buttres.ses  and  pinnacles,  the  whole  of  which  was  executed  in  the  most 
perfect  style  of  workmanship.  The  open  Screens  between  the  presbytery 
and  ailes  may  be  considered  as  the  completion  of  this  prelate's  work, 
excepting  his  own  Chantry,  which  is  certainly  a  master  piece  of  its  kind, 
equally  calculated  to  display  an  elegance  of  taste  in  design,  and  the  per- 
fection of  art  in  its  execution.  The  successive  prelates  from  Edington  to 
Langtou  (with  the  exception  of  Courteuey,  who  presided  but  a  short  time 
in  this  lucrative  See,)  had  erected  or  adorned  sumptuous  chantries  in  the 
varied  styles  of  the  times  in  which  they  respectively  flourished,  and  Fox 
seems  to  have  determined  not  to  make  a  chasm  in  the  series  of  works  that 
are  at  once  calculated  to  delight  the  admirers  and  instruct  the  practitioners 
in  art.  This  accomplished  prelate,  as  was  before  observed,  had  succeeded 
in  improving  upon  models  presented  to  his  contemplation  in  his  own 
Cathedral,  but  in  this  instance  he  seems  to  have  despaired  of  doing  so, 
and   therefore   to   have  studied   the  work  of  his   contemporary,  Bishop 


LETTER  FROM  MR.  GARBETT  :    GARDINER'S  WORK.  69 

Audley,  in  the  Cathedral  of  Salisbury ;  and  in  this  it  will,  I  believe,  be 
admitted,  that  he  has  also  improved  upon  his  model :  and  this  is  the  last 
work  executed  in  our  Cathedral  in  the  fascinating  style  called  Gothic. 

"  The  opposite  Chapel,  erected  by  Bishop  Gardiner,  has  only  the  merit  of 
occupying  a  space  nearly  similar  to  that  of  Fox's,  but  its  architecture  clearly 
discovers  that  the  revolution  in  religion  was  accompanied  by  as  sudden  a 
revolution  in  art.  It  is  really  astonishing,  in  viewing  this  chapel,  to 
observe,  that  although  some  part  of  it  was  intended  to  imitate  the  work  of 
Fox,  yet  the  execution  of  that  part  is  incredibly  mean. 

"  There  appears  to  have  been  an  attempt  to  return  to  the  former  style  in 
the  time  of  Charles  the  First,  when  the  ceiling  was  made  in  that  part  of 
the  choir  under  the  tower,  and  the  canopy  placed  over  the  communion 
table;  but  those  attempts  were  not  more  successful  than  that  to  complete 
the  tower  over  the  entrance  to  Christ-Church  tower  at  Oxford. 

"  Of  Inigo  Jones's  justly  celebrated  Screen,  I  can  only  say,  that  I  should 
admire  it  in  another  situation  ;  and  wishing  that  before  you  have  completed 
your  series  of  Cathedrals,  you  may  see  something  more  appropriate  in  its 
place,  I  remain,  dear  Sjr, 

Yours,  &c. 

Winchester,  Dec.  29,  1817.  W.  Garbett." 

I  have  given  publicity  to  the  preceding  ingenious  and  original  remarks 
by  my  intelligent  correspondent,  respecting  the  ages  of  different  parts  of 
the  building,  because  the  whole  evidently  emanates  from  a  mind  intimately 
acquainted  with  the  subject;  and  because  I  am  aware  that  many  persons, 
as  well  as  Mr.  Garbett,  are  of  opinion  that  parts  of  the  present  fabric  of 
Winchester  Cathedral,  are  true  specimens  of  Saxon  architecture,  and  raised 
by  the  Saxons  before  the  Norman  conquest.  Some  of  these  persons, 
however,  very  unlike  my  correspondent,  are  influenced  more  by  wayward 
fancy  than  judgment, — are  impelled  to  believe  and  assert,  whatever  their 
prepossessions  and  prejudices  incline  them  to — and  are  always  endeavour- 
ing to  reduce  the  styles  and  ages  of  buildings  to  favourite  theories,  instead 
of  seeking  for  ample  evidence  to  authenticate  dates.     It  is  also  a  favourite 


70  WINCHESTER  CATHEDRAL. 

maxim  with  some  of  these  gentlemen  to  carry  back  the  date  of  every 
church,  as  far  as  possible,  as  if  they  thereby  derived  a  peculiar  pleasure, 
or  advantage ;  and  like  the  late  Mr.  King  and  Mr.  Carter,  they  do  not 
hesitate  to  assert,  peremptorily,  that  the  oldest  part  must  be  of  the  age  of 
its  first  foundation.  To  such  persons,  who  prefer  fiction  to  fact,  and 
romance  to  history,  it  is  useless  to  argue,  and  impertinent  to  urge  the 
claims  of  rationality  and  common  sense.  Still,  however,  as  the  impartial 
student  seeks  for  faithful  information  in  such  a  work  as  the  present,  and  is 
entitled  to  expect  the  candid  opinions  of  the  author  on  a  controverted 
subject,  I  feel  it  my  duty  to  explain  my  own  opinion,  and  the  reasons  on 
which  that  is  founded. 

Respecting  the  origin  of  the  present  fahric,  the  statement  of  Rudborne 
is  as  conclusive  as  language  can  render  it.  He  asserts — and  we  must 
suppose  from  documents  belonging  to  the  church — that  Walkelyn  began 
to  rebuild,  or  re-edify  it  from  the  foundation,  in  4079w:  and  on  the  6th 
ides  of  April,  anno  1093,  he  says  that  the  new  fabric  was  completed  and 
re-dedicated.  He  proceeds  to  say,  that  on  the  day  following  the  feast  of 
St.  Swithun,  the  bishop's  men  began  to  break  down  the  old  monastery,  and 
which  was  demolished  within  the  year,  excepting  one  porch,  or  portico,  and 
the  great  altar1.  If  this  evidence  be  not  sufficiently  conclusive,  we  shall 
derive  much  collateral  proof  from  comparing  the  style  and  character  of  the 
arches,  columns,  capitals,  and  bases;  the  windows,  buttreses,  mouldings, 
and  piers  of  this  Church,  with  such  buildings  as  are  admitted  to  have  been 
raised  by  the  Normans.  Of  these  many  remain  so  precisely  similar  to  the 
crypts,  transepts,  and  remaining  part  of  the  chapter-house  at  Winchester, 
that  we  must  conclude  they  were  erected  at  the  same  time,  and  by  contem- 
porary builders.  Besides,  we  are  repeatedly  told  that  the  Normans  were 
a  proud,  aspiring,  pompous  people;  eager  to  make  every  thing  new  in  their 

10  Anno  MLXX1X.  Walkelinus  Episcopus  a  fundementis  Wintoniensem  coepit  recedificare 
ecclesiam."     Ang.  Sac.  i.  294. 

"  "  Sequent!  vero  die  Domini  Walkelini  Episcopi  cceperunt  homines  primum  vetus  frangere 
Monasteriuni ;  et  fractum  est  lotum  in  illo  anno,  excepto  porUco  uno,  et  magno  altari."  Ang. 
Sac.  i.  295. 


DOUBTS  RESPECTING  SAXON  ARCHITECTURE.  71 

newly  acquired  territory,  and  to  impress  all  their  works  with  their  own 
national  marks;  they  were  also  equally  prompt  to  sweep  away  all  traces 
of  the  arts,  and  customs  of  the  people  they  subjugated.  These  con- 
siderations, and  others  which  might  be  adduced,  make  me  conclude  that 
no  architectural  part  of  the  present  church,  is  strictly  Saxon.  Some  of 
the  foundation  walls  are  probably,  and  merely  probably,  anterior  to  the 
Norman  conquest :  but  as  expense  and  labour  were  secondary  objects  with 
such  men  as  Walkelyn,  and  Gundulph  of  Rochester ;  and  as  their  edifices 
were  intended  to  be  much  larger  than  those  of  their  predecessors,  we  can 
scarcely  believe  that  they  would  make  use  of  even  their  foundations.  It 
is  true  there  are  some  variations  in  the  masonry,  i.  e.  in  the  joints  and 
courses  of  the  stones  in  the  extreme  ends,  and  the  more  central  parts  of 
the  transepts ;  but  this  might  have  arisen  from  different  workmen,  who 
were  employed  even  at  the  same  time,  and  still  more  from  those  who  were 
engaged  on  the  Church  at  different  periods  of  its  erection  ;  for  it  cannot  be 
doubted  that  an  edifice  of  this  size  must  have  been  some  years  in  progress, 
and  that  many  masons  were  unquestionably  employed  in  its  construction. 

The  dates  assigned  by  Mr.  Garbett  to  the  other  parts  of  the  Church  are 
mostly  in  unison  with  my  own  opinions ;  on  two  or  three  points  we  are, 
however,  at  issue,  and  in  describing  those  members  of  the  building,  on 
which  we  differ,  I  shall  make  free  to  offer  a  few  remarks. 

Still,  although  1  cannot  satisfy  my  own  mind,  or  persuade  myself  that 
Winchester  Church  contains  any  decided  specimens  of  early  Anglo-Saxon 
architecture,  I  am  aware  that  many  other  persons  may  feel  perfectly  con- 
vinced :  and  may  perceive  clear  proof  of  remote  antiquity  in  the  styles  of 
arches,  and  in  the  masonry.  On  such  obscure  subjects  there  will  be 
difference  of  opinion,  and  this  difference  will  most  probably  lead  to  truth. 
My  mind,  I  own,  is  extremely  scrupulous,  and  requires  something  border- 
ing on  palpable  demonstration.  Knowing  that  many  persons  have  deceived 
themselves,  and  then  imposed  on  the  world,  by  precipitancy  and  credulity ; 
I  have  persuaded  myself  that  caution,  and  rational  scepticism,  on  historical 
subjects,  are  necessary  to  constitute  the  impartial  antiquary. 


72  WINCHESTER    CATHEDRAL. 


DESCRIPTION  OF  THE  FORM,  ARRANGEMENT,  AND  CONSTRUCTION  OF  THE 
CHURCH  : — ALSO  OF  ITS  EXTERIOR  AND  INTERIOR  BEAUTIES  AND  DEFECTS, 
WITH  REMARKS  ON  ITS  STYLES  OF  ARCHITECTURE  : — AND  ON  THE  VARIOUS 
PORTIONS  OF  THE  EDIFICE,  WITH  REFERENCE  TO  THE  ACCOMPANYING 
PLATES. 

1  he  Cathedral  Church  of  Winchester  has  been  called  la  school  of  eccle- 
siastical architecture?  and  with  some  degree  of  propriety :  for  as  a  school 
is  intended  to  instruct  novices  in  any  branch  of  art  or  science,  so  this  edifice 
is  calculated  to  display  to  the  student  an  interesting  and  varied  series  of 
examples  of  the  ancient  architecture  of  England,  from  an  early  age  up  to 
a  recent  period.  Here  therefore  he  may  study  styles,  dates,  and  those 
varieties  which  peculiarly  belong  to  the  sacred  buildings  of  the  middle  ages. 
He  will  also  find,  in  this  edifice,  some  very  interesting  examples  of  con- 
struction, in  the  walls,  vaulting,  and  other  parts  of  the  masonry  and 
carpentry :  all  of  which  are  as  essential  to  the  scientific  architect  as  the 
art  of  designing  and  planning  a  building.  If  we  fail  to  satisfy  ourselves 
as  to  Roman  remains,  or  genuine  Saxon  work — if,  after  a  careful 
examination,  we  retire  either  doubtful,  or  persuaded  there  is  no  such 
architecture,  still  we  shall  have  ample  evidence  and  examples  of  Norman 
works.  The  plans  and  magnificent  designs  of  those  proud  invaders,  and 
innovators,  are  amply  set  forth  in  this  fabric.  We  see  that  they  built  for 
themselves  and  for  posterity  ;  that  their  edifices  were  solid  and  substantial; 
simple  in  their  forms,  and  large  in  their  parts: — that  as  their  religion  was 
intended  to  awe,  terrify,  and  soothe  the  mind,  so  its  primary  temple  was 
calculated  most  essentially  to  promote  these  ends.  Vieing  with  Gundulph, 
and  other  Norman  prelates,  Walkelyn  seems  to  have  designed  his  Cathedral 
on  a  scale  of  grandeur  to  equal,  or  surpass,  all  the  others  in  the  island ; 
and  although  we  are  not  informed  by  what  means  he  carried  his  designs 


PARTS  OF  THE  CHURCH.  73 

into  effect,  we  are  assured  that  he  raised  nearly  the  whole  of  the  Church  in 
his  life-time.  A  large  portion  of  his  work  is  now  standing;  but  much  of 
it  has  been  altered,  and  more  is  obscured. 

From  what  has  been  already  related,  it  appears  that  not  only  a  Church, 
but  the  necessary  offices  for  a  prior  and  monks,  were  erected  by  the  first 
norman  bishop.  Nearly  every  architectural  member  of  the  latter  has  been 
swept  away,  as  well  as  the  cloisters,  chapter-house,  and  other  appendages'. 
The  Church,  however,  remains  for  our  admiration  and  enquiry  ;  and  at 
present  consists  of  the  following  members  : — a  nave,  with  two  ailes,  a  tran- 
sept to  the  north  and  another  to  the  south  of  a  central  tower,  each  having  ailes 
at  the  sides  and  extreme  ends ; — a  choir,  and  a  presbytery  with  side  ailes ; — a 
space,  east  of  the  altar,  consisting  of  three  ailes,  all  of  nearly  equal  width  and 
height ; — a  lady  chapel,  east  of  the  latter; — two  chantry  chapels  to  the  north 
and  south  of  the  lady  chapel ; — three  distinct  crypts  beneath  the  east  end  of 
the  Church,  and  five  other  chantries. 

The  Exterior  of  Winchester  Cathedral  presents  few  beauties,  or  attractive 
features.  Its  length  of  nave,  plainness  of  masonry,  shortness  and  solidity 
of  tower,  width  of  east  end,  and  boldness  of  transepts,  present  so  many 
peculiar  and  specific  characteristics.  Although  the  architectural  antiquary 
seeks  in  vain  for  that  picturesque  arrangement  of  parts,  and  successive 
variety,  which  belong  to  the  Cathedrals  of  Salisbury,  Lincoln,  Wells,  &c. 
yet  he  soon  discovers  a  peculiar  grandeur  from  its  extent  and  quantity; 
and  also  many  specific  features  of  design,  which  tend  to  rouse  and  gratify 
inquiry.  As  a  distant  object  the  Church  presents  a  large  and  long  mass 
of  building.  Its  nave,  particularly  as  seen  from  the  south,  is  distinguished 
by  its  length  of  roof  and  extent  of  unbroken  lines ;  and  the  low,  stunted 
tower,  as  Gilpin  remarks,  "  gives  the  whole  building  an  air  of  heaviness2." 

1  In  the  Deanery  House,  and  in  one  of  the  Prebendal  Houses,  south  of  the  Church,  are  some 
columns,  arches,  and  vaulted  roofs  to  certain  rooms  on  the  ground  floor. 

2  The  same  author,  who  is  generally  judicious,  and  often  elegantly  apposite  in  his  comments, 
uses  some  strange  and  absurd  language  in  speaking  of  this  Church.  He  says,  "  I  doubt  whether  a 
spire  was  ever  intended,"  when  there  was  no  reason  either  to  doubt,  or  to  question  the  subject ;  as 
spires  were  not  known  when  this  tower  was  built.  Again,  he  asks  "  Why  the  tower,  in  the  hands 
of  so  elegant  an  architect,  [Wykeham]  was  left  so  ill-proportioned,  is  a  question  of  surprise."  Now 
the  tower  was  never  in  the  hands,  nor  subjected  to  the  improvements,  of  this  clerical  architect. 

K 


74  WINCHESTER  CATHEDRAL. 

The  whole  Church  is  seated  in  a  valley,  and  on  three  of  the  approaches  to 
the  city  is  seen  from  high  ground.  On  the  east  and  west  the  hills  are  much 
higher  than  the  top  of  the  tower,  and  consequently  the  building  is  viewed  to 
great  disadvantage.  The  eastern  end,  however,  with  its  pinnacles,  turrets, 
flying  buttresses,  and  tower,  form  a  fine  and  pleasing  group.  From  the 
Portsmouth  and  Alton  roads,  i.  e.  approaching  it  from  the  S.  E.  and  N.  E. 
the  Church  is  seen  to  rise  above  the  contiguous  houses  and  trees  in  massive, 
bold,  and  picturesque  features. 

The  Interior,  however,  will  amply  compensate  for  any  defects  or 
deficiencies  of  the  outside.  This  presents  several  architectural  and 
sculptural  excellencies:  this  displays  a  variety  of  truly  interesting  and 
important  subjects,  for  professional  and  critical  examination.  Whilst  the 
fine  aud  sublime  architecture  of  Wykeham,  in  the  Nave  aud  ailes,  produces 
the  most  impressive  effect,  and  claims  general  admiration  ;  the  substantial, 
plain,  and  large  works  of  Walkelyn,  in  the  tower  and  transepts,  are 
imposing  and  simply  graud.  In  the  north  Transept,  lately  cleaned  and 
restored,  we  see  the  effect  and  character  of  this  style,  in  nearly  its  pristine 
state.  Every  member  is  in  unison  with  the  rest:  each  is  large,  bold,  and 
unadorned.  The  bases,  capitals,  clustered  columns,  or  piers,  and  the  single 
shafts,  are  devoid  of  all  ornament,  and  appear  to  be  entirely  desigued  for 
their  proper  places  aud  necessary  uses.  The  arches,  likewise  plain,  are 
composed  of  squared  stones,  and  formed  wholly  for  strength  and  utility,  with- 
out any  pretension  to  beauty.  On  the  contrary,  in  the  carving  of  the  Stalls, 
and  the  wood-work  of  the  Lady  Chapel  and  Langton's  Chapel,  we  see  a 
redundancy  of  ornament  prevail.  The  designers  seem  to  have  wantoned  in  a 
licentiousness  of  fancy,  and  thought  they  could  not  surcharge  their  works 
with  too  much  variety,  or  introduce  an  excess  of  decoration.  Still  these 
parts  of  the  edifice  afford  us  much  delight,  even  from  this  very  caprice. 
The  eye  wanders  from  one  form  and  object  to  another,  in  search  of  novelty, 
and  the  mind  is  kept  in  constant  and  pleasing  exertion  by  analizing  and 
appropriating  the  whole.  The  elaborate  and  sumptuous  Altar-Screen  is 
full  of  architectural  members,  and  is  certainly  very  beautiful.  It  is  covered 
with  niches,  canopies,  buttresses,  pinnacles,  crockets,  pediments,  &c.  and 
when  in  its  original  colour  and  condition,  with  statues  and  costly  orna- 


ARCHITECTURAL  BEAUTIES  OF  THE  INTERIOR.  75 

ments,  must  have  been  surprisingly  splendid.  The  monumental  Chantries 
for  Fox,  Beaufort,  Waynflete,  Wykeham,  and  Edington,  have  all  their 
peculiar  beauties,  and  each  presents  a  specific  style  in  design  and  detail : 
that  of  Edington  has,  perhaps,  the  least  interest  as  a  whole ;  but  its  statue 
is  the  most  elegant  of  any  in  the  Church.  Wykeham's  altar-tomb,  and 
some  of  its  interior  parts,  are  fine  specimens  of  the  age ;  Fox's  chantry  is  a 
superb  example  of  monumental  architecture ;  gorgeous  in  its  design,  and 
exquisite  in  execution.  Those  for  Beaufort  and  Waynflete  seem  placed 
in  opposition  to  each  other,  like  rival  beauties,  to  court  admiration  :  each 
consists  of  a  pyramidical  series  of  canopies,  crocketed  pinnacles,  niches, 
tracery,  buttress  piers,  &c.  raised  on,  and  supported  by,  open  arches, 
piers,  and  panelled  screens.  Each  also  occupies  a  corresponding  arch, 
and  each  is  formed  to  enshrine  and  surmount  the  altar  tombs  and  statues 
of  the  deceased  prelates.  It  may  be  confidently  asserted,  that  the  com- 
bined group  of  chantries,  screens,  and  clustered  columns,  in  this  part  of 
Winchester  Church,  is  not  equalled  by  any  spot  in  England,  or  in  Europe. 
Its  full  effect,  as  first  discovered  to  the  stranger,  is  represented  in  Plate 
xvn.  and  comprehends  the  chantries  of  Fox,  a;  Beaufort,  c;  and  Wayn- 
flete, b  ;  with  the  Chapels  of  Langton,  e ;  and  the  Lady  Chapel,  d.  Every 
remove  of  the  spectator,  as  he  wanders  round  this  part  of  the  building, 
presents  these  objects  differently  grouped,  differently  combined,  and  with 
varied  effects  of  light  and  shade.  With  such  a  splendid  feast  before  him, 
it  is  not  to  be  wondered  if  the  architectural  enthusiast,  indulges  himself  to 
excess,  and  almost  satiates  his  senses. 

The  foregoing  subjects  may  be  regarded  as  the  pre-eminent  beauties  of 
the  Church ;  but  still  there  are  many  others  to  claim  the  attention  of 
different  persons,  accordingly  as  they  are  influenced  by  particular  studies  or 
partialities.  Most  of  these  will  come  under  notice  in  the  following  descrip- 
tion of  the  principal  divisions  and  parts  of  the  fabric. 

The  Nave  and  its  ailes  are  distinguished  by  the  uniform  style  of  the 
whole  ;  in  solid  and  elegant  piers,  arches,  windows,  sculptured  bosses,  &c. 
"  This,"  says  Gilpin,  "  is  perhaps  the  most  magnificent  nave  in  England." 
The  Transepts  and  Tower  next  claim  attention,  as  unrivalled  specimens  of 


76  WINCHESTER  CATHEDRAL. 

Norman  architecture.     Solid  masses  of  masonry,  vast  spaces  in  height  and 
width,  with  very  little  ornament,  are  the  distinguishing  features  of  those 
portions  of  the  edifice.     The  transepts  are  open  to  the  timber  voof,  and 
thus  appear  very  lofty :  but  the  effect  of  the  rafters,  and  ragged  timbers,  is 
offensive.     It  presents  the  idea  of  neglect  and  ruin,  and  thus,  when  con- 
trasted with  the  solidity  and  uniform  beauty  of  the  nave,  makes  a  very 
unfavourable  impression  on  the  mind.     In  the  southern  transept,  the  aile 
to  the  west  and  south,  is  entirely  excluded  by  a  wall,  which  fills  up  the 
whole  of  the  arches;  and  the  eastern  aile  is  divided  into  three  different 
chapels,  or  chantries,  by  screens,  between  each,  and  also  between   them 
and  the  centre  of  the  transept.     The  northern  Transept  is  less  encum- 
bered and  less  obscured :   its  centre,  east  and  north  ailes,  the  triforium, 
and  clerestory,  are  all  clear  and  open  to  inspection  ;  but  the  western  aile  is 
a  place  of  lumber,  and  its  arches  are  walled  up.     [See  Plate  xn.J     The 
Choir  and  eastern  end  are  elevated  above  the  nave  and  ailes  by  an  ascent  of 
several  steps;  and  in  this  portion  of  the  building  the  stranger  will  perceive 
several   different  styles   of  architecture,  and  several  different  subjects  to 
arrest  his  attention,  and   demand  his  admiration.     The  choir  occupies  a 
space  mostly  beneath  the  Norman  tower,  and  is  fitted  up  with  a  series  of 
elaborately   carved  stalls  on  the  west,  north,   and    south   sides.     In   the 
carvings  of  basso-relievo,  finials,  crockets,  and  misereres,  there  are  many 
grotesque  designs,  as  well  as  many  specimens  of  very  fine  workmanship.  At 
the  north-eastern  extremity  of  the  choir  is  the  Pulpit,  a  very  curious  piece  of 
carved-work,  and  evidently  executed  for  Prior  Silkstede,  whose  name  is 
twice  repeated  on  it.    On  the  same  side  of  the  choir,  beneath  one  of  the  lofty 
arches  of  the  tower,  is  the  Organ,  which  thus  occupies  an  unusual  place. 
Nearly  facing  the  pulpit  is  the  Bishop's  Stall,  or  throne,  a  very  incongruous 
and  absurd  piece  of  workmanship,  presented  by  Bishop  Trelawny,  and 
intended  as  an  ornamental  appendage :  but,  like  the  screen  between  the 
nave   and    choir,  it  is  formed   in  the  Roman  or  classical  style,   as    com- 
monly termed,  and  therefore  becomes  an  unsightly  object.     Between  the 
choir  and   altar  is  a  large  open   space,   called  the   Presbytery,  which  is 
separated    from  the   ailes  by    stone    screens,   and  from   the   altar  by   a 


CHANTRIES,  CHAPELS,  AND  CRYPTS.  77 

carved  railing.  Immediately  behind  the  altar  screen  is  an  open  space, 
formerly  a  chapel,  and  inclosed  by  the  splendid  chantry  of  Fox,  on  the 
south,  that  of  Gardiner,  to  the  north,  the  altar-screen  on  the  west,  and 
another  screen  to  the  east.  All  these  objects  are  highly  interesting  to  the 
architectural  antiquary,  and  will  be  hereafter  described.  East  of  these 
is  a  large  open  space,  consisting  of  three  ailes  of  nearly  equal  width  and 
height,  and  inclosing  the  very  elaborate  and  elegant  chantry  chapels,  raised 
over  the  bodies  of  Cardinal  Beaufort,  and  Bishop  Waynflete.  In  this  part 
are  also  several  other  monuments,  slabs,  &c.  some  of  which  have  recently 
been  removed  to  this  from  other  parts  of  the  Church.  The  eastern  end  of 
the  building  consists  of  three  distinct  Chapels,  of  which  the  central,  or 
Virgin  Mary  Chapel,  extends  further,  and  is  much  larger  than  the  other 
two :  these  are  small  square  spaces,  separated  from  the  ailes  by  carved 
wooden  screens,  as  is  also  the  lady  chapel.  That  on  the  south  has  a 
large  altar  tomb  in  the  centre,  some  finely  carved  wainscotting,  with  a  seat 
on  two  sides,  and  remains  of  an  altar  table,  &c.  at  the  east  end.  The  wood 
work  of  this,  as  well  as  of  the  lady  chapel,  is  elaborately  carved,  and 
charged  with  shields  of  arms,  mottoes,  figures,  foliage,  &c.  At  the  eastern 
extremities  of  the  ailes  are  the  two  Slair-Cases,  surmounted  by  octangular 
turrets,  which  have  been  already  justly  praised  by  Mr.  Garbett.  Beneath 
the  presbytery,  ailes,  lady  chapel,  &c.  is  a  series  of  Crypts,  consisting 
of  three  distinct  and  varied  apartments,  two  of  which  are  certainly  ancient, 
but  the  other  is  of  comparatively  modern  formation.  In  the  more  ancient 
one  will  be  found  a  corresponding  style  of  design  to  the  transepts,  in 
its  columns  and  arches,  but  varied  in  proportions,  as  better  adapted  to 
their  peculiarity  of  situation  and  object.  Here  the  architect  formed  his 
plans  for  posterity  :  he  laid  his  foundations  broad  and  solid ;  and  direct- 
ed his  works  to  be  plain  and  firm.  The  columns,  piers,  and  walls  are 
composed  of  solid  masonry,  without  the  least  ornamental  sculpture,  or 
moulding. 

Having  thus  briefly  pointed  out  the  chief  beauties  and  features  of  the 
Church,  it  is  a  duty  I  owe  the  reader,  conformably  to  the  plan  adopted  in 
the  histories  of  the  other  Cathedrals,  to  notice  some  of  the  prominent 


78  WINCHESTER  CATHEDRAL. 

deficiencies  and  blemishes  of  the  present  fabric.  I  regret  to  say,  that  these 
are  numerous,  although  much  has  been  recently  done  to  remove  them :  and 
it  is  hoped,  that  the  same  spirit,  which  impelled  the  late  improvements, 
may  influence  the  guardians  of  the  Church  to  prosecute  their  laudable 
work  with  zeal  and  with  judgment3. 

Externally,  the  whole  Church  may  be  completely  insulated  and  easily 
laid  open  to  public  view :  the  ground  on  the  west  and  north  sides,  has 
accumulated  four  or  five  feet,  and  this  should  be  removed  :  a  lofty  wall,  at 
the  north-east  end,  might  also  be  taken  away ;  other  walls  on  the  south  side, 
with  a  sloping  roof,  and  some  extraneous  building  against  the  transept, 
likewise  detract  from  the  effect  and  beauty  of  that  side  of  the  edifice. 
The  whole  of  this  transept  requires  some  essential  repairs  and  restorations, 
in  the  masonry  and  the  windows ;  aud  the  trifling  bell  turret,  at  the  angle, 
should  be  immediately  taken  down.  The  Toiver  has  generally  been  cen- 
sured as  low,  flat,  and  mean;    and  with  much   truth:   but  it  must  be 

3  Within  the  last  eight  years  the  present  Dean  and  Chapter  have  made  the  following  repairs  and 
improvements  to  the  Church  :— new  roofed  the  ailes,  north  and  south  of  the  presbytery,  and  of  the 
Lady  Chapel ;  repaired  and  new  leaded  some  other  parts  of  the  roof;  renewed  themullions  of  the  four 
windows  on  the  south  sideof  thepresbytery,  aud  two  of  those  in  the  south  aile ;  the  great  east  window, 
and  several  windows  of  the  nave,  have  been  carefully  repaired ;  the  finial  tabernacles  and  statues  at 
the  east  and  west  ends,  and  two  of  the  flying  buttresses  at  the  south  side,  have  been  restored.  The 
north  transept  has  been  recently  cleaned,  pointed,  and  repaired;  some  tombs  from  the  floor  of  the 
nave  and  transepts  have  been  removed  to  the  east  end ;  the  galleries  have  been  cleared,  and  much 
white-washing,  &c.  has  been  cleaned  away.  Most  of  these  repairs  and  alterations  are  truly  judicious 
and  praise-worthy  :  but  some  of  them,  I  am  sorry  to  remark,  will  not  justify  approbation.  The  mem- 
bers of  the  chapter  will  act  wisely  to  bear  in  mind,  that  an  English  Cathedral  may  be  regarded  as 
national  property, — as  a  public  edifice  confided  to  their  guardianship,  in  trust  for  the  whole  kiugdom. 
Its  founders  and  successive  benefactors  thus  considered  it,  and  endowed  it  with  repairing  funds,  to 
uphold  its  walls,  and  support  its  integral  features.  Hence  it  is  as  much  the  bounden  duty  of  every 
succeeding  Chapter  to  guard  the  fabric  from  decay,  and  every  species  of  injury,  as  it  is  to  attend  to 
the  prescribed  routine  of  clerical  discipline.  Every  neglect  on  their  part,  and  every  careless  or  in- 
tentional innovation  on  the  genuine  character  of  the  building,  is  both  a  dereliction  of  duty,  and  an 
offence  to  the  public.  The  apathy  or  wantonness  of  former  officers,  will  not  justify  the  smallest 
neglect  from  those  of  the  present  age ;  for  now  the  architecture,  and  each  part  of  these  edifices,  are 
regarded  with  admiration  by  men  of  taste;  aud  the  enlightened  part  of  the  public,  as  they  must  view 
them  with  increasing  interest,  will  also  watch  them  with  jealousy. 


DEFECTS  OF  THE  INTERIOR.  7.9 

recollected,  that  this  is  in  unison  with  the  norman  part  of  the  Church,  and 
that  we  examine  and  admire  it  more  as  an  architectural  specimen  of  ancient 
art,  than  for  its  beauty  of  form,  or  picturesque  features.  The  long  and  flat 
extent  of  the  nave  and  aile,  on  the  south  side,  presents  a  dull,  monotonous 
aspect,  but  this  part  was  formerly  provided  with  an  extensive  range  of 
cloisters,  and  some  monastic  buildings. 

Internally,  we  shall  perceive  several  objects  to  offend  the  eye  of  taste, 
and  many  things  out  of  place  and  out  of  harmony.  Commencing  with 
the  Nave  and  its  ailes,  there  are  several  marble  slabs  and  monuments 
inserted  in  and  attached  to  the  walls  ;  and  which  are  not  only  injurious 
to  the  effect  of  the  whole,  but  some  are  destructive  of  the  architec- 
ture4. In  this  part  we  are  really  surprised  to  find  that  the  distinguished 
architectonic  prelate,  who  built  the  nave,  &c,  should  have  placed  his  own 
monumental  Chantry  in  a  spot  to  injure  the  beauty  and  symmetry  of  his 
design.  Its  screen,  instead  of  harmonizing  with  the  style  of  the  bold 
clustered  columns,  to  which  it  is  attached,  presents  a  series  of  tall,  meagre 
mullions,  without  beauty,  and  devoid  of  meaning.  Besides,  the  whole 
breaks  in  on  the  line  and  massiveness  of  the  nave,  interrupts  the  eye, 
and  attracts  the  attention  to  small,  and  not  elegant  parts,  when  it  should 
be  fully  and  wholly  occupied  by  the  whole.    The  architect's  best  monument 

*  It  is  much  to  be  regretted  that  our  venerable  and  noble  Cathedrals  should,  for  so  many  ages, 
have  been  disgraced  and  disfigured  by  petty  and  pretty  monumental  tablets.  The  white,  black, 
and  variegated  colours,  of  which  they  are  formed,  are  not  only  inimical  to  all  harmony  and 
beauty ;  but  the  manner  in  which  they  are  usually  inserted  in  the  walls  and  columns,  is  ruinous 
to  the  stability  of  buildings.  If  the  proper  officers  of  the  church  are  regardless  of  such  shameless 
proceedings,  there  should  be  committees  of  taste,  or  a  general  public  surveyor  appointed,  to  watch 
over  and  direct  all  the  monumental  erections,  as  well  as  the  reparations  of  each  edifice.  It  is  a  lament- 
able fact,  that  we  scarcely  ever  see  a  new  monument  raised  with  any  analogy,  or  regard  to  the  build- 
ing in  which  it  is  placed.  The  sculptor  and  director  seem  only  ostentatious  of  themselves.  To  render 
it  showy,  imposing,  and  even  obtrusive,  is  their  chief  solicitude ;  and  the  trustees  of  a  Cathedral 
are  too  generally  regardless  of  every  thing  but  handsome  fees.  Hence  Westminster  Abbey  Church, 
and  Bath  Abbey  Church,  are  become  mere  show  rooms  of  sculpture,  and  warehouses  of  marble.  A 
monument  recently  raised  in  Salisbury  Cathedral,  from  a  design  by  the  Rev.  Hugh  Owen,  is  a  most 
praise-worthy  exception  to  this  practice.  It  is  also  a  fine  precedent,  and  amply  justifies  my  antici- 
pation in  the  history  of  that  Cathedral,  p.  101. 


80  WINCHESTER  CATHEDRAL. 

is  his  own  works,  and  if  these  are  not  calculated  to  perpetuate  and  dignify 
his  name,  it  will  never  be  done  by  a  solitary  and  more  perishable  tomb. 
Wykeham's  chantry  and  tomb  are,  however,  full  of  beauty  and  propriety, 
when  compared  with  some  other  objects,  which  we  proceed  to  notice. 
The  Screen,  between  the  nave  and  choir,  said  to  have  been  designed  by 
Inigo  Jones,  is  a  bad  and  an  unsightly  object.  It  may  be  said  to  be  in 
thegrecian,  or  roman,  style  :  indeed  it  maybe  pronounced  any  thing,  but  in 
place  and  in  harmony.  It  is  discordant,  and  highly  displeasing,  and  betrays 
a  deplorable  want  of  feeling  in  the  person,  or  persons,  who  designed  it  for  the 
station,  and  in  those  who  have  sanctioned  its  continuance  for  so  many  years. 
In  niches  are  two  bronze  figures,  of  kings  in  armour,  which  do  not  improve 
the  effect,  or  appropriation  of  this  offensive  screen.  Attached  to  two  piers  of 
the  nave,  on  the  steps  to  the  choir,  are  marble  monuments  to  Bishop 
Hoadley,  and  to  Dr.  Joseph  Warton  :  these  are  most  injudiciously  placed, 
are  glaringly  white,  and  in  their  designs  present  a  compound  of  english, 
grecian,  and  emblematic  parts,  which  must  detract  from  the  national  and 
simple  beauty  of  a  monument.  In  the  north  transept  we  find  the  pure  norman 
windows,  enlarged  and  altered,  their  sills  lowered,  and  their  openings  filled 
with  mullions  and  tracery: — the  west  aile  is  inclosed  by  a  wall,  which  reaches 
to  the  top  of  the  arches  : — the  timber  roof  is  exposed,  and  some  curious  old 
paintings  on  the  walls  are  covered  with  white-wash.  The  south  Transept  is 
also  open  to  the  roof,  which,  with  parts  of  the  walls,  appear  much  decayed 
and  dilapidated  :  and  the  whole  aile  is  shut  out  by  walls  and  screens.  On 
entering  the  Choir  the  stranger  finds  some  very  fine  parts,  but  also  some 
things  at  war  with  propriety.  The  Organ  is  raised  in  a  gallery  beneath  the 
northern  arch  of  the  tower,  and  is  thus  out  of  place;  its  form  and  fitting 
up  are  not  calculated  to  adorn  it:  and  the  filling  in  of  the  two  lofty  arches 
of  the  tower  is  injudicious.  A  wooden  ceiling,  painted  and  carved,  is 
thrown  across  between  the  four  arches  of  the  tower,  whereby  the  lanthorn,  or 
first  story  of  that  part  of  the  edifice,  is  shut  out  from  the  floor.  This  absurd 
innovation  was  made  in  the  time  of  King  Charles  I.  and  probably  exe- 
cuted chiefly  at  his  expense,  as  well  as  the  fitting  up  of  the  organ.  The 
romanized  Bishops  throne ;  and  the  canopy,  and  sham  urns,  affixed  to  the 


..    .     .         ._■■■._     .■.■■-' 


Sallfrf    *0  t 


-Z2   CHt-TtCH.SHOV  "   O?  EOOP,  SITES  OX  TOMBS  fee. 

also  Plans  of  Parts. 


Zemdim  PkHuktd  JanYi  itti.  *»  L*kj»w  x 


FITTING  UP  OF  THE  ALTAR.  81 

altar-screen,  are  all  of  the  same  tasteless  character  and  times.  They  are 
anomalies  to  the  place,  and  when  it  is  known  that  they  are  painted,  gilt, 
varnished,  &c.  and  that  the  exquisite  altar-screen  is  surcharged  with  repeat- 
ed coats  of  white-wash,  we  are  astonished  that  such  barbarous  disfigure- 
ments should  have  remained  for  nearly  two  centuries,  and  that  they  are  still 
tolerated.  Gilpin  calls  the  modern  canopy  "  a  sort  of  penthouse  hanging 
over  the  table  and  adorned  with  festoons  of  flowers.  This  is  daubed  all 
over  with  brown  paint,  totally  at  variance  with  every  thing  around,  and  as 
if  that  was  not  enough,  it  is  also  adorned  with  profuse  gilding.  Enshrined 
amidst  all  this  absurdity,  hangs  West's  Picture  of  the  Resurrection  of 
Lazarus."  This  painting  is  censured  by  the  same  writer,  as  to  composition, 
colouring,  and  management;  and  Dr.  Milner  reprobates  it  on  other,  but  very 
frivolous  grounds.  He  says,  "  the  apostles  here  are  mere  ordinary  men,  or 
at  most  thoughtful  philosophers,  or  elegant  courtiers,  studious  of  their 
attitudes  ;  the  devout  sisters,  in  the  presence  of  their  beloved  master,  are  re- 
markable for  nothing  but  their  beauty  and  their  sorrow."  The  height  of  the 
altar-screen  has  been  remarked  on,  as  a  defect;  and  with  strict  propriety: 
for  had  it  been  lower,  it  would  have  afforded  a  pleasing  view  from  the  choir 
into  the  eastern  end  of  the  Church,  and  of  the  whole  of  Fox's  east  window. 
The  effigy  of  Beaufort  is  a  vulgar,  clumsy  piece  of  workmanship,  even 
worse  than  its  near  neighbour,  that  of  Sir  John  Clobery.  We  cannot 
otherwise  account  for  the  extreme  badness  of  this  statue,  than  by  suppos- 
ing that  it  was  placed  there  at  a  time  much  later  than  the  building  of  the 
chantry  ;  indeed  since  the  Reformation.  It  seems  rather  the  workmanship 
of  a  stone-mason  than  of  a  sculptor.  The  effigies  of  Wykeham,  Waynflete, 
Edington,  de  Foix,  &c.  have  all  been  much  mutilated  and  injured,  and  we 
seek  in  vain  among  them  for  either  good  expression  or  perfect  faces. 

Plate  i. — Ground  Plan  of  the  whole  Church  :  the  darkest  shade  shows 
the  form  and  extent  of  the  walls  of  the  present  edifice,  the  lighter  colour,  on 
the  south  side,  denotes  the  direction  of  the  destroyed  walls  of  the  chapter- 
house and  cloister,  and  the  other  light  tints,  within  the  Church,  point  out 
the  sites  of  tombs,  stalls,  and  screens  ;  whilst  the  plans  of  some  windows, 
and  piers,  are  shown,  to  a  larger  scale,  on  the  sides.     A.  the  chief,  or  central 

L 


82  WINCHESTER  CATHEDRAL. 

western  porch   and  door-way :  B.  B.  smaller  porches  of  entrance  to  the 
north  and  south  ailes  of  the  nave  :  C.  the  nave,  extending  from  the  western 
door  to  the  screen  of  the  choir,  6:  D  the  south  aile,  and  E  the  north  aile  : 
F.  choir,  fitted  up  with  stalls :  G.  presbytery :  H.  space  named  the  sanctuary, 
inclosed  for  the  altar,  or  communion  table :  J.  north  transept,  with  an  aile 
on  three  sides,  but  that  on  the  west  is  inclosed  by  a  wall :  K.  south  transept, 
also  with  a  similar  aile,  all  of  which  is  inclosed  by  a  wall  and  by  screens :  L. 
south  aile  of  the  presbytery :  M.  north  aile  :  N.  N.N.  three  ailes,  of  de  Lucy's 
architecture,  the  appropriation  of  which  seems  unknown,  but  may  now  be 
properly  called  the  chantry  ailes :  O.  a  space  named  the  capitular  chapel 
by  Dr.  Milner,  who  says,  "  the  magnificent  shrine  of  St.  Swithun,  of  solid 
silver,  gilt,  and  garnished  with  precious  stones,  the  gift  of  King  Edgar,  used 
to  be  kept  here ;  except  on  the  festivals  of  the  saint,  when  it  was  exposed  to 
view  upon  the  altar,  or  before  it.     It  is  not  unlikely  that  other  shrines  were 
kept  in  the  same  place,  ranged  against  the  eastern  wall,  on  which  may  still 
be  seen  some  painted  figures  of  saints.     This  chapel  is  directly  behind 
the  high   altar,  and  formerly  communicated  with  the  sanctuary  by  two 
doors,  which  are  there  still  seen  :  it  is,  notwithstanding,  a  two-fold  error  in 
our  domestic  writers  to  term  this  place  the  Sanctum  Sa?ictorum,  and  to 
describe  it  as  the  place  from  which  the  priest  was  accustomed  to  approach 
the  high  altar5,  which  is  to  confound  it  with  the  sacristy,  or  vestry.     It  was 
certainly  furnished  with  an  altar,  the  back  screen  of  which,  consisting  pro- 
bably of  ornamented  wood  work,  seems  to  have  been  fastened  by  certain 
staples,  which  still  remain.     We  are  assured  of  this  fact,  from  the  circum- 
stance of  the  early  conventual  mass,  immediately  after  the  holding  of  a 
chapter,  being  celebrated  here  every  morning  ;  from  which  circumstance  it 
may  be  called  the  capitular   chapel6."     P.   the   Lady,  or   Virgin  Mary 
Chapel,  consisting  of  two  divisions,  of  two  styles  of  architecture,  [see  PI. 
xx.]  with  fine  carved  seats,  a  rood-loft  screen,  &c. :  Q.  altar  end  of  the 

5  "  Warton's  description,  p.  75,  Anonymous  History,  vol.  i.  p.  41.  The  Greeks  indeed,  as  we 
have  seen,  called  the  altar  by  the  name  of  dyiov  dytuiy;  but  there  is  no  such  name  as  Sanctum  Sanc- 
torum in  the  whole  Latin  Liturgy." 

6  Milner's  His.  Win.  ii.  58.     Hist.  Maj.  /.  iii.  ch.  vi. 


CHAPELS  OF  THE  GUARDIAN  ANGELS,  AND  SILKSTEDE.  83 

same,  raised  on  steps :  R.  Bishop  Langton's  monumental  chapel,  having  a 
large  altar  tomb  in  the  centre,  with  seats  and  highly  ornamented  screens  on 
the  north  and  south,  an  open  screen  with  folding  doors  on  the  west,  and 
niches,  with  parts  of  an  altar,  to  the  east :  S.  a  chapel,  corresponding  in 
size,  and  situation,  to  the  former,  called  the  Guardian  Angels,  or  Portland 
Chapel.  This  is  much  altered  from  its  original  fitting  up,  being  now 
occupied  by  a  strange  and  incongruous  medley  of  tombs,  slabs,  &c.  It  is 
supposed  to  have  acquired  its  appellation  of  Guardian  Angels,  from  figures 
of  angels,  or  cherubs,  painted  on  the  ceiling;  and  latterly  the  name  of 
Portland,  from  a  stately  monument  erected  against  its  southern  wall  to  the 
memory  of  Richard  Weston,  Earl  of  Portland,  who  was  Lord  Treasurer 
to  King  Charles  the  First.  His  statue,  in  bronze,  reclines  on  the  tomb, 
which  is  further  adorned  with  busts,  &c.  Against  the  north  wall  is  a 
marble  slab  commemorative  of  Bishop  Mews,  who,  with  the  above-named 
nobleman,  lie  interred  in  a  vault  beneath.  This  chantry  is  supposed  to 
have  been  first  occupied  by  the  remains  of  Bishop  Orlton,  who  died  in 
J  333,  and  according  to  Richardson,  in  his  Notes  to  Godwin,  was  interred 
"  in  capella  propria."  In  the  north  wall  of  this  chantry  is  a  large  ambre, 
and  in  the  eastern  wall  is  inserted,  but  very  injudiciously,  the  side  stone  of 
the  tomb  represented  in  Plate  xxvi.  c,  whilst  the  effigy  belonging  to  the 
same  tomb  is  stationed  in  another  place :  T.  an  arched  passage  called  the 
slype,  which  formerly  communicated  from  the  cloister  to  the  eastern  end  of 
the  Church  ;  having  the  Chapter-house,  U,  on  the  south.  The  form,  extent, 
and  architecture  of  this  apartment  are  clearly  to  be  ascertained,  by  the 
arches  and  columns  on  the  north  and  west  sides,  and  by  the  remains  of 
foundations  on  the  other  sides  :  V.  a  portion  of  the  east  aile  of  the  south 
transept,  called  Prior  Silkstede's  Chapel.  The  letters  t.h.o.M.a.s.  and  S. 
are  curiously  carved  on  the  frieze  of  the  screen ;  and  as  the  letters  M.  A. 
are  distinguished  from  the  others,  and  inclosed  within  a  skein  of  silk,  Dr. 
Milner  says,  that  they  form  "  a  monogram  of  his  patroness,  the  Blessed 
Virgin  :"  W.  the  treasury,  &c. :  X.  vestry,  or  modern  chapter-room,  lately 
cleansed  of  white-wash,  and  newly  fitted  up:  Y.  part  of  the  choir,  immediately 


84  WINCHESTER  CATHEDRAL. 

under  the  central  tower,  or  lanthorn :  Z.  an  inclosed  chapel,  called  the 
Venerable  Chapel,  and  supposed  by  Dr.  Milner  to  have  been  the  place  of 
interment  of  J3ishop  Courteney.  It  is  divided  from  the  central  aile  by  an 
handsome  open  screen,  the  upper  part  of  which  is  adorned  with  canopies, 
crocketed  pinnacles,  &c.  From  being  "  highly  ornamented  and  well 
secured/'  Dr.  Milner  believes  that  "  the  blessed  sacrament  used  to  be  kept 
there,  for  the  benefit  of  the  sick  and  for  private  communion."  In  this  chapel 
are  several  flat  monumental  stones  and  tablets  to  the  Eyre's,  Dingley's, 
Mompesson's,  and  other  families. 

The  small  figures,  or  Arabic  numerals,  refer  to  monuments  and  to  different 
members  of  the  church: — 1.  Wykeham's  chantry  and  tomb:  2.  Font:  3. 
Edington's  chantry  and  tomb:  4.  a  large  altar  tomb  for  Bishop  Morley  :  5. 
door-way,  from  the  south  side,  or  eastern  walk  of  the  old  cloister :  6*.  entrance 
door  to  the  choir  through  a  modern  screen  :  7.  old  Norman  door-way  to  the 
west  aile  of  the  north  transept:  8.  a  curious  piscina,  near  which  some  of  the 
capitals  of  the  small  columns  are  sculptured  to  represent  busts  of  kings  and 
bishops  :  9.  niche  in  the  wall,  for  a  coffin  tomb,  probably  that  of  de  Foix : 
10.  the  intersecting  groin  here  rests  on  four  sculptured  capitals,  representing 
human  figures,  one  of  which  holds  something  resembling  a  common  chess- 
board ;  in  the  east  wall  is  a  very  beautiful  niche,  resting  on  a  sculptured 
bracket :  1 1 .  an  opening  has  lately  been  made  through  the  wall  at  this 
place  to  the  crypts :  1 2.  brass-eagle  reading  desk  :  13.  pulpit:  14.  bishop's 
throne,  or  stall :  15.  a  coffin  tomb,  said  to  cover  the  remains  of  King  Wil- 
liam Rufus  :  10.  screens  inclosing  the  presbytery  and  communion  table,  &c. 
On  the  frieze  of  the  screens  are  the  letters  W.  H.  aud  Ii.  VV.  and  H.  B. 
with  the  date  1525,  and  the  mottoes  sit  /cuts  deo,  also  in  domino  coiifido, 
aud  est  deo  gracia  :  17.  altar  tomb,  supposed  to  cover  the  remaius  of  Bishop 
Pontissara:  18.  altar  screen  and  altar  table  :  19.  Bishop  Fox's  chantry: 
20.  the  chantry  of  Bishop  Gardiner:  21.  coffin  tomb  of  Wm.  de  Basynge, 
lately  removed  from  the  south  transept:  22.  a  large  flat  stone,  measuring 
about  twelve  feet  by  five  feet,  and  which  formerly  was  inlaid  with  brasses 
of  a  figure,  also  "  a  scripture,"  or  inscription.    "This,"  observes  Dr.  Milner, 


VARIOUS  TOMBS.  85 

"  is  celebrated,  not  only  by  the  vulgar,  but  also  by  learned  authors7,  as  the 
monument  which  covers  the  remains  of  the  great  patron  saint   of  our 
Cathedral  and  city,  St.   Swithun.     The  improbability,  however,  of  this 
opinion  is  great  and  obvious ;"  for  this  saint  was  first  interred  in  the  church- 
yard, and  his  remains  afterwards  transferred,  by  St.  Ethelwold,  into  the 
Cathedral,  where  they  were  deposited  in  a  shrine,  or  chest  of  silver,  (adorned 
with  precious  stones,)  which  was  given  by  King  Edgar  for  this  express 
purpose8.     Besides,  in  the  year  1797,  Henry  Howard,  Esq.  and  some  other 
gentlemen,  obtained  permission  to  open  this  grave,  as  well  as  others  in  the 
Cathedral;  and  in  this   was  found  an  oak  coffin,  containing  a  complete 
skeleton,  inclosed  in  black  serge,  "  probably  a  monks  cowl,"  with  leather 
boots,  or  gaiters,  sewed  on  the  legs.     Milner  thinks  this  must  have  been 
the    grave,    and  these  the  remains,  of  Prior  Silkstede :   but  when  it  is 
remembered  that  he  appears  to  have  fitted  up  a  chapel  in  the  south  transept, 
and  assisted  so  much  in  finishing  the  lady  chapel,  we  are  more  inclined  to 
look  for  his  place  of  sepulture  in  either  of  those  parts  of  the  fabric:  23.  lid 
and  parts  of  a  coffin  tomb,  removed  from  the  north  and  south  transepts  : 
24.  a  coffin  lid,  on  a  raised  slab,  from  the  south  transept :  25.  entrance  to 
the  holy-hole,  beneath  a  very  fine  screen :  26.  chantry,  inclosing  an  altar 
tomb,  for  Cardinal  Beaufort:  27.  ditto  of  Bishop  Waynflete  :  28.  effigy  of  a 
Bishop,  removed  from  another  part  of  the  church,  and  raised  on  modern 
masonry :  29.  a  large  monument  to  some  persons  of  the  Mason  family  :  30.  a 
raised  coffin  tomb,  supposed  to  enshrine  the  remains  of  Bishop  de  Lucy : 
31.  altar  tomb  to  the  memory  of  Bishop  Langton :    32.  monument,  with 
effigy,  sculpture,  to  R.  Weston,  Earl  of  Portland  :  33.  stair-case  at  the  north- 
east angle  of  the  north  aile :    34.    a  large  marble  monument,  adorned  with 
military  and  naval  trophies,  to  the  memory  of  Sir  Isaac  Townsend,  knight 
of  the  garter,  and  one  of  the  Lords  of  the  Admiralty,  who  died  in  1731: 
36.  effigy  of  a  knight  in  chain-armour,  on  a  piece  of  masonry,  and  brought 

7  "  Clarendon  and  Gale's  Antiquities,/).  30.    Warton's  Description,^.  83.   A.  Wood  also  seems 
to  countenance  this  opinion.  Athen.  Oxon.    Alban  Butler  also  in  Lives  of  Saints,  July  13." 

8  See  Rudborne,  His.  Maj.  lib.  ii.  c.  12,  and  Will,  of  Malmsbury. 


86  WINCHESTER  CATHEDRAL. 

from  another  part  of  the  church:  36.  wall,  with   blank  arches:  and  37. 
ditto,  both  represented  in  Plate  xxix.  A.  and  B. 

The  Roman  figures  refer  to  certain  parts  of  the  building,  drawn  by  C.  F. 
Porden,  to  a  larger  scale  than  shown  in  the  general  plan :  these  parts  are 
thus  delineated  to  afford  the  critical  antiquary  and  architect  correct  repre- 
sentations of  the  mull  ions  and  mouldings  of  the  windows,  &c.     It  is  from 
such  delineations  only  that  we  can  attain  certain  knowledge  of  styles  and 
dates,  and  discriminate  the  progressive  and  almost  imperceptible  gradations 
from  one  form  to  another.     In  the  four  windows,  here  laid  down,  and  in  the 
three  mullions,  there  will  be  seen  considerable  variation  in  the  mouldings, 
which  would  not  be  so  readily  perceived  in  viewing  the  respective  windows. 
It  is  from  the  want  of  correct  plans,  elevations,  and  sections  of  our  ecclesias- 
tical edifices,  and  from  an  ignorance  of  their  meaning,  that  so  many  irrele- 
vant and  conjectural  essays  have  been  written  on  the  subject :  and  until 
all  the  minute  peculiarities  of  those  buildings  are  faithfully  engraved  and 
published,  we  shall    never    have    a    satisfactory   kuowledge  of  ancient 
architecture.     Fig.  i.  a  double  window  of  de  Lucy's  works,  with  a  pier, 
or  large  mullion,  between  the  glazing,  clustered,   slender  columns,  and 
half  columns  on  the  outside,  a  passage,  or  gallery  within,  arched  over,  and 
shafts  of  clustered  columns  on  the  inside.    Beneath  the  sill  of  the  window  is 
an  arcade   of  trefoil  headed    arches,  n.  springing  from  single  purbeck 
columns.     An  interior  elevation  of  one  compartment  of  this  style  is  given 
in  PI.  xx.  A.     Fig.  in.  plan,  or  horizontal  section,  of  one  of  Fox's  windows 
in  the  aile  of  the  presbytery,  showing  three  mullions  ;  (one  of  which  is  still 
further  enlarged,  Fig.  vm.)  also  the  forms  of  the  mouldings,  on  the  sides 
of  the  window,  &c:  Fig.  iv.  plan  of  the  eastern  window  of  the  lady  chapel, 
having  six  mullions,  (one  of  which  is  seen  at  Fig.  vn.)  and  deep  hollow 
mouldings  on  each  side.     One  window  on  the  north  side,  and  the  other  to 
the  south,  correspond  in  form,  size,  &c.  to  the  eastern.     A  view  of  the  first 
is  given  in  Plate  vm.  and  an  elevation  of  that  on  the  north  side  in  Plate 
xx.  C:  Fig.  v.  mullion  of  Edington's  window:  vi.  column  at  the  north  end 
of  the  north  transept;    that  at  the  opposite  extremity  of  the  south  tran- 
sept corresponds  :  vn.  and  vm.  have  been  already  noticed  :  ix.  plan  of  one 


CRYPTS.  87 

of  Wykeham's  windows  in  the  aile  of  the  nave:  x.  plan  of  one  of  Fox's 
windows  in  the  clerestory  of  the  presbytery:  xi.  plan  of  the  north-east 
great  pier,  under  the  tower. 

Plate  ii.  Plan  and  Section  of  the  Crypts,  fyc.  It  is  hoped  that  this 
plate  will  prove  very  interesting  to  the  architectural  antiquary ;  as  the  very 
curious  and  early  part  of  Winchester  Church,  laid  down  in  this  plan,  No.  2. 
has  never  before  been  represented  by  engraving ;  and  consequently  could 
not  have  been  fully  known  to  the  public.  As  here  defined,  its  forms, 
dimensions,  and  style  may  be  easily  understood.  It  consists  of  three 
portions,  or  distinct  parts: — first,  the  large,  or  chief  crypt,  formed  of  a 
central  apartment,  A,  having  two  ailes,  with  a  row  of  columns :  B.  B,  its 
ailes,  continued  round  the  semi-circular  end,  C :  a  second,  or  smaller  crypt, 
D,  with  semi-circular  end,  and  divided  into  two  parts  by  a  row  of  four 
columns,  and  a  fifth,  which  is  placed  in  the  centre  of  the  entrance,  1.  From 
the  windows,  through  the  walls  of  this  apartment,  it  seems  very  evident 
that  the  whole  was  formed  anterior  to  the  substructure  of  de  Lucy's  work, 
marked  by  the  buttresses  p.  p.  p. ;  and  from  the  style  of  the  columns  and 
arches,  I  cannot  persuade  myself  to  believe  that  it  is  anterior  to  the  larger 
crypt,  the  chapter-house,  or  the  transepts.  At  m.  n.  the  wall  is  broken  away 
to  open  a  communication  with  the  third  crypt,  E,  the  vaulting  of  which  rests 
on  two  columns:  one  of  these  is  represented,  5:  on  the  south  side  are  two 
windows,  two  others  at  the  east  end,  and  one  on  the  north  side,  where  there 
is  also  a  door-way.  The  smaller  letters  refer  to  different  parts  of  those 
crypts ;  a.  and  b.  stair-cases  from  the  ailes  of  the  church  :  c.  door-way  from 
the  outside :  d.  a  Avell :  e.  door-way  from  the  north  side :  f.  f.  f.  arched 
openings  from  the  aile  to  the  centre :  g.  g.  g.  small  apertures,  or  windows  : 
h.  wall  of  the  transept :  i.  i.  i.  buttresses:  k.  two  larger  buttresses  :  1.  m.  n. 
already  noticed  :  o.  ground  beneath  the  floor  of  de  Lucy's  ailes  :  p.  p.  p. 
buttresses  to  the  same :  q.  vault  tinder  the  Guardian  angels  chapel,  with 
two  coffins,  supposed  of  Bishop  Mews  and  the  Earl  of  Portland:  r.  a 
corresponding  space  to  the  former,  beneath  Langton's  chapel,  but  there  is  no 
exterior  indication  of  a  vault:  s.  door-way. — No.  1.  shows  the  section  of  the 
three  crypts  with  the  floor  above:  1.  steps  to  the  altar :  2.  steps  immediately 


88  WINCHESTER  CATHEDRAL. 

behind  the  altar  screen  :  and  3.  steps  to  St.  Swithun's  altar  :  4.  holy-hole  : 
5.  floor  of  de  Lucy's  work  :  6.  floor  of  the  lady  chapel ;  and  7.  altar  end  of 
ditto  :  3.  column,  and  4.  pier  of  the  large  crypt:  5.  column  of  the  eastern 
crypt ;  and  6.  capital  and  base  of  the  central  crypt. 

Plate  hi.  Capitals  a?id  Bases.  B.  C.  of  the  nave  :  D.  E.  of  the  tran- 
sept :  F.  G.  of  de  Lucy's  work  :  and  H.  I.  of  the  presbytery  :  K.  plan  of  a 
pier  of  the  nave,  the  dark-line  of  which  shows  the  additional  casing  and 
forms  of  the  mouldings  made  by  Wykeham  :  L.  plan  of  one  of  the  clustered 
columns  in  the  presbytery,  with  bases,  &c. 

Plate  iv.  View  of  the  West  Front,  the  age  and  architecture  of  which 
have  been  already  noticed  by  Mr.  Garbett,  p.  64.  This  is  evidently  the 
workmanship  of  three  different  eras:  1st.  the  original  walls,  with  hexangu- 
lar  stair-case  turrets,  which  appear  to  have  been  of  a  very  early  date,  if 
not  really  of  the  age  of  Walkelyn  :  2d.  the  central  large  and  two  lateral 
windows,  with  the  panelling  and  tracery  on  the  walls,  most  likely  of  Eding- 
ton's  age:  and  3d.  the  three  porches  with  the  open  parapets,  which  Mr. 
Garbett  assigns,  for  the  first  time,  to  Cardinal  Beaufort. 

Plate  v.  By  the  section  and  plan  of  the  west  front,  the  interior  eleva- 
tion of  the  windows,  door-ways,  pinnacles,  &c.  are  correctly  displayed  ;  as 
well  as  sections  of  the  archivolt  mouldings  of  the  windows  and  arches  on 
the  north  side:  a.  elevation  of  the  pier  of  clustered  columns  and  hollow 
mouldings:  b.  section  of  the  opposite  pier:  c.  section  of  the  wall,  between 
the  windows,  of  the  arch  of  the  aile,  and  of  the  concealed  flying  buttress 
from  the  wall  of  the  nave  to  that  of  the  aile  :  d.  section  of  the  wall,  beneath 
the  window  of  the  north  aile :  e.  western  door-way  to  the  north  aile : 
f.  window  of  the  clerestory,  to  the  nave,  over  which  is  a  section  of  its 
mouldings  and  of  the  parapet :  g.  section  of  the  window  of  the  north  aile, 
beyond  which  is  shown  the  profile  of  the  large  buttress  on  the  north  side, 
surmounted  by  a  crocketed  pinnacle,  having  a  finial :  h.  a  gallery,  or  floor, 
raised  over  the  western  end  of  the  north  aile,  now  used  as  the  ecclesiastical 
court,  and  containing  documents  belonging  to  the  church,  but  formerly 
employed  as  a  tribune,  according  to  Dr.  Milner,  "  to  contain  the  extra- 
ordinary minstrels,  who  performed  on  grand  occasions,  when  some  prelate, 


CATHEBTRAIL  .AFnnDpUITinES. 


ty  RaiUcn,  from,  a  Drawing  bv  CJF.JbnZen  fcrSnttim^Sisttry  hx.  oi 'Winchester  Cathedral. 

WKKTOniEiTnEm  CDATIHTEMSAIL   (DIHIWIEiSM, 

CiMTAlS    fc  BASKS. 
London.Puituhcd,  Oct'ljSn,  ty  laiu/man  k' C Itttrno sttr  Bum. 

printed  iv  il'JT  k  JiajTtft£- 


CATHEDRA!  ANTKJIPITIES. 


FI..W. 


Eti.jr.wd h  Jle-l&UJ-.trcm  ajDr,iwiJUi  h\  E.lw  3L>rt,rhr  JtnttsnsJTi.rtcrv  ,*v    .-r  IVin^usTer  Cathedral 

WOT^HIES'TriEIE   ^ikTTIHIKlMRi^L  OTTCfiE'SIHI. 

View  of  the  West  front. 

TO  THE  HONORABLE  AND  REVEREND  AUGUSTUS  GEORliE  ZECffE,.  If.  4. ARCHDEACON'  OF  WINCHESTER,  CHAFUIN 
IN  ORDINARY  TO  HIS  MAJESTY  tcc.la.  This  Tint?  is  inscribed  l'v  f/u,  _  {nf/k,1: 
Ibnlenfubtishei  MivUfll  lylotu/mm  kt  ?Itztermjta-low. 


TATHEBJLAI.  .AJTTIQTTtTIES 


m,.T. 


2>r,uvn  fyJSJUtgre 


WmcDMISSTriE'IE.  CDATffilEJE/iE.AIL    CMFKCBL 

Section  ScPtan  oftfie  West  front 


frmn.i  iV  ,'cr  i-J5jmc«". 


Cathedral  Antiquities. 


FL.V1. 


TTetr  of  the  yurth  Tnmjipt  &c. 
TO  SIS  IEOM.1S  BJKLV6RJR1  this-Plotr  ir  ropcctAJfy   insert  fed  In   the  sllttixrr. 


WEST  END.  89 

legate,  or  king,  was  received  at  the  Cathedral  in  solemn  state,  by  a 
procession  of  the  whole  convent.  At  such  times  the  cross-bearers,  alco- 
Iyths,  and  thurifers,  led  the  way,  and  the  bishop,  prior,  and  other  dignified 
clergy,  in  their  proper  insignia  and  richest  vestments,  closed  the  ranks. 
In  the  mean  time  the  Church  was  hung  from  one  end  to  the  other  with 
gorgeous  tapestry,  representing  religious  subjects,  the  large  hooks  for 
supporting  which  still  remain  fixed  to  the  great  columns  ;  the  altars  dazzled 
the  beholders  with  a  profusion  of  gold,  silver,  and  precious  stones,  the 
lustre  of  which  was  heightened  by  the  blaze  of  a  thousand  wax  lights,  whilst 
the  well-tuned  voices  of  a  numerous  choir,  in  chosen  psalms  and  anthems, 
gave  life  and  meaning  to  the  various  minstrelsy  that  was  performed  in  this 
tribune."  Such  was  the  religious  pomp  and  gorgeous  parade  of  the 
possessors  of  these  Cathedrals  in  former  times,  as  described  by  one  who 
has  been  initiated  in  the  mysteries  of  monachism,  and  who  partially  thinks 
the  revival  of  it  would  be  conducive  to  the  happiness  of  the  human  race : 
i.  door- way  from  the  turret  stairs  to  the  parapet. 

Plan  of  the  West  End.  A.  recessed  porch  of  entrance  to  the  nave,  in  which 
the  forms  of  the  groining  to  the  roof  are  defined,  as  well  as  the  panelling  of 
the  sides,  and  the  mullion,  or  clustered  column  in  the  centre  of  the  door-way: 
B.  southern,  and  C.  northern  porches :  D.  mullions  and  mouldings  to  the 
western  window  of  the  south  aile,  beneath  which  was  formerly  a  door :  E. 
corresponding  window  on  the  north  side:  F.  one  compartment  of  the  north 
aile,  showing  the  number  and  disposition  of  the  ribs,  at  the  intersection  of 
each  of  which  is  a  shield,  or  large  boss :  H.  south  aile  ditto.  [The  form  of 
the  rib  here  laid  down  as  an  octagon,  should  have  been  drawn  in  a  lozenge 
or  diamond  shape,  as  marked  in  the  centre  of  the  nave,  and  as  indicated 
in  the  general  plan.]  G.  groining  of  the  nave,  the  lines  on  the  sides  of 
which  indicate  the  mouldings  of  the  arches.  The  darkest  tint,  at  the  west 
end,  shows  the  masonry  of  the  three  porches,  which  have  evidently  been 
raised  between  the  turrets  and  buttresses,  and  which  are  denoted,  as  well  as 
the  mullions  of  the  windows,  by  a  lighter  colour.  [For  extreme  width  of 
west  front  read  118  feet,  instead  of  128  feet.] 

M 


90  WINCHESTER  CATHEDRAL. 

Plate  vi.  View  of  the  North  Transept,  &c.  Although  much  of  the 
original  work  of  this  elevation  remains,  we  cannot  contemplate  without 
regret  that  so  much  alteration  and  innovation  has  been  adopted.  Each 
of  the  four  bottom  windows,  as  well  as  those  of  the  second  and  third  stories, 
have  been  fitted  up  with  mullions,  tracery,  and  masonry:  the  two  windows 
over  the  ailes  are  wholly  closed  up;  some  masonry,  blank  arches,  &c.  have 
been  evidently  taken  away  from  the  north-eastern  angle,  as  may  be  inferred 
from  the  fragment  of  an  arch  seen  agaiust  the  buttress.  In  the  gable  is 
a  circular  window,  with  mullions  of  rather  unusual  form  and  character. 

Plate  vii.  View  of  the  North  Side,  from  a  place  called  Paradise, 
displays  several  very  interesting  aud  varied  features  and  parts  of  the  church  : 
first,  on  the  left  hand,  is  the  window  and  blank  arches,  belonging  to  the 
guardian  angels  chapel  :  second,  the  turret  stair-case  at  the  north-east  end 
of  de  Lucy's  work,  also  the  exterior  of  the  windows,  buttresses,  and 
parapet  of  the  north  aile  of  the  same :  third,  the  enriched  eastern  gable  and 
window,  octangular  turrets,  flying-buttresses,  pinnacles,  &c.  of  Fox's 
architecture:  fourth,  the  central  tower:  and  fifth,  the  north  transept,  with 
its  windows  and  buttresses.  [The  foreground  of  this  print  does  not 
pretend  to  represent  the  local  appropriation  of  the  place,  which  is  a  kitchen 
garden  belonging  to  the  deanery.] 

Plate  viii.  View  of  the  East  End  of  the  Church,  which  shows  the  great 
eastern  window,  the  panelling  beneath,  the  parapet,  corbel  table,  &c.  all 
supposed  to  have  been  built  by  Silkstede,  Hunton,  and  Courteney  :  the 
window  with  two  mullions  and  tracery,  belongs  to  Langton's  chapel. 

Plate  ix.  South  Transept,  §c.  [Here  also  the  artist  has  very  properly 
omitted  the  local,  but  irrelevant  objects  of  culinary  plants  and  garden 
walls :  he  has  also  omitted  a  tall  pan-tile  roof,  which  obscures  the  four 
bottom  windows  of  the  transept,  and  has  represented  the  three  arches,  at  the 
west  end  of  the  chapter-house,  as  open.]  This  view  displays  the  arcade  on 
the  north  side  of  the  chapter-house :  the  whole  face  of  the  southern  tran- 
sept, with  the  peculiar  panelling  of  the  gable:  also  a  long  extent  of  the 
south  side  of  the  nave,  and  its  aile  :  the  tower,  part  of  the  upper  story  of 
the  presbytery,  and  its  south  aile. 


CATMEBRAJL.  ANTigmJITIES 


Di-a-wn  "by  Ed-wf  Klori 


WEHSIHI  ESTHETE.  (D^TTTBIIIIBIEATL,    SIMI!JE8.<SIBI, 

TtEW   OF     THE    EAST  EKD. 
TO   THE  REV°  HAHRY   LEE;  FELLOW  OF  WINCHESTER  COLLEGE,  kckc. 
TMs  Plate  is  inscribed  \,y  ^  Alpra0R 

ZonaoruftiHislitil  Jai<?2.i3i3, iy Zongman  ki':'J,,rierrwstrrSow. 


Engraved  "by  R.  Saiids. 


Prjntrdtj/'  Cax.  k  Bitmct 


."  -'  "' >"~  "r-  -  ~ .  .il'TZC'L'ITUSS 


F1..X. 


NAVB;  LOOKING    HAST. 
To  BARNARD  WHITER  ,£sqr  cf  Winchests- .  (hit  plat*  u  Inscribed  from  Mali:-  Irhip   bu     y     i. 


-.  L         '--    -  -  -- 


J 

&  THE  RET*jfaaB>F^u-cw  Hook.  LLD^FSS-FS^±  Trc/iaiJary  of  Wcnchestxr  ix  lJuj  P/utr  u  inscribed  h  the  .  luitu  T. 


CATHEHHRAIj  AMTIQTJITlJE 


TTi**i   a  JJrjitt/W  h  £l- JOjrr    nV  Tirtffivti  7l 


TTvitAcfttr    dtrfuJr*? 


T02UCH4BD  FcWELL  MJJ.FJtS..^SJWl^.,t/u  ,WhK  <S m>.,<,™s  Mjs«i»,  ft  StJBvAtima*,  Ms^l.t  VicelteiteSefTteSiaayofutrX  fc 


J**-rJ  C/i^On. 


z-zz:  zz  ■-  zj£'vz^~ni : 


-y»W  ky  W.Baddifff*  An  j  Jjrjtfj-.j  t*  Klm'SU't    Or  hno,  ■  'tvufasar    Cathedra* 

CHOIR, LOOKING  WEST. 
To  fa  REVTmspnTEKJj  ■  .,     .     nersiti)  of  Oxfcrd.kc.kc.Tlus plate  is 

Inscribed  by  f,      Author 


nave:  north  transept:  choir.  91 

Plate  x.  View  of  the  Nave,  from  the  west  end,  looking  east,  displays 
the  clustered  columns  of  the  piers,  the  soffites  of  the  arches,  the  parapet 
screen,  between  the  arches  and  clerestory,  also  the  latter  and  the  bold  rib- 
work  of  the  roof.  In  this  view  the  screen  between  the  nave  and  the  choir 
is  seen  to  separate  the  building  in  two,  and  appears  as  an  ugly  piece  of 
patchwork  in  a  fine  dress. 

Plate  xi.  View  from  the  North  Aile  of  the  Nave,  looking  across  the 
latter,  showing  part  of  the  south  side  of  the  nave,  the  screen  of  Edington's 
chantry,  &c.  In  the  pier,  on  which  the  light  falls,  is  displayed  part  of  the 
capitals  of  the  Norman  nave,  from  which  sprung  the  semi-circular  arches.  At 
the  base  of  this  pier  is  seen  a  piece  of  sculpture,  representing  a  half 
length  figure  of  a  bishop,  beneath  a  trefoil  canopy,  with  his  hands  clasped  in 
front,  and  with  a  shield  resting  against  his  knees.  Lord  Clarendon  con- 
siders this  to  represent  Bishop  Ethelmar,  whilst  Warton  thinks  it  is  meant 
for  Prior  Hugh  le  Brun.  The  style  of  the  arch  and  sculpture  justifies  the 
former  opinion,  for  Ethelmar  lived  in  the  time  of  Henry  the  Third ;  and 
though  his  body  was  buried  at  Paris,  in  1261,  yet  it  appears  that  his  heart 
was  brought  to,  and  enshrined  in,  this  Church. 

Plate  xii.  View  of  the  interior  of  the  North  Transept,  looking  N.  E. 
This  transept  has  been  already  fully  noticed.  It  may,  however,  be 
remarked,  that  the  height  and  form  of  the  column  or  pier,  with  the  capitals, 
and  arches,  correspond  with  those  in  the  original  nave.  In  one  of  the  piers  is 
represented  a  canopied  niche,  and  from  other  ornaments  of  this  compart- 
ment of  the  aile,  we  may  infer  that  it  was  formerly  fitted  up  as  a  private 
oratory,  or  chantry  chapel. 

Plate  xiii.  View  of  the  Choir,  looking  west,  displays  the  series  of  fine 
stalls,  the  pulpit,  the  eagle  reading  desk,  a  coffin-tomb,  said  to  cover  the 
remains  of  King  William  Rums,  the  whole  vaulting  of  the  nave,  two 
arches,  with  piers,  under  the  tower,  also  the  first  story  of  the  latter,  &c. 
[At  present  a  floor  shuts  out  the  first  story  of  the  lanthorn,  from  the  choir, 
but  as  the  object  of  these  illustrations  and  this  history,  is  to  represent  more 
the  permanent  than  the  changeable  features  of  the  church,  and  as  the  said 
floor  is  not  only  a  temporary  and  extraneous,  but  even  trumpery  erection, 


92  WINCHESTER  CATHEDRAL. 

and  may  be  soon  removed,  it  was  deemed  advisable  to  omit  it  in  the 
view.  From  the  same  feelings,  the  draftsman  has  left  out  the  Bishop's 
stall,  which  is  attached  to  the  left  hand  pier,  and  also  a  boarded  partition, 
which  fills  up  the  whole  of  the  southern  arch  under  the  tower.] 

Plate  xiv.  Part  of  the  Stalls  of  the  Choir.  The  design  and  carving  of 
these  seats  present  abundant  studies  for  the  professional  and  amateur 
artists.  The  compartments  here  represented  are  the  central  entrance  door- 
way to  the  choir,  and  three  stalls  on  each  side,  with  their  respective  move- 
able seats,  or  misereres-'.  At  the  back  of  the  seats  is  a  series  of  arcades, 
highly  ornamented  with  tracery  and  carvings,  and  each  seat  is  surmounted 
by  a  tall,  narrow  canopy,  splendidly  enriched  with  crockets,  finials,  cusps, 
and  other  ornaments.  From  the  style  of  the  arches  aud  decorations  of  these 
stalls,  they  have  been  generally  attributed  to  Edingtou's  prelacy  and 
munificence.  In  the  inner  mouldings  of  the  three  western  door-ways,  we 
recognise  the  same  style  and  similar  cusps. 

Plate  xv.  View  of  the  Altar  Screen.  Among  the  architectural  beau- 
ties of  this,  and  of  any  other  cathedral,  there  will  not  perhaps  be  found  one 
to  excel  that  represented  in  the  annexed  print.  Niches  of  various  sizes  and 
situations,  pedestals,  canopies,  and  pilaster-buttresses,  cover  nearly  the 
whole  face  of  this  sumptuous  design ;  whilst  its  upper  division  and  summit 
is  crowded  to  excess  with  pierced  work,  crocketed  pinnacles,  and  per- 
forated canopies.  In  the  centre  is  a  projecting  canopy,  most  elaborately 
executed  ;  but  its  appropriate  pedestal  is  lost :  as  are  also  several  other 
parts  belonging  to  the  middle  and  lower  part  of  the  screen.  The  accom- 
panying print  shows  it  as  it  would  appear  if  divested  of  the  tasteless  urns, 
in  the  niches,  and  of  the  carved  wood  work,  now  before  it.  The  screen  is 
executed  in  a  fine  white,  soft  stone,  but  is  thickly  covered  aud  obscured  by 

>  Dr.  Milner's  account  of  these  seats,  if  not  improbable,  is  calculated  to  render  some  of  the 
monastic  discipline  very  ridiculous.  He  states,  that  the  misereres  were  formed  to  expose  and  punish 
sleepy  monks  :  "  on  these,"  he  relates,  "  the  monks  and  canons  of  ancient  times,  with  the  assist- 
ance of  their  elbows,  on  the  upper  part  of  their  stalls,  half  supported  themselves  during  certain 
parts  of  their  long  offices,  not  to  be  obliged  always  to  stand  or  kneel.  This  stool,  however,  was  so 
contrived,  that  if  the  body  became  supine  by  sleep,  it  naturally  fell  down,  and  the  person  who 
rested  upon  it  was  thrown  forward  into  the  middle  of  the  choir." 


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Icndrn.Tublished  JuacUW  ey l.ir^manV-CFjurrumirBffw. 


ALTAR  SCREEN  :   WYKEHAM  S  CHANTRY.  93 

white-wash.  In  the  spandrils  of  the  two  side-doors  are  sculptured  repre- 
sentations, in  basso-relievo,  of  the  Annunciation  and  Visitation,  but 
executed  in  a  very  bad  style.  With  its  original  altar,  and  Catholic  em- 
bellishments, this  screen  must  have  been  magnificently  rich  and  splendid. 
Its  furniture,  &c.  are  thus  described  by  Dr.  Milner,  from  an  inventory 
printed  in  the  Monasticon,  from  the  report  of  the  commissioners  in  the 
time  of  Henry  the  Eighth :  "  The  nether  part,  or  antependium  of  the  high 
altar,  consisted  of  plated  gold,  garnished  with  precious  stones.  Upon  it 
stood  the  tabernacle  and  steps,  of  embroidered  work,  ornamented  with 
pearls,  as  also  six  silver  candlesticks,  gilt,  intermixed  with  reliquaries, 
wrought  in  gold  and  jewels.  Behind  these  was  a  table  of  small  images, 
standing  in  their  respective  niches,  made  of  silver,  adorned  with  gold  and 
precious  stones.  Still  higher  was  seen  a  large  crucifix  with  its  attendant 
images,  viz.  those  of  the  Blessed  Virgin  and  St.  John,  composed  of  the 
purest  gold,  garnished  with  jewels,  the  gift  of  Bishop  Henry  de  Blois,  King 
Stephen's  brother.  Over  this  appears  to  have  been  suspended  from  the 
exquisite  stone  canopy,  the  crown  of  King  Canute,  which  he  placed  there, 
in  homage  to  the  Lord  of  the  Universe,  after  his  famous  scene  of  his  com- 
manding the  sea  to  retire  from  his  feet,  which  took  place  at  Southampton10." 
Mr.  Garbett,  in  p.  66,  ascribes  the  erection  of  the  altar-screen  to  Cardinal 
Beaufort,  but  I  am  rather  inclined  to  attribute  it  to  Bishop  Waynflete,  who 
had,  previous  to  his  death,  constructed  his  own  monumental  chantry;  and 
to  the  workmanship  and  materials  of  which  it  so  nearly  corresponds. 

Plate  xvi.  View  of  Wyheham's  Chantry,  from  the  nave,  shows  the 
northern  entrance  door-way,  with  two  niches,  canopies,  and  pedestals  over 
it,  the  whole  of  the  screen  towards  the  nave,  the  enriched  niches  at  the 
east  end,  with  parts  of  the  architecture  of  the  nave.  Within  the  screen  is 
an  altar  tomb,  in  the  centre,  sustaining  the  effigy  of  the  prelate,  repre- 

10  The  altar-screen,  in  St.  Alban's  Abbey  Church,  has  generally  been  compared  to  this  at  Win- 
chester; but  although  its  general  form,  and  some  of  its  niches,  are  similar,  the  whole  is  very  different, 
and  much  less  elaborate  in  detail.  It  was  built  by  Abbot  Wallingford,  about  1482,  and  cost  1100 
marks.  See  Clutterbuck's  History  of  Hertfordshire,  vol.  i.  p.  35,  in  which  work  is  a  finely  engraved 
view  of  the  screen  by  Mr.  H.  Le  Keux. 


94  WINCHESTER  CATHEDRAL. 

sented  in  pontificalibus,  with  small  statues  of  three  monks  kneeling  at 
his  feet.  [See  Plate  xxv  B.]  The  altar  tomb  is  of  white  marble,  with 
canopied  niches  at  the  sides  and  ends  ;  and  at  present  is  disfigured,  as  well 
as  the  statue,  by  crude  colours  and  gilding".  At  the  head  of  the  monu- 
ment, attached  to  the  pier  of  the  nave,  are  five  tabernacles,  or  niches  :  at 
the  east  end  are  marks  of  the  altar,  with  the  credence  table  at  the  right 
hand,  and  a  piscina. 

Plate  xvii.  View  of  the  Chantries  of  Beaufort,  Waynfiete,  $-c.  The 
combination  of  objects,  represented  in  this  plate,  has  been  already  noticed, 
p.  75,  and  their  names  and  situations,  in  p.  85.  The  first  object  on  the  left 
hand  is  part  of  Fox's  Chantry,  a.  which  consists  of  a  screen,  the  lower 
portion  of  which  is  inclosed,  filled  up  within,  and  ornamented  on  the  out- 
side with  a  series  of  niches,  with  pedestals  and  canopies,  also  with  octan- 
gular panelled  buttresses  at  the  angles,  and  panels  between  each  niche. 
Its  southern  side,  or  principal  front,  may  be  described  to  be  composed  of 
three  divisions,  in  height,  and  four  in  length.  Each  of  the  latter  displays 
an  ornamented,  perforated  parapet  and  frieze,  with  a  small  pedestal  rising 
in  the  centre,  supporting  the  figure  of  a  pelican,  Fox's  crest.  Beneath  the 
frieze  is  a  double  window,  with  mullions  and  tracery,  ornamented  with 
crockets,  finials,  and  embattled  mouldings.  Under  this  window  is  a  double 
line,  or  facia,  of  sculpture,  beneath  which  is  the  series  of  niches,  &c.  already 
described.  In  the  second  compartment,  from  the  east,  is  a  recess,  con- 
taining the  effigy  of  an  emaciated  human  figure,  with  the  feet  resting  against 
a  skull,  and  the  head  on  a  mitre.  Thus,  instead  of  representing  his  own 
person,  and  features,  the  prelate  thought  it  more  consistent  with  christian 
humility  to  exhibit  this  mortifying  lesson  to  man ;  to  show  the  nothingness  of 
his  body  when  deprived  of  the  animating  spirit;  and  intimating  that  pride  and 
arrogance  are  petty  vanities,  unworthy  of  man  and  degrading  to  his  nature. 

"  The  College  of  Winchester,  and  that  of  New  College,  Oxford,  have  latterly  contributed  to 
preserve  and  embellish  this  tomb  and  chantry.  According  to  Dr.  Milner,  it  was  first  "  repaired 
and  ornamented  soon  after  the  Restoration,  viz.  in  1664,  and  again  in  1741,  but  with  very  little 
judgment,  as  to  the  distinguishing  and  colouring  of  the  several  ornaments.''  It  was  again  painted, 
gilt,  &c.  by  Mr.  Cave,  of  Winchester,  in  1797. 


fox's  and  beaufort's  chantries.  95 

It  is  rather  curious  that  there  is  neither  tomb,  statue  nor  inscription  to  com- 
memorate the  founder  of  this  sumptuous  chantry.  In  the  western  com- 
partment is  a  finely  carved  door.  [See  Plate  xxi.]  The  interior  is 
"  luxuriantly,"  as  Milner  says,  ornamented  with  tabernacles,  sculpture,  and 
architectural  enrichments.  It  is  divided  into  three  parts,  by  a  raised  floor, 
and  by  a  screen  with  a  door-way.  East  of  the  latter  is  a  little  vestry, 
which  still  contain  the  ambries.  The  wall  over  the  altar  is  decorated  with 
three  large,  and  sixteen  small  niches ;  also  a  facia  of  demi-angels,  shields, 
&c.  The  ceiling  is  adorned  with  tracery  and  shields  of  the  royal  arms  of 
the  house  of  Tudor,  emblazoned  with  colours  and  gilding.  In  the  vestry, 
over  the  ambries,  is  a  niche,  corresponding  with  those  over  the  holy-hole ; 
and  implying  that  the  screen  was  formerly  adorned  with  two  rows  of  those 
enriched  niches.  The  windows  of  this  chantry  appear  to  have  been 
formerly  glazed  with  painted  glass12.  Waynflete's  chantry,  b.  will  be 
noticed  in  the  next  plate.  Beaufort's  Chantry,  c.  consists  Of  clustered 
piers,  with  a  panelled  screen  at  the  base,  an  open  screen  at  the  head,  or 
west  end,  and  a  closed  screen  at  the  east  end.  There  are  doors  on  the 
north  and  south  sides,  and  the  whole  is  surmounted  by  a  mass  of  canopies, 
niches,  and  pinnacles,  which  bewilder  the  sight  and  senses,  by  their  num- 
ber and  complexity.  Beneath  this  gorgeous  canopy  is  an  altar  tomb,  in 
the  centre  of  the  inclosure,  with  the  statue,  already  noticed  and  criticised. 
Milner  says,  "  that  the  figure  represents  Beaufort  in  the  proper  dress  of  a 
Cardinal :  viz.  the  scarlet  coat  and  hat,  with  long  depending  cords,  ending 
in  tassels  of  ten  knots  each.  The  low  balustrade  and  tomb,  the  latter  of 
which  is  lined  with  copper,  and  was  formerly  adorned  on  the  outside  with 
the  arms  of  the  deceased,  enchased  on  shields,  are  of  grey  marble.  The 
pious  tenor  of  his  will,  which  was  signed  two  days  before  his  death,  and 
the  placid  frame  of  his  features,  in  the  figure  before  us,  which  is  probably  a 
portrait,  leads  us  to  discredit  the  fictions  of  poets  and  painters,  who  describe 

12  A  long  dissertation  by  Mr.  Gough,  with  very  inaccurate  plates  of  this  chantry,  from  drawings 
by  J.  Schnebbelie,  have  been  published  in  the  second  volume  of  the  "  Vetusta  Monumenta." 


96  WINCHESTER  CATHEDRAL. 

him  as  dying  in  despair13."     After  what  has  been  said,  p.  81,  of  this  statue, 
it  will  be  unnecessary  to  offer  another  remark. 

Langtoris  Chantry,  e.  has  been  already  noticed,  p.  77  and  83.  Its  elabo- 
rately carved  screen,  with  folding  doors,  and  open  gallery,  or  rood-loft,  are 
shown  in  this  print :  also  a  view  into  the  lady  chapel  under,  d.  One  compart- 
ment of  the  carved  wainscotting  round  this  chapel  is  delineated  in  PI.  xxi. 

Plate  xviii.  View  of  the  Chantries  of  Waynflete,  Beaufort,  and  Gardiner, 
with  parts  of  de  Lucy's,  Fox's,  and  Walkelyn's  architecture.  The  principal 
chantry  in  this  view,  presents  a  gorgeous  mass  of  architectural  aud  sculp- 
tural ornaments :  in  which  the  designer  appears  to  have  exerted  his  fancy 
to  combine,  in  one  object,  and  in  a  small  compass,  an  almost  countless 
assemblage  of  pinnacles,  canopies,  niches,  and  sculptured  details.  The 
interior,  as  well  as  the  exterior,  is  covered  with  decorative  work  :  its  two 
ends  are  filled  with  tabernacles,  and  its  inner  roof  covered  with  a  profusion 
of  tracery,  arranged  in  various  elegant  forms.  [See  Plate  xix.]  From  the 
multiplicity  of  parts  in  this  single  chantry,  it  would  be  tedious  to  describe 
the  whole.  Aided  by  the  view,  plan,  and  statue,  the  stranger  may  form  a 
tolerably  accurate  opiuion  of  its  style,  form,  and  decoration.  Chandler,  in 
his  Life  of  Waynflete,  says  he  could  not  find  any  "  particular  information" 
concerning  this  "  chapel  of  St.  Mary  Magdalen  ;"  whence  he  infers,  that  it 
Mas  executed  duriug  the  life-time  of  the  prelate,  and  was  also  "  furnished 
with  missals,  copes,  and  other  requisites."  The  material  of  Waynflete's 
chantry,  is  a  fine,  soft,  white  stone ;  easily  worked  by  the  mason's  and 
sculptors  tools  :  and  its  chief  parts  and  ornaments  are  still  in  good  pre- 
servation. The  Chantry  to  Bishop  Gardiner,  seen  beyond  that  of  Wayn- 
flete, forms  a  curious  contrast  to  the  latter,  and  also  to  its  corresponding 
chantry,  that  for  Fox.     As  the  vast  power  and  tyranny  of  the  Catholic 

fl  "  Shakespeare  and  Sir  Joshua  Reynolds ;  the  former  in  his  Henry  VI. — the  latter  in  a  celebrated 
picture."  The  former,  most  probably,  derived  his  opinions  of  the  prelate  from  the  English  Chroni- 
cles, (See  Holinshed"s,  iii.  212,  4to.  1808.)  his  chief  sources  for  historical  character ;  and  the  latter 
merely  illustrated,  by  a  painting,  a  passage  of  the  poet.  The  language  of  the  bard,  in  portraying 
the  haughty  Cardinal,  is  pointedly  strong  and  descriptive. 


fill 


Bel 


LADY   CHAPEL.  97 

church,  had  experienced  a  severe  shock,  in  the  life-time  of  Gardiner,  so  the 
ecclesiastical  architecture  of  the  country  was  also  revolutionized.  Its 
decline  is  strikingly  marked  in  this  Bishop's  chantry ;  where  we  see  a  com- 
pound mixture  of  bad  Italian  and  bad  English ;  the  lower  part  represent- 
ing the  former,  and  the  upper  part  the  latter. 

Plate  xix.  Groined  Roof  to  Wayn/lete's  Chantry.  This  print  displays 
not  only  the  forms  and  ornaments  of  the  ceiling  of  this  splendid  chantry, 
but  likewise  the  horizontal  sections  of  the  screens,  buttresses,  and  mullions ; 
also  the  clustered  columns  of  de  Lucy's  architecture:  A.  A.  door-ways: 
B.  B.  clustered  columns,  with  detached  shafts  of  purbeck  marble  :  a.  seat. 
or  plinth,  round  the  screen:  b.  b.  buttresses:  c.  c.  mullions:  d.  d.  niches, 
or  tabernacles. 

Plate  xx.  Elevation  of  Three  Compartments ;  two  on  the  north  side  of  the 
Lady  Chapel,  B.  C.  and  one  of  de  Lucy's  architecture,  A.  In  the  spandrils 
of  the  door-way  of  the  eastern  compartment,  is  some  sculpture  of  foliage, 
entwining  an  ornamental  T.  on  one  side,  and  the  letter  N.  in  a  tun  or  barrel, 
on  the  other  side,  being  the  initial  letter  for  Thomas,  and  the  rebus  for  Hun- 
ton,  Hen  ton,  or  N-ton,  one  of  the  priors.  This  door-way  is  supposed  to  have 
opened  to  a  sextry,  on  the  north  side.  In  this  part  is  still  kept  the  remnant 
of  a  Chair,  which  was  handsomely  ornamented  with  velvet,  enamelling,  &c. 
Gale  says,  that  it  was  used  at,  if  not  made  for,  the  royal  marriage  between 
Queen  Mary  and  Philip  of  Spain.  The  lower  walls  of  this  chapel  were 
formerly  covered  with  a  series  of  fresco  paintings,  which  from  neglect  and 
wanton  mischievousness,  are  nearly  obliterated.  Carter,  in  his  "  Specimens 
of  Ancient  Sculpture  and  Painting,"  has  published  four  etchings  of  the 
different  subjects,  and  Dr.  Milner  has  endeavoured  to  elucidate  them  by  a 
long  dissertation.  The  whole  vaulting  of  this  chapel  appears  to  have  been 
executed  by  Priors  Hnnton  and  Sdkstede,  whose  names  are  painted  on 
the  roof;  the  latter  connected  with  a  figure  of  a  horse,  or  steed.  The 
groins,  or  ribs,  rest  on  very  elegant  capitals.  The  stalls  and  wainscotting, 
as  well  as  the  rood-screen  of  this  chapel,  are  highly  charged  with  rich 
carving;   one  compartment  of  which  is  delineated  in  PI.  xxi. 

N 


98  WINCHESTER  CATHEDRAL. 

Plate  xxi.  Specimens  of  Carved  Wood-ivork,  from  the  Lady  Chapel, 
Langton's  chapel,  Fox's  chantry,  and  the  pulpit;  all  of  which  are  so 
finely  executed,  that  it  is  hoped  the  Dean  and  Chapter  will  not  suffer 
any  further  dilapidation  or  destruction  in  these  interesting  remains  of 
former  times. 

Plate  xxii.  Part  of  the  Altar  Screen,  being  the  east  side  of  one  of  the 
door-ways,  with  canopies  over  it.  In  the  spandrils  are  two  slips  of  foliage 
very  finely  executed,  which,  with  the  canopies,  have  a  close  resemblance  to 
the  style  of  Waynflete's  chantry. — The  central  niche  of  an  old  screen  behind 
the  altar,  facing  the  east,  which  I  am  inclined  to  think  was  executed  at  the 
latter  end  of  Edward  the  First's,  or  beginning  of  the  Second  Edward's 
reign.  This  screen  presents  nine  of  these  niches,  besides  one  which  is 
inclosed  in  Fox's  chantry.  From  the  unusual  situation  of  the  screen,  I  am 
induced  to  think,  that  it  was  originally  placed  on  the  opposite  side  of  the 
wall,  with  its  niches  facing  the  west,  and  forming  the  altar  screen.  The 
crockets,  finials,  and  various  foliage  of  the  pediments  and  pinnacles  of  these 
niches,  are  elaborately  wrought ;  as  well  as  a  sculptured  frieze  beneath 
the  pedestals.  Every  niche  appears  to  have  contained  two  pedestals,  under 
each  of  which  is  still  one  of  the  following  names: — Dominvs  Jesvs: — S 
Maria: — Kyngilsus  rex: — SES  Birinus  Epc  : — Kynwaldus  rex: — 
Egbertus  rex  . — Adulfus  rex  fii.i  ej  : — Egbertus  rex  : — Eluredrex 
fili  ej  : — Edward,  rex  senior: — Athelstan.  rex  fili  ej  : — Edradus 
rex  : — Edgar  rkx  : — EmmjE  regina  : — Alwinus  epis  : — Ethelred.  rex: 
SES  Edward,  rex  fili  ej  : — Cnutus  rex  : — Hardicnut.  rex  filius  ejus. 
Most  of  the  above  personages  were  interred  in  Winchester,  and  all  but  two 
were  benefactors  to  the  Cathedral. — A  small  part  of  Fox's  Chantry  displays 
the  style  of  the  turrets,  the  elegant  parapet,  the  frieze,  two  canopies, 
and  part  of  the  tracery  of  one  window. 

Plate  xxiii.  Section  of  de  Lucy's  Three  Ailes,  east  of  the  altar,  &c. 
Among  the  architectural  plates  that  have  been  engraved  for  the  publications 
of  the  Society  of  Anticpaaries,  and  for  other  works,  I  believe  it  may  be  con- 
fidently stated  that  no  one  presents  such  a  combination  and  variety  of  parts, 


CATHBDIRAI   ANTIQUITIES. 


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WEWCSIHISg'E'ffilS,    (DATSIIIMEATL.     (T-EITFIEtDHI , 
Carved  Wood  Work. 

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CATHEB8BAL  ANTIQUITIES. 


ML.JEJSJU1JL. 


Engraved  by  TohnZe  Keiix  fromaUrawuig  by  Edw.  Store  for  Brtftvns  JTutnry  ke  -  of  Winchester  Cathedral 

"WlIWDSIlEOTim  CATMIEBI&AIL    (DMUJIE(SIKI9 

SKCTIOIT  te  J-XETATIOIf  SAlST  OIF  TIME  A1LTAM  SCKEIEST.- 

TO  THEKEV^FKEmiac  IKEMQNGEBAM-F.Z.S.  -Author  of  Sermons  kfifsays  m  -foe.  reformatbrv  of  (rvmmaZs 

k  education  of  poor  Children  kc.  This  plate  is  Inscribed-  by  yPrjtfaff 

Zon/fort.fubUshrui  Aug.  1.1611.  byZongmank  C.  PatenwsierRow. 

FriiiirJ  iif  Skyward. 


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SECTION  EAST  OF  THE  ALTAR.  99 

styles,  and  objects,  as  that  now  under  consideration.  Here  we  are  pre- 
sented with  elevations  of  arches,  columns,  windows,  &c.  of  distinct  and 
distant  ages  ;  from  the  middle  of  the  eleventh  century  to  the  middle  of  the 
sixteenth:  the  crypt,  transepts,  and  tower  display  the  former,  whilst  the 
latter  is  contained  in  the  chantry  of  Gardiner,  i.  The  small  letters  refer  to 
the  principal  objects : — a.  a.  outer  aile  of  the  crypt,  showing  the  bases  of 
the  columns  and  piers  :  b.  b.  two  inner  ailes,  divided  by  columns,  d :  c.  sec- 
tion of  piers :  e.  elevation  of  one  of  the  openings,  with  section  of  the  arch 
above :  f.  section  through  one  of  the  windows  :  g.  holy-hole,  beneath  the  old 
altar  screen  :  h.  east  end  of  Fox's  chantry  :  i.  ditto  of  Gardiner's :  k.  section 
of  the  south  wall  of  de  Lucy's  work,  representing  the  gallery,  or  passage 
through  the  wall  ;  on  the  inside  is  an  insulated  purbeck  column,  support- 
ing the  rib  of  the  vault :  1.  clustered  columns  of  detached  shafts  of  purbeck 
marble :  m.  section  of  the  opposite  cluster,  with  the  wall  above :  n.  two 
arches,  springing  from  clustered  columns,  having  their  bases  on  a  high  wall, 
and  which,  as  already  remarked,  I  conjecture  was  the  former  place  of  the 
altar-screen,  before  the  present  lofty  one  was  erected,  the  back  of  which  is 
seen  through  the  two  arches  :  o.  section  of  the  timber  work  of  the  roof:  the 
latter  is  singularly  wide  and  flat:  p.  profile  elevation  of  one  of  the  large 
buttresses,  which  receives  the  flying  abutment  from  the  S.  E.  angle,  u : 
q.  upper  division  of  the  east  aile  of  the  south  transept,  showing  one  of  the 
small  windows  to  the  triforium :  r.  filled  arch  in  the  wall  over  the  aile, 
above  which,  at  s.  are  the  clerestory  windows  of  the  transept :  t.  corbel 
table,  which  extends  all  round  the  transepts.  The  central  acute  gable, 
with  crockets,  panelling,  octangular  turrets,  window,  &c.  display  the  florid 
style  and  workmanship  of  Fox's  architecture.  The  narrow,  tall  openings, 
with  horse-shoe  arches,  are  the  most  eastern  remnants  of  Walkelyn's  works  ; 
and  the  parts  of  windows  and  doors  seen  through  them  are  those  at  the 
western  end,  which  do  not  range  in  straight  lines  with  the  ailes  of  the 
presbytery. 

Plate  xxiv.  Half  Elevation  and  Half  Section  of  the  Church,  from  north 
to  south.  As  the  latter  plate  was  particularly  curious  and  interesting  from 
its  variety,  so  this,  from  its  simple  and  almost  uniform  character,  cannot 


100  WINCHESTER  CATHEDRAL. 

fail  of  gratifying  the  architectural  antiquary.  The  left  hand  side  displays 
the  elevation  of  the  west  side  of  the  transept ;  half  of  the  tower,  and  a 
section  through  the  first  window  and  arch  of  Wykeham's  work,  in  the  north 
aile  of  the  nave ;  also  the  form  of  the  arch  of  that  aile,  with  the  clustered 
pier  between  it  and  the  nave,  the  wall  and  clerestory  window  above,  with 
the  slope  of  the  roofs  of  the  nave  and  the  aile.  Beneath  the  arch  of  the 
nave  is  seen  part  of  the  screen  to  the  choir,  the  altar  screen  beyond,  and 
the  eastern  window.  The  right  hand  half,  or  section  of  the  south  tran- 
sept, &c.  displays  the  interior  of  two  floors  of  the  tower,  the  timber  Avork 
of  the  roof,  and  the  whole  interior  elevation  of  the  east  side  of  the  said 
transept:  a.  elevation  of  part  of  the  outside  of  the  tower:  b.  elevation  of 
two  floors  of  ditto  :  c.  section  of  the  south  wall  and  its  window,  with  the 
arched  gallery,  or  passage  :  d.  timber  work  of  the  roof:  [since  this  plate 
has  been  engraved,  the  draftsman  informs  me,  that  the  rafters  here  repre- 
sented, belong  to  the  north  transept,  and  that  the  timber  work  of  this  is  a 
little  varied  :]  e.  small  bell  turret :  f.  section  of  the  gable  :  g.  of  one  of  the 
windows,  with  a  passage,  or  gallery  beneath  :  h.  triforium,  over  the  aile: 
[the  draftsman  has  here  again  made  some  mistakes ;  the  upper  right  hand 
arch  represented  flat,  should  be  semi-circular ;  and  its  impost  moulding 
lowered :  the  upper  string  moulding  does  not  continue  through  the  tall 
attached  columns:]  i.  screen  before  the  venerable  chapel:  k.  ditto  to  Silk- 
stede's :  1.  chapel  called  by  Dr.  Milner  the  calefactory,  a  place  "  necessary  for 
preserving  tire  for  the  thuribles  and  censers,  that  were  used  in  the  ancient 
service,  as  likewise  for  the  monks  to  warm  themselves  in  cold  weather;" 
over  this  aile  is  a  vaulted  roof,  which  the  same  author  says  communicated 
between  the  dormitories  and  choir,  through  which  the  monks  were  to  pass 
to  perform  their  midnight  service:  m.  section  of  window  over  the  aile,  and 
n.  ditto  from  the  aile,  which  plainly  shows  that  it  was  originally  intended  to 
cover  the  slype,  or  passage,  o.  with  a  sloping  roof,  now  raised  over  p.  which 
is  the  present  library:  q.  steps  from  transept  to  the  south  aile:  r.  section 
of  stalls :  s.  section  of  arch  under  the  tower :  t.  screen  to  the  choir :  u.  altar 
screen:  w.  section  of  a  window  of  the  clerestory  of  the  nave:  x.  steps  to 
the  north  aile  :  y.  section  of  window  of  the  aile  and  profile  of  the  buttress  : 


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EFFIGIES  OF  EDINGTON,  WYKEHAM  AND  WAYNFLETE.  101 

z.  door-way  to  the  north  transept:  figure  1.  Norman  window,  filled  with 
mullion  and  tracery,  and  the  sill  lowered:  2.  an  original  window:  3.  ditto  : 
4.  a  series  of  four  windows  to  the  upper  story  of  the  transept:  these  appear 
to  have  been  inserted  by  Prior  Silkstede,  as  his  initials  T.  S.  appear  on  one 
of  the  bosses  to  the  cornice,  5.  under  the  parapet:  6.  flat  buttresses  at  the 
angle. 

Plate  xxv.  Front  views  of  the  Monumental  Effigies  of  Edington,  Wyke- 
ham,  and  Waynflete.  That  of  Bishop  Edington,  A.  lays  on  an  altar  tomb, 
within  a  stone  open  screen.  The  statue  is  fine  in  proportion,  and  has  been 
carefully  finished.  Its  mitre,  and  episcopal  costume,  are  ornamented  with 
much  taste  and  elegance.  Its  head  rests  on  two  pillows,  which  were  supported 
by  two  angels,  having  censers.  The  figure  appears  to  have  been  painted. 
Round  the  ledge  of  the  tomb  is  a  perfect  inscription,  with  gilt  letters  on  a  blue 
enamelled  ground.  Here  is  no  appearance  of  a  crosier. — B.  effigy  of  Bishop 
Wykeham  on  an  altar  tomb  of  white  marble  ;  at  the  feet  of  the  statue  are 
three  small  figures  of  priests  in  the  attitude  of  prayer.  Dr.  Milner  states 
that  these  are  three  monks  "  of  the  cathedral,  who,  accordingly  as  they 
were  appointed  to  this  office  every  week,  were  each  of  them  to  say  mass  in 
this  chapel,  for  the  repose  of  the  souls  of  Wykeham  himself,  and  of  his 
father,  mother,  and  benefactors,  particularly  of  Edward  III.  the  Black 
Prince,  and  Richard  II.  in  conformity  with  the  covenant  made  for  that 
purpose  with  the  prior  and  community  of  the  cathedral  monastery,"  The 
effigy  is  represented  in  the  "  mitre,  cope,  tunic,  dalmatic,  alb,  sandals,"  &c. 
and  rings  on  the  fingers.  All  of  these  are  painted  and  gilt.  His  head  rests  on 
two  pillows,  which  are  supported  by  angels,  and  beneath  his  left  arm  is  a 
representation  of  his  celebrated  crosier,  which  is  preserved  in  the  chapel  of 
New  College,  Oxford,  and  of  which  Carter,  in  his  "  Ancient  Sculpture,"  has 
o-iven  an  etching.  Dr.  Milner  describes  the  face  as  placid  and  intelligent,  and 
the  hands  as  covered  with  gloves;  but  I  sought  in  vain  for  either  Round 
the  ledge  of  the  tomb  is  a  perfect  inscription.  C.  Effigy  of  Bishop  Wayn- 
flete, resting  on  an  altar  tomb,  in  his  "  full  pontificals  of  mitre,  crosier,  casula, 
stole,  maniple,  tunicle,  rocket,  alb,  amice,  sandals,  and  gloves :"  the  latter  are 
adorned  with  rosets,  but  have  no  rings.     Between  his  uplifted  hands  is  the 


102  WINCHESTER  CATHEDRAL. 

figure  of  a  heart.  The  mitre  is  richly  ornamented,  aud  rests  on  two  pillows, 
but  here  are  no  supporters,  nor  is  there  any  inscription,  or  brass  to  the 
tomb.  The  face  of  this  effigy,  as  well  as  that  of  Wykeham,  has  been  mu- 
tilated and  repaired:  the  portrait,  very  beautifully  engraved,  for  Chand- 
ler's Life  of  Waynflete,  and  said  to  be  copied  from  this  statue,  is  very 
unlike  the  original. 

Plate  xxvi.  Part  of  a  Tomb  and  fragments  of  tivo  Effigies.  A.  a  muti- 
lated effigy  of  a  bishop,  commonly  attributed,  and  with  much  probability,  to 
Peter  de  Rupibus,  who,  according  to  Matthew  Paris,  "  sepultus  est  autem 
in  ecclesia  sua  Wintoniensi,  ubi  etiani  dura  viverit  humilem  elegit  sepultu- 
rem."  The  style  of  the  mitre,  drapery,  canopy  over  head,  and  ornaments 
clown  the  sides,  are  all  indicative  of  the  age  of  Rupibus,  who  died  1238. 
B.  a  broken  effigy  of  a  knight,  in  chain-armour,  with  surcoat,  shield  with 
quarterings,  on  his  left  arm,  and  the  right  arm  directed  towards  his 
sword.  The  head  rests  on  two  small  cushions,  on  each  side  of  which  is  a 
broken  figure  of  a  small  angel.  At  the  feet  is  a  large  figure  of  a  lion.  It 
will  be  observed,  that  the  space  for  the  lost  legs  is  very  short ;  but  it  is  so 
in  the  statue,  which  has  been  finely  executed,  and  is  said  to  repre- 
sent William  de  Foix,  of  the  princely  family  of  that  name,  who  resided  on 
an  estate  called  Vana,  or  Wineall,  near  Winchester.  The  side  of  the 
tomb,  A.  certainly  belonged  to  the  statue,  as  clearly  intimated  by  the  first 
shield  and  arms,  as  well  as  by  the  style  of  the  arches,  and  their  crockets 
and  linials.  The  four  other  shields  are  charged  with  the  arms  of  Leon, 
England,  France,  and  Castile;  to  all  of  which  royal  families  he  thus 
appears  to  have  been  allied. 

Plate  xxvii.  Elevation  of  one  Compartment  of  the  Nave,  internally  and 
externally.  These  delineations  represent  the  true  forms  and  proportions  of 
the  arches,  windows,  panelling,  columns,  &c.  and  the  critical  antiquary, 
who  wishes  to  attain  accurate  information  about  the  styles  and  dates  of  our 
architecture,  will  find  that  it  can  only  be  accomplished  by  means  of  correct 
geometrical  prints:  A.  elevation,  externally:  a.  clerestory  window,  with  a 
label,  or  weather  moulding,  terminated  with  corbel  heads:  b.  pinnacle  with 
panelling,  an  embattled  moulding,  crockets,  and  finial :  c.  string  cornice, 


CATEDEBBAL  ANTIQUI'ITES. 


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WHNSIHIIESTEi^  (DATMEMRAIL    (CMPmcDHI. 

Ja&  of a?i^bia'e?zt  Tomb  &:  tivo  EtfiXfies. 

Ztmden  .Fuhtifkal  JLzrch  zifo?.  tyltmipnm  &  C?£ttcrrwster  Mmv. 


TATffiEM&AJL  ANTIQTDinnnES.  a 


P1L.XKTI. 


Tfagr&ei  fa  JleJieux. 


TSTaye:  One  Compartment,  exta-ruiILy  k  interrwH)/. 


Tn/nrJ  t/inh&nM. 


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jfaW  h  Sic  Xolt 


EfevaXian   viterior  &•  ejctaiar  war  tft£-d/iar 


NAVE  AND  PRESBYTERY.  103 

with  bold  roses,  and  figures.  [There  should  be  only  three  instead  of  five 
in  this  division  between  the  buttresses.]  e.  window  of  the  aile. — B.  eleva- 
tion, internally  :  a.  groining-  of  the  roof,  springing  from  a  single  shaft,  which 
rises  from  the  floor.  Its  base  is  octangular,  and  the  capital  is  adorned  with 
sculpture  of  busts,  foliage,  &c. :  c.  frieze,  charged  with  large  and  very  finely 
sculptured  bosses  of  various  subjects;  among  which  are  the  couchant 
hart,  or  deer,  a  man  on  horseback,  the  cardinal's  hat,  busts,  the  lily, 
&c.  all  of  which  imply  that  the  vaulting  and  sculpture  were  raised  by 
different  benefactors:  d.  an  open  parapet  before  the  old  triforium.  In  the 
wall  beneath  the  window,  is  concealed  the  old  Norman  semi-circular  arch 
of  the  triforium,  which  corresponds  in  style  and  height  with  the  same 
divisions  in  the  transepts  :  e.  panelling  under  the  aile  window :  f.  base  of  one 
of  the  shafts. 

Plate  xxviii.  Elevation  of  one  Compartment  of  the  Presbytery,  externally 
and  internally.  A.  the  exterior,  surmounted  by  an  open  parapet,  c:  a.  a. 
large  buttresses,  with-  four  breaks,  crowned  with  panelled  pinnacles,  and 
ogee,  crocketed  canopies,  or  domes,  b.  The  clerestory  window,  d.  as  well 
as  that  of  the  aile,  e.  has  three  mullions,  with  a  transverse  one,  and  some 
rich  tracery. — B.  elevation  of  one  arch,  &c.  of  the  interior  of  the  presbytery 
close  to  the  communion  rails :  a.  upper  window,  with  a  gallery,  or  passage 
beneath,  guarded  by  a  perforated  parapet:  b.  bracket  to  support  the  groins 
of  the  vaulting,  which  is  of  timber:  c.  arch,  with  its  numerous  mouldings, 
rising  on  clustered  columns  of  three  quarter  shafts.  From  the  style  of 
the  arch,  and  its  columns,  I  cannot  hesitate  in  referring  the  erection  of  this 
part  of  the  Church,  to  the  end  of  Henry  the  Third's,  or  beginning  of  Ed- 
ward the  First's  reign  :  d.  grotesque  animals  at  the  union  of  the  mouldings: 
e.  steps  to  the  communion  table  ;  also  the  altar  tomb,  said  to  belong  to  Bishop 
Pontissara,  but  if  so  it  has  been  materially  altered  at  the  time  of  putting  up 
the  screens.  On  the  top  of  these  screens  are  six  wooden  chests,  containing 
some  memorials  and  relics  of  Saxon  monarchs,  princes,  and  other  illus- 
trious personages,  former  patrons  of  the  Cathedral.  The  names  are, 
Kynegils,  Ethehvulf  Escnin,  Kentwin,  Elmstan^  Kenulf  Egbert,  Adulfus, 
Canute,  and  Emma  his  queen,  Alwyn,  Wina,  Stigand,  Rufus,  Edmund, 
eldest  son  of  Alfred,  Edred,  &c.     It  may  be  remarked,  that  although  these 


104  WINCHESTER  CATHEDRAL. 

names  appear  on  the  chests,  and  we  have  pretty  good  authority  that  the 
persons  they  allude  to  were  buried  in  the  Cathedral;  yet  from  the  various 
changes  and  revolutions  that  have  occurred  in  this  Church,  we  can  scarcely 
suppose  that  any  remains  of  them  can  be  identified. 

Plate  xxix.  Arches,  and  Part  of  the  Toiver.  A.  elevation  of  two 
arches,  with  the  capitals  and  bases  of  pilaster  columns  to  the  same,  placed 
in  a  wall  under  one  of  the  arches  of  the  south  transept:  B.  two  other  semi- 
circular arches,  ornamented  with  pilasters  and  mouldings,  like  the  former, 
and  like  those  inserted  in  a  wall  beneath  one  of  the  arches  in  the  west  aile 
of  the  south  transept.  Mr.  Garbett  (p.  GO)  conjectures  that  the  former  were 
erected  by  Bishop  de  Blois,  to  exhibit  as  specimens  of  the  newly  invented 
pointed  arch;  but  with  deference  to  that,  intelligent  architect,  I  must 
contend  that  the  arches,  aud  their  members,  have  been  transplanted 
from  some  other  place,  and  that  in  the  removal  they  may  have  been  greatly 
changed.  The  pilasters  do  not  appear  to  belong  to  the  capitals,  or  to  the 
arches ;  and  certainly  the  fragment  of  a  pilaster,  above  the  arch-mouldings, 
B.  cannot  be  regarded  as  useful,  ornamental,  or  analogous.  Besides,  if  I 
recollect  rightly,  there  is  a  finely  sculptured  bracket  of  a  chained  deer,  or 
white  hart,  the  cognizance  of  John  of  Gaunt,  father  of  Cardinal  Beaufort, 
inserted  in  another  wall,  inclosing  the  same  part  of  the  aile.  We  may  as 
well  attribute  this  figure  to  the  middle  of  the  twelfth  century,  as  make  any 
inference  from  the  shape  of  these  arches,  or  their  appendages.  The  arch 
mouldings  are  probably  of  the  ageofde  Blois  :  but,  circumstanced  as  these 
fragments  are,  it  would  be  useless  aud  absurd  to  deduce  from  them  any 
criterion  as  to  age  and  style.  Carter,  in  his  "  Ancient  Architecture,"  Plate 
xxxviii.  has  given  an  etching  of  one  of  the  poiuted  arches,  but  so  unlike 
the  form,  that  it  appears  to  be  drawn  from  memory,  rather  than  from  the 
object,  or  from  measurements.  He  represents  each  side  of  the  arched  line, 
as  a  true  quarter  of  a  circle,  aud  the  arch  as  forming  nearly  an  equilateral 
triangle  with  a  line  from  the  capitals.  C.  elevation  of  one  side  of  the  upper 
story  of  the  tower,  with  sections  of  two  of  its  walls:  D.  plans  of  ditto,  1.  of 
the  gallery  story  ;  and  -1.  of  the  story  beneath. 

Plate  xxx.  Two  Views  of  the  Font,  which  has  been  called  "  the 
Crux  Antiquariorum,  or  the  puzzle  of  antiquaries."     Its  age,  aud  the  mean- 


CATHEMAL  AfTTIpriTIEC. 


Pi.  v:zz 


■A  lyJZeZiux.ater  a  ta>»  iyXito.SOm.ftrAnams  Miary  frof 

wuwcimiESTEiE  (CATEEEiaisAiL  sraj: 


JBtiUn/  ty  J&jrtrjrd 


FONT.  105 

ing  of  its  rude  un-artist-like  sculpture,  have  afforded  themes  for  literary 
specidation,  and  will  probably  long  continue  enveloped  in  doubt  and  obscu- 
rity. On  such  a  subject  conjecture  is  likely  to  play  truant:  but  in  the  ab- 
sence of  satisfactory  history,  conjecture  must  be  sometimes  allowed,  as  it 
leads  to  investigation,  if  not  immediately  to  demonstration.  The  Font  is  a 
large  square  block  of  black  marble,  having  its  four  sides  charged  with  sculp- 
ture, the  angles  at  the  top  also  ornamented  with  doves,  and  cups,  and  zigzag, 
and  supported  by  four  small  columns  at  the  corners,  and  one  larger  one  in 
the  centre14.  On  two  sides  are  groups  of  figures,  in  low,  flat  relief,  with  a  rude 
representation  in  one  compartment  of  a  side  of  a  church,  and  a  view  of  a 
ship,  or  boat,  in  another.  Although,  as  subjects  of  art,  these  tablets  are 
beneath  criticism,  yet  as  delineations  of  costume,  manners,  and  implements, 
they  are  entitled  to  special  notice  and  attention.  Mr.  Gough  contends 
that  the  sculptures  relate  to  the  story  of  Birinus,  and  his  introduction  of 
Christianity  into  this  province,  the  death  of  Kinegils,  &c. ;  but  Dr.  Milner 
contends,  that  they  allude  to,  and  are  illustrative  of,  some  incidents  in  the 
life  of"  St.  Nicholas,  Bishop  [Archbishop]  of  Myra,  in  Lycia,  who  flourished 
in  the  fourth  century,  and  was  celebrated  as  the  patron  saint  of  children." 
As  allusive  to  the  figures  on  one  side  of  the  font,  it  is  related  that  the  first  act 
of  the  saint,  who  was  rich,  (a  rather  un-saintlike  circumstance,)  was  to  con- 
vey, secretly,  sums  of  gold  into  the  chamber  of  an  impoverished  nobleman, 
who  from  distress  had  been  tempted  to  traffic  with  the  chastity  of  his  three 
daughters,  but  who,  thus  enriched,  was  enabled  to  apportion  each  and  procure 
husbands  for  all.  The  legend,  however,  tells  us,  that  "  the  unostentatious 
saint"  did  not  perform  all  his  benevolence  at  once,  or  in  secret,  but  at  three 
different  times,  and  in  the  silence  of  three  different  nights.  On  the  third 
occasion,  the  once  poor,  but  now  rich  nobleman,  watched  for  and  discovered 
"  his  unknown  benefactor,''  when  falling  at  his  feet — for  it  seems  that  he 

■■»  Fonts  partly  resembling  that  at  Winchester,  in  size,  shape,  and  material,  are  still  remaining 
at  East-Meon,  and  at  Southampton  in  Hampshire ;  and  in  Lincoln  Cathedral.  The  first  is  represented 
and  described  in  the  tenth  volume  of  the  Archaeologia,  and  the  second  in  Sir  Henry  Englefield's 
interesting  and  erudite  little  volume,  called  "  a  Walk  through  Southampton." 

See  also  Vetusta  Monumenta,  vol.  ii.  and  Archseologia,  vol.  x.  p.  L84. 

O 


106  WINCHESTER  CATHEDRAL. 

stole  secretly  into  the  chamber — he  "  called  him  the  saviour  of  his  own  and 
of  his  daughters  souls."     This  account  is  not  very  closely  adhered  to  by 
the  sculptor,  for  the  scene  appears  to  be  on  the  outside  of  a  church,  which 
Dr.  Miluer  identifies  as  the  Cathedral  of  Myra,  and  in  addition  to  the  saint, 
the  father,  and  three  daughters,  here  is  the  figure  o»  a  man,  with  a  hawk  on 
his  hand.     Let  us  see  if  the  second  side  is  better  elucidated  by  the  legend. 
It  seems  to  represent  three  groups  of  figures  and  three  incidents  :   1st.  Four 
standing  figures,  and  the  heads  of  three  others  prostrate,  one  of  which  is 
dressed  as  a  bishop,  whilst  another  has  an  uplifted  axe,  apparently  raised 
to  strike  at  the  three  heads  :  2d,  a  group,  of  the  said  bishop  and  three  other 
figures,  with  a  fourth  laid  on  his  back  ;  the  latter  has  a  cup  in  his  hand, 
as  has  also  one  in  the  former  group :  the  3d  subject  displays  a  boat,  or 
ship,  with  a  rudder,  mast,  and  three  figures  in  it.     This,  Dr.  Milner,  says 
represents  the  saint,  on  board  a  vessel  bound  to  Alexandria,  and  overtaken 
by  a  storm,  as  evinced  by  the  masts  being  without  sails,  but  which  was 
appeased  by  the  supernatural  powers  of  the  saint.     In  this  voyage  one  of 
the  mariners  fell  from  the  mast  and  was  killed,  but  was  soon  restored  to 
life  by  the  miraculous  intervention  of  the  Archbishop.     These  prodigious 
works  naturally  excited  much  curiosity;  and  consequently,  on  landing,  the 
prelate  was  visited  by  great  crowds  of  persons,  afflicted  with  diseases  and 
misery.     The  next  group  therefore  shows  him  in  the  act  of  healing  the 
sick;  i.  e.  of  raising  two  persons,  from  prostrate  attitudes,  and  astonishing 
the  third  person  who  appears  with  uplifted  hands.    The  figure  laying  on  his 
back,  according  to  Dr.  Miluer,  belongs  to  a  distinct  incident  and  story,  but 
anomalously  brought  here  by  the  artist.     According  to  the  legendary  history 
of  the  saint  (as  written  by  Jacobus  de  Voragine,)  he  appeared,  after  death, 
at  the  bottom  of  the  sea,  to  a  uoblcman's  son,  who  was  drowned  for  the  sins 
of  his  father,  and  who  the  Saint  conveyed  "  not  only  safe  to  shore,  but  also 
to  the  city  of  Myra."     In  the  next  compartment  the  child  is  led  by  the  Arch- 
bishop, who  is  also  engaged  in  the  performance  of  another  celebrated  act;  i.  e. 
rescuing  three  young  men  from  the  impending  axe  of  the  public  executioner. 
These  three  persons  had  been  condemned  by  the  Prefect  of  the  city  ;  but  as 
St.  Nicholas  conceived  that  the  sentence  was  unjust  and  cruel,  he  "  fled" 


FONT.  107 

from  Phrygia  to  Myra,  and  arrived  just  at  the  very  critical  instant  to  check 
the  murdering  instrument.  That  such  improbable,  unnatural,  and  even  im- 
possible stories  should  have  been  formerly  invented  for  certain  purposes, 
credited  by  certain  persons,  and  rendered  the  themes  of  literary  narrative  and 
disquisition,  is  mosttrue;  that  they  should  be  believed  by  anyperson  who  can 
read  and  think,  in  the  present  age,  excites  astonishment.  For  myself,  I  must 
candidly  acknowledge,  that  I  cannot  peruse  them  without  feeling  the  mingled 
emotions  of  pity,  regret,  and  surprise  ;  and  cannot  write  about  them  without 
thinking  I  am  trifling  with  the  time  and  patience  of  the  reader.  As  forming 
the  subjects  of  ancient  paintings  and  sculpture,  it  seems  requisite  to  notice 
them ;  and  in  doing  this,  I  take  some  pains  to  be  brief.  I  hope  therefore  to 
be  pardoned  for  occupying  so  much  space  with  the  above  subject. 

Respecting  the  age  of  this  Font,  and  its  station  in  a  Cathedral  Church,  I 
am  inclined  to  think  it  was  the  workmanship  of  Walkelyn's  time;  when  also 
the  font  at  East-Meon  was  executed.  The  style  of  dress,  mitre  and  crozier, 
indicates  that  age.  As  Cathedrals  were  not  usually  furnished  with  fonts,  or 
their  prelates  and  officers  accustomed  to  perform  the  sacrament  of  baptism, 
Mr.  Denne,  (in  Archasologia,  vol.  xi.)  thinks  that  as  Winchester  and  Lincoln 
Cathedrals  were  provided  with  fonts  they  had  parochial  altars,  or  chapels. 

Some  few  other  objects  remain  to  be  noticed.  In  the  south  aile  of  the 
nave  are  mural  monuments  to  Dean  Cheney,  and  to  Bishop  Willis,  the  latter 
of  which  has  a  marble  effigy  of  the  prelate,  reclining  on  a  sarcophagus15.  In 
the  same  aile  is  a  tablet  to  the  memory  of  Dr.  Thomas  Balguy,  formerly 
an  archdeacon  of  this  Cathedral,  and  distinguished  as  much  for  his  talents 
as  for  his  moderation  and  humility.  At  one  time  he  was  offered  the  bishopric 
of  Gloucester,  but  refused  the  temptation,  on  account  of  advanced  age  and 
infirmities.  His  literary  works  are  wholly  in  the  shape  of  sermons  and 
charges,  which  were  collectively  published  in  1785.     At  the  advanced  age 

,s  This  monument,  by  R.  Clieere,  has  been  praised  as  a  work  of  art,  but  the  judicious  artist  and 
critic  will  seek  in  vain  for  beauty  in  the  execution,  or  the  display  of  taste  in  the  sculptor.  The 
head  is  good,  but  all  the  rest  of  the  statue  is  bad.  Dr.  Milner  tells  us  that  the  sculptor  was  silly 
enough  to  fret  himself  to  death  for  having  placed  the  face  of  the  statue  towards  the  west,  instead  of 
the  east ;  but  this  foolish  story  requires  better  proof  than  the  gossip  of  a  Cathedral  ciceroni. 


108  WINCHESTER  CATHEDRAL. 

of  74,  this  very  worthy  man  died,  January  12,  1 795.  [See  Nichols's  Literary 
Anecdotes,  vol.  iii.  p.  220.]  In  the  nave,  near  the  eighth  pillar  from  the 
west  end,  is  a  grave  stone  covering  the  remains  of  Bishop  Home,  who, 
according  to  Dr.  Milner,  was  "  the  destroyer  of  the  antiquities  of  his 
Cathedral,  and  the  dilapidator  of  the  property  of  his  bishopric16."  Near 
his  place  of  sepulture  is  that  of  William  Kingsmill,  the  first  dean  of  this 
church,  who  died  in  1548.  On  the  north  side  of  the  nave  reposes  Bishop 
Watson,  M.  D.  who  died  January  1583-4.  Bishops  Walkeyln  and  Giffard 
are  said  to  have  been  interred  in  the  nave,  but  there  is  no  memorial  to  either. 
At  the  west  end  of  the  south  aile  is  a  small  marble  slab,  to  the  memory  of 
James  Huntingford,  who  died  September  30,  1772,  aged  48.  Bishop 
Trimnel,  who  died  in  1723,  is  praised  in  a  prolix  inscription,  as  is  also  his 
brother,  Dean  Trimnel,  who  died  in  1729.  Attached  to  the  piers  near 
Wykeham's  chantry  are  marble  tablets  to  commemorate  two  prebendaries 
of  this  church,  and  masters  of  the  college,  Dr.  William  Harris,  who  died 
in  1700,  and  Christopher  Eyre,  LL.D.  who  was  interred  here  in  1743. 
Near  Bishop  Willis's  monument  is  a  tablet  to  record  the  name  and  inter- 
ment of  Dean  Naylor,  who  died  1730.  Another  mural  monument  com- 
memorates Dr.  Edmund  Pyle,  prebendary  of  this  Cathedral,  who  died  in 
1770.  A  funeral  tablet  records  some  particulars  of  the  family,  descent, 
public  and  prhate  virtues  of  the  late  Earl  of  Banbury,  who  died  1793, 
and  of  his  Countess,  who  died  1798.  Close  to  Edington's  chantry  is  a 
flat  stone,  covering  the  grave  of  Bishop  Thomas,  with  an  inscription 
detailing  his  successive  preferments;  and  stating,  that  he  was  tutor  to  the 
present  afflicted  and  estimable  monarch  of  these  realms. 

In  the  north  aile  of  the  nave  are  interred  the  mortal  remains  of  a  lady, 
whose  ample  benevolence  and  literary  talents  must  awaken  the  warmest 
emotions  of  admiration  and  esteem  in  the  philanthropist  and  lover  of 
letters.  This  was  Mrs.  Elizabeth  Montagu,  author  of  an  interesting, 
eloquent,  and  discriminating  "  Essay  on  the  Writings  and  Genius  of 
Shakspeare,"  which  attained  a  sixth  edition  in  1810;  and  which  displays 
the  palpable  folly  and  envy  of  Voltaire's  criticisms  on  our  national  bard. 

16  History,  &c.  of  Winchester,  i.  370. 


VARIOUS  TOMBS.  109 

During  her  life  she  manifested  particular  solicitude  and  generosity  towards 
the  poor  and  unfortunate  chimney  sweeping  boys ;  and  was  the  founder  of 
a  literary  society,  called  "  the  Blue  Stocking  Club."  Since  her  decease, 
which  occurred  in  August  1800,  aged  HO,  four  volumes  of  her  letters 
have  been  published  by  her  nephew,  Matthew  Montagu,  Esq.  which  for 
vivacity,  playfulness,  ingenious  criticism,  and  versatility  of  subjects  and 
treatment,  are  not  surpassed  by  any  epistolary  writing  in  the  English  lan- 
guage. Near  Mrs.  Montagu  repose  the  relics  of  Dr.  Joseph  Warton, 
whose  monument,  near  the  entrance  to  the  choir,  has  been  already  noticed. 
This  monument  was  erected  by  Flaxman,  and  its  expences  defrayed  by  a 
subscription  among  the  pupils  of  Winchester  College  School,  to  which  Dr. 
Warton  had  been  many  years  head  master.  He  died  Feb.  23,  1800,  in  the 
seventy-eighth  year  of  his  age.  "  Biographical  Memoirs  of  Dr.  Warton," 
have  been  published  by  the  Rev.  J.  Wooll. 

On  a  flat  stone  in  the  north  aile  is  an  inscription  to  Sir  Nathaniel 
Holland,  Bart,  who  died,  October  15,  1811,  aged  76.  Among  the  inter- 
ments in  this  pile,  is  one  of  a  lady  whose  virtues,  talents,  and  accomplish- 
ments entitle  her  not  only  to  distinguished  notice,  but  to  the  admiration  of 
every  person  who  has  a  heart  to  feel  and  a  mind  to  appreciate  female  worth 
and  merit.  The  lady  alluded  to,  Miss  Jane  Austen,  who  was  buried  here, 
July  1817,  was  author  of  four  novels  of  considerable  interest  and  value. 
In  the  last,  a  posthumous  publication,  entitled  "  Northanger  Abbey,"  is  a 
sketch  of  a  memoir  of  the  amiable  author. 

In  the  south  transept  are  several  monuments.  One  is  inscribed  with  the 
name  of  Colonel  Davies,  who  met  his  death  at  the  famous  siege  of  Namur, 
under  King  William.  Another  records  the  decease  of  Mr.  Isaac  Walton, 
the  15th  of  December,  1683.  Few  literary  works  have  attracted  more  pub- 
licity than  the  "  Complete  Angler,"  by  honest  and  happy  Isaac.  His  lives 
of  Wotton,  Donne,  Herbert,  &c.  are  also  replete  with  anecdote  and  amuse- 
ment. A  full  memoir  of  his  life  is  given  in  a  new  edition  of  "  Walton's 
Lives,"  by  Dr.  Zouch,  1807. 

At  the  east  end  of  the  south  aile  is  a  monument,  with  a  statue,  standing, 
for  Sir  John  Clobery,  knight,  who  died  in  1687,  and  who  is  praised  in  a  long 


T10  WINCHESTER  CATHEDRAL. 

Latin  epitaph,  for  having  heen  instrumental,  with  his  friend  General  Monk, 
in  restoring  Charles  the  Second  to  the  throne,  and  peace  to  his  country17. 
Near  this  tomb  are  several  flag  stones  with  inscriptions  :  one  records  the 
name  of  "  the  Right  Honourable  James  Touchet,  Baron  Audley  and  Earl 
of  Castlehaien,"  who  died  August  12,  1700;  another  for  the  Countess  of 
Exeter,  who  was  interred  here  in  1663  :  a  third  for  Lord  Henry  Paulet, 
deceased  1672  :  a  fourth  to  Elizabeth  Shirley,  daughter  of  Earl  Ferrers,  who 
died  in  1 740 :  a  fifth  commemorates  the  Countess  of  Essex,  who  died  August 
20,  1659,  who  had  married  for  a  second  husband  Sir  Thomas  Higgons, 
knight,  who  pronounced  a  funeral  oration  over  her  grave,  in  the  ancient 
manner.  He  died  in  1692,  and  lies  near  his  countess.  Another  stone  covers 
the  grave  of  Baptist  Eevinz,  a  prebendary  of  this  church,  and  Bishop  of  the 
Isle  of  Man,  who  died  in  1692,  and  is  praised  in  a  long  Latiu  epitaph,  for 
abstemiousness,  frequent  fasting,  and  "  other  episcopal  virtues."  In  the 
north  transept  are  some  inscribed  slabs  ;  and  beneath  the  organ  loft,  under 
the  north  arch  of  the  tower,  is  a  small  inclosed  Chapel,  or  chantry,  the  walls 
of  which  are  covered  with  ancient  paintings. 

1  This  monument  was  erected  in  1691,  and  cost  £130.  It  was  executed  by  Sir  Win.  Wilson, 
Knt.  the  same  artist  who  executed  a  statue  of  King  Charles  II.  in  the  west  front  of  Lichfield 
Cathedral.  The  funeral  expenses  were  ,£125.  5s.  10</.;  thus — chanter  for  office  of  burial  and  for  the 
choir,  £i>.  9s.  Ad. ;  several  dues  to  the  church,  £8  ;  hanging  house  and  coach  with  mourning,  and 
the  servants  to  attend,  £32.  8s.;  torches,  bell  ringers,  &c.  £3. 8s.;  for  rings,  £23.  17*.  Get.;  for 
gloves,  £10  15*.;  a  coffin,  £3.  10s  ;  escutcheons,  £12;  a  gravestone,  £20.  [Communicated  by 
Wm.  Hamper,  Esq.  of  Birmingham,  from  a  paper  written  by  Lady  Ilolte,  of  Aston-juxta-Birraing- 
Iwm,  the  daughter  of  Sir  John  Clobery.] 


©Dap,  w&+ 

BIOGRAPHICAL  ANECDOTES  OF   THE  BISHOPS  OF  WINCHESTER. 

THE  Anglo-Saxon  Bishops  of  Winchester  have  already  been  noticed,  and 
some  particulars  of  a  few  of  the  earliest  of  the  Norman  prelates  of  that 
See,  have  also  been  mentioned.  I  now  proceed,  in  conformity  with  the 
plan  adopted  in  my  History  of  Norwich  Cathedral,  to  state  some  anec- 
dotes and  characteristic  traits  of  such  others  of  the  Bishops  of  Winchester 
as  have  been  distinguished  by  any  literary  or  public  works.  Of  Walkelyn, 
the  first  Norman  Prelate,  some  particulars  have  already  been  stated.  It 
was  the  policy,  and  not  without  good  reason,  of  the  Conqueror  to  substitute 
his  countrymen  and  dependents  of  Normandy,  in  the  room  of  prelates  and 
other  leading  churchmen  of  the  old  English  stock.  Walkelyn  was  his 
relation  and  his  chaplain;  and  although  inferior  in  learning  to  the  new 
archbishop  of  Canterbury,  Lanfranc,  (an  Italian,  but  an  abbot  in  Normandy,) 
he  was  not  without  his  merits.  In  1079,  Walkelyn  undertook  the  great 
work  of  rebuilding  his  Cathedral  and  the  adjoining  monastery,  in  a  style  of 
architecture  till  then  unparalleled  in  England  ;  and  in  1093,  in  the  reign  of 
William  Rufus,  the  Church  was  solemnly  dedicated.  On  Walkelyn's 
death,  in  1098,  Rufus  seized  on  the  bishopric  of  Winchester,  in  addition  to 
the  other  sees  he  had  invaded,  and  kept  possession  of  it  until  his  untimely 
end  in  the  New  Forest  in  1100. 

The  first  act  of  King  Henry  the  First  was  to  appoint  his  chancellor, 
William  Giffard,  to  the  See;  but  an  interval  of  seven  years  elapsed 
before  he  was  consecrated.  The  cause  of  this  delay  was  the  celebrated 
controversy  which  long  agitated  the  church  and  the  state,  concerning  the 
conveyance  of  ecclesiastical  investitures  from  lay  persons,  by  the  pastoral 
staff  and  the  ring;  a  practice  which  had  been  recently  condemned  by  the 
head  of  the  church.  At  last,  after  some  years,  the  contest  between  the 
Pope  and  the  King  was  terminated  by  a  compromise,  in  which  each  party 


1  12  WINCHESTER  CATHEDRAL. 

retained  possession  of  his  respective  rights.  Bishop  Giffard  founded  the 
Cistercian  Convent  of  Waverley,  near  Farnham,  and  erected  a  palace  in 
Southwark,  afterwards  called  the  Bishop  of  Winchester's,  and  also  con- 
tributed largely  to  the  establishment  of  the  adjoining  monastery  of  regular 
canons  of  St.  Mary  Overy. 

On  the  death  of  Bishop  Giffard,  in  1128-9,  the  king  found  means  to  pre- 
fer to  the  See  Henry  de  Blois,  the  son  of  his  sister,  Adela,  by  the  Earl  of 
Blois,  and  who  at  that  time  was  abbot  of  Glastonbury.  Deeply  involved  by 
family  connection,  as  well  as  by  personal  character,  in  the  unhappy  con- 
tentions for  the  English  crown,  which  ensued  on  the  death  of  Henry  the 
First;  the  life  of  Bishop  de  Blois  is  much  more  noticeable  in  a  temporal 
and  political  than  in  an  ecclesiastical  point  of  view.  At  last  his  long  and 
restless  occupation  of  the  See  of  Winchester  was  terminated  by  his  death 
in  1171.  The  strong  fortresses,  or  castles,  erected  by  him  in  this  city,  and  at 
Farnham,  Merden,  Waltham,  &c.  were  at  once  evidences  of  his  wealth  and 
authority,  and  of  the  unhappy  spirit  and  state  of  the  times  in  which  he 
lived.  Those  strong  holds  have  long  ceased  to  be  of  importance;  but  one 
monument  of  this  prelate's  munificence  still  exists,  more  congenial  with  his 
spiritual  functions,  and  with  the  destination  of  tlie  ample  funds  entrusted  to 
his  care.  To  Henry  de  Blois  is  this  vicinity  indebted  for  one  of  its  prin- 
cipal ornaments,  the  Hospital  of  St.  Cross,  founded  by  him  in  1136;  an 
institution,  which,  in  internal  ndministration,  as  in  structure  and  appear- 
ance, including  the  additions  and  improvements  introduced  by  the  Cardinal- 
bishop  Beaufort,  has  undergone  less  alteration  from  its  original  establish- 
ment than  any  other  of  a  similar  nature  in  the  kingdom1. 

According  to  Rudborne  this  prelate  left  certain  writings,  one  concerning 
the  monument  of  the  renowned  British  prince,  Arthur,  discovered  at  Glas- 
tonbury, while  Henry  was  at  the  head  of  that  abbey :  the  other  related  to 

1  The  church  of  St.  Cross,  has  been  frequently  referred  to  as  containing  some  curious  examples 
of  ecclesiastical  architecture.  It  is  indeed  in  the  whole,  and  in  detail,  replete  with  interest ;  but 
its  peculiarities  have  been  either  misunderstood  or  misrepresented.  In  my  Chronological  Illustra- 
tion of  Ancient  Architecture,  it  is  my  intention  to  represent  the  peculiarities  of  this  building,  as 
well  as  those  of  the  Church  of  Romsey,  in  this  vicinity. 


BISHOPS  TOCLIVE  AND  DE  LUCY.  1  13 

the  state  of  his  Cathedral  Church,  and  appears  to  have  been  extant  in  the 
time  of  the  ecclesiastical  historian  Harpsfield,  towards  the  close  of  the  six- 
teenth century. 

The  vacancy  occasioned  by  the  death  of  Bishop  de  Blois  was  not 
supplied  until  the  end  of  1174,  by  the  installation  of  Richard  Toclive 
alias  More.  In  opposition  to  his  repeated  engagements,  but  in  conformity 
with  his  general  practice,  the  King,  Henry  the  Second,  kept  the  See  so 
long  void,  in  order  probably  to  profit  by  its  revenues  ;  and  it  was  only  by 
the  interference  of  some  Cardinals  that  he  granted  licence  for  the  election  of 
a  bishop  to  Winchester,  and  to  many  other  churches  which  had  remained 
void  for  some  years. 

Bishop  Toclive  was  succeeded  in  1 189  by  Godfrey  de  Lucy,  who  not 
only  re-annexed,  by  purchase  from  Richard  the  First,  sundry  manors 
formerly  belonging  to  the  see,  but  also  restored  the  navigation  of  the  river 
Itchen,  between  Winchester  and  the  Southampton  river,  and  adopted 
other  measures  for  the  general  benefit  of  the  city.  In  the  year  1202,  this 
prelate  formed  a  confraternity,  or  society  of  masons,  and  contracted  with 
them  for  five  years,  during  which  time  they  were  to  complete  certain 
additions  and  repairs  to  the  Church.  The  work  then  carried  on  must 
have  been  the  east  end,  in  which  the  Bishop  was  interred  in  the  year  1204, 
only  two  years  after  he  had  begun  his  new  style  of  architecture2. 

During  the  episcopacy  of  de  Lucy  occurred  the  singular  re-instalment  of 
Richard   the    First.   Cosur-de-lion,  in  his  regal  office.     Returning   home, 
less  elated  with  the  victories  he  had  achieved  in  the  Holy  Land,  than  de- 
pressed by  the  lawless  captivity  he  had  endured  under  the  Duke  of  Austria, 
he  hardly  conceived  himself  to  be  a  sovereign  unless  he  were  again  publicly 

2  "  Anno  1202.  D.  Wintoniensis  Godfidus  de  Lucy  constituit  confratriam  pro  reparatione 
ecclesiae  Wintoniensis,  duraturam  ad  quinqua  annos  completos."  Annates  Wiut.  Was  not  this 
confraternity  a  club  of  free-masons? 

It  must  surprise  the  architectural  antiquary  to  be  told,  that  T.  Warton,  the  historian  of  English 
poetry,  and  the  commentator  on  English  Architecture,  in  his  notes  to  Spenser's  "  Fairy  Queen," 
refers  this  very  architecture  by  de  Lucy  to  the  time  of  "  the  Saxon  kings,"  before  the  Norman 
Conquest.     See  his  "  Description,  &c.  of  Winchester,"  p.  63. 


I  [4  WINCHESTER  CATHEDRAL. 

crowned  and  recognised.  The  ceremony  was  performed  with  great  splen- 
dour in  the  Cathedral  of  Winchester,  in  the  presence  of  the  prelates  and 
nobles  of  the  kingdom.  But  bishop  de  Lucy  was  absent ;  for  Richard  had, 
on  his  arrival,  resumed  the  manors  he  had  sold  and  the  castle,  on  the  plea 
that  the  royal  demesnes  were  in-alienable.  We  are  not,  however,  informed 
that  the  purchase-money  was  refunded  to  the  bishop. 

Towards  the  end  of  1204,  Sir  Peter  de  Rupibus,  or  de  Rochys,  wag 
appointed  bishop.  He  had  been  knighted  for  his  military  services  under 
Richard,  and  hence  was  generally  thought,  from  his  education  and  habits, 
better  qualified  to  command  an  army  than  to  preside  over  a  diocess.  His 
military  and  political  talents  were  peculiarly  serviceable  to  the  Christian 
warriors  under  the  Emperor  Frederic  in  the  Holy  Land,  whither  our 
bishop  repaired  in  1226'.  By  him  King  John  was  animated  to  withstand 
the  Pope's  excommunication,  and  he  was  afterwards  created  chief  justice 
of  the  kingdom.  On  the  death  of  John,  from  whose  vices  and  mismanage- 
ment the  nation  derived  greater  and  more  lasting  advantages  than  from  the 
virtues  and  good  conduct  of  many  other  princes,  and  on  the  accession  of 
his  son,  Henry  the  Third,  or  Henry  of  Winchester,  a  child  of  nine  years  of 
age,  the  administration  of  public  affairs  became  almost  entirely  vested  in  de 
Rupibus.  He  succeeded  the  Earl  of  Pembroke  in  the  protectorate  of  the 
kingdom  ;  and  even  after  the  young  king  came  of  age,  his  chief  reliance  for 
counsel  was  on  the  bishop.  By  Matthew  of  Westminster,  however,  we 
are  told  that,  in  1234,  Henry  requiring  an  account  of  the  royal  treasures, 
the  Bishop  of  Winchester  and  the  treasurer  Peter  de  Rivallis,  took  refuge 
at  the  altar,  and  concealed  themselves  for  some  time  in  the  Cathedral. 
All  this  notwithstanding,  says  Matthew  of  Paris,  by  his  death  in  1238, 
the  whole  counsel  of  England,  regal  and  ecclesiastical,  sustained  an 
irreparable  loss.  This  bishop's  munificence  was  not  confined  to  the 
religious  establishments  of  England:  the  church  of  St.  Thomas  and  the 
fortifications  of  Joppa,  now  Jaffa,  in  Palestine,  were  greatly  improved  at 
his  expense. 

The  death  of  de  Rupibus  occasioned  a  violent  contest  between  the  king 
and  the  monks  of  the  Cathedral.     Henry  was  bent  on  the  election  of  his 


BISHOPS  DE  RALEY  AND  ETHELMAR.  115 

queen's  ancle,  William,  chosen  bishop  of  Valence,  in  France.  The  monks, 
on  the  other  hand,  having  received  an  unfavourable  report  of  William, 
persisted  in  refusing  him,  and  chose  William  deRaley,  or  Radley,  then 
bishop  of  Norwich.  "  When  the  king  heard  of  their  intent,"  says  Godwin, 
"  he  was  exceeding  angry,  and  made  great  havock  of  the  bishop's  tempo- 
ralities ;  swearing  he  would  have  his  will  at  last,  or  they  should  never  have  a 
bishop."  Thinking  therefore  to  satisfy  the  king,  the  monks  next  elected  his 
chancellor,  Ralph  Nevil,  bishop  of  Chichester:  but  this  election  only  the 
more  incensed  Henry  against  them.  This  indecent  contention  lasted 
for  five  years,  although  William  of  Valence,  who  had  occasioned  it,  had 
died  within  a  year  after  it  began.  William  de  Raley  withdrew  to  France, 
where  it  became  a  saying,  as  Matthew  of  Westminster  reports,  that 
"  Henry  of  England  was  a  coward  towards  his  enemies,  and  only  brave 
against  his  bishops."  Being  at  last  reconciled  with  Henry,  the  bishop 
returned  to  England,  and  in  1246  performed  in  his  presence  the  dedi- 
cation of  the  royal  abbey  of  Beau-lieu  (de  hello  loco)  in  the  neighbouring 
forest. 

The  See,  vacated  by  the  death  of  Raley  in  1250,  was  filled  by  the  election 
of  Ethelmar,  or  Audomar,  the  king's  half-brother  by  the  marriage  of  the 
queen-dowager  with  Hugh,  Earl  of  March.  Ethelmar  had  neither  morals 
uor  learning,  nor  the  requisite  age,  nor  previous  orders  in  the  church,  to 
recommend  him  for  the  episcopate ;  but  the  monks  had  suffered  too  severe- 
ly in  the  preceding  contest,  and  were  besides  convinced  that  they  should 
not  be  supported  by  the  Pope  against  the  King ;  they  therefore  acquiesced 
in  Henry's  proposal.  The  presages  of  Ethelmar's  administration  were  not 
erroneous,  for  he  conducted  himself  with  so  much  injustice  and  tyranny, 
that  he,  with  his  brothers,  whose  oppressions  were  felt  in  other  parts  of  the 
kingdom,  was  driven  into  banishment.  His  consecration  was  deferred  for 
several  years ;  and  the  monks  proceeded,  by  a  new  election,  to  nominate 
the  King's  Chancellor,  Henry  de  Wengham,  who  declined  the  charge.  At 
last  Ethelmar  died  at  Paris  in  1260,  on  his  way  to  England,  having,  as 
some  say,  succeeded  in  obtaining  consecration  at  Rome. 


]16  WINCHESTER  CATHEDRAL. 

The  vacant  See  now  became  a  subject  of  contention,  not  between  the 
monks  and  the  King,  but  among  the  monks  themselves.  The  Pope,  how- 
ever, set  aside  the  contending  candidates,  and,  by  way  of  provision,  as  it 
was  called,  consecrated  John  of  Exon,  or  Oxon,  or  Gemsey,  or  Gerways, 
(for  so  variously  is  the  name  written),  who  had  been  Chancellor  of  York. 
Taking  part  with  the  barons  against  the  king,  and  being  suspended  by  the 
legate,  he  repaired  to  Rome,  where  he  died  in  1268 ;  enjoying  but  a  short 
time  the  episcopacy,  for  which  he  is  said  to  have  paid  into  the  court  of 
Rome  the  vast  sum  of  twelve  thousand  marks,  equal,  in  effective  value,  to 
one  hundred  thousand  pounds  of  our  present  money. 

John  dying  in  curia,  or  at  the  court  of  Rome,  the  appointment  of  a 
successor  fell,  by  the  ancient  canon  law,  to  the  Pope,  who  translated  hither 
from  Worcester  Nicholas  of  Ely,  who  rebuilt  and  in  1268,  dedicated  the 
church  of  the  original  Cistercian  abbey  of  Waverley,  near  Farnham, 
previously  founded  by  Bishop  Giffard. 

"  About  this  time,"  says  Godwin,  "  the  Pope  began  to  take  upon  him 
the  bestowing  of  bishoprics  for  the  most  part  every  where.  John  de  Pon- 
tissara,  or  of  Pouutoise,  in  France,  was  placed  by  him,  upon  his  absolute 
authority.  He  was  a  great  enemy  of  the  monks  of  his  church,  whose  living 
he  much  diminished  to  increase  his  own."  The  most  important  act  of  this 
prelate  was  the  establishment  of  the  college  of  St.  Elizabeth  of  Hungary,  in 
Winchester,  and  which  was  completed  in  1.301.  "The  statutes  of  this 
college,"  says  Dr.  Milner,  "  prove  his  zeal  for  the  advancement  of  piety, 
morality,  learning,  and  clerical  discipline;  but  they  are  such  as  would  be 
thought  grievous  and  impracticable  in  the  present  day."  [Hist.  Win.  vol,  i. 
274,  from  Monast.  Aug.] 

On  the  death  of  John,  in  1304,  the  See  was  filled  by  Henry  Woodloke, 
alias  de  Merewell,  in  whose  time,  in  1307, -took  place  the  suppression  of 
the  celebrated  order  of  the  Knights  Templars,  who  had  property,  and  most 
probably  a  preceptory,  (as  their  houses  were  termed,)  in  Winchester. 

The  succeeding  prelates  were  John  de  Sandale,  Reginald  de  Asser, 
John   de  Stratford,  and  Adam  de  Orleton,  the  latter  of  whom  was 


BISHOPS  ORLETON  AND  EDINGTON.  117 

translated  from  Worcester  at  the  end  of  1333.  He  had  been  one  of  the 
most  zealous  agents  of  the  barons  in  the  first  war  against  Edward  the 
Second.  His  trial  on  this  account  was  the  first  instance  in  England  of  a 
bishop  being  brought  before  the  ordinary  secular  tribunal  of  the  country, 
and  this  notwithstanding  the  opposition  of  the  other  prelates.  The 
common  charge  of  his  being  concerned  in  plotting  the  death  of  the  un- 
happy Edward,  seems,  however,' rather  doubtful;  particularly  as  Edward 
the  Third,  in  his  complaint  to  Rome  against  Orleton,  takes  no  notice  of  the 
charge.  Whilst  he  presided  at  Winchester  the  monarch  removed  the 
woolstaplers  from  this  city  to  Calais  ;  an  event  that  proved  very  injurious 
to  our  city.     Milner  calls  him  "  an  artful  and  unprincipled  churchman." 

William  of  Edington,  appointed  to  this  See  in  1345,  was  the  first  pre- 
late of  the  order  of  the  garter,  which  was  instituted  five  years  afterwards.  In 
his  capacity  of  treasurer  to  the  king,  he  is  accused  of  lowering  the  intrinsic 
value  of  the  coin  :  but  the  principles  on  which  such  an  operation  of  finance 
must  be  founded  seem  to  have  been  very  imperfectly  understood  on  both 
sides  of  the  question.  His  declining  the  nomination  to  the  metropolitan 
throne  of  Canterbury,  is  variously  explained ;  although  he  be  reported  to 
have  observed,  that  "  Canterbury  was  the  higher  rack,  but  that  Winchester 
was  the  richer  manger."  Be  this  as  it  may,  it  appears  from  Walsingham, 
copied,  though  not  quoted,  by  Godwin,  that  Bishop  Edington's  executors 
were  sued  by  his  successor,  Wykeham,  for  dilapidations  to  a  great  amount. 
The  demands  made  were  for  sixteen  hundred  and  sixty-two  pounds  ten 
shillings  in  money,  fifteen  hundred  and  fifty  head  of  neat,  three  thousand 
eight  hundred  and  seventy-six  wethers,  four  thousand  seven  hundred  and 
seventy-seven  ewes,  three  thousand  five  hundred  and  twenty-one  lambs, 
and  one  hundred  and  twenty-seven  swine3;  all  which  stock,  &c.  it, seems 
belonged,  at  that  time,  to  the  bishopric  of  Winchester. 


3  Dr.  Lowth,  who  examined  the  original  register,  places  this  number  of  beasts  at  the  head  of 
the  list,  and  calls  them  draught-horses  instead  of  swine.  The  bishop's  stock  contained  doubtless  a 
number  of  both. 


118  WINCHESTER  CATHEDRAL. 

Besides  liis  liberalities  to  other  religious  establishments,  it  appears  in- 
contestable from  his  Will,  executed  in  1366,  the  year  of  his  death,  that 
Bishop  Edington  actually  began  the  great  work  of  rebuilding  the  nave  of 
his  cathedral,  and  that  he  allotted  a  considerable  sum  of  money  to  carry  it 
on  after  his  death,  which  happened  in  October4. 

Of  the  illustrious  successor  of  Edington,  William  of  Wykeham,  some 
notice  has  already  been  taken,  in  reviewing  his  great  works  in  the  Cathedral. 
It  would  certainly  constitute  an  interesting  theme  for  biographical  disqui- 
sition to  enter  pretty  fully  into  the  memoirs  of  this  eminent  prelate, 
architect,  and  founder:  but  this  pleasure  I  must  deny  myself  at  present, 
and  refer  to  the  ample  life  of  him  already  written  by  Dr.  Lowth.  Intimately 
connected  as  he  was  with  this  Cathedral  and  city,  endeared  as  his  memory 
must  be  to  thousands  of  persons  now  living,  who  have  profited  by  his 
liberal  and  laudable  foundations ;  he  becomes  an  important  and  imposing 
subject.  His  name  is  encircled  with  a  halo  of  merits  and  virtues ;  and 
nothing  but  praise  has  been  poured  forth  to  embalm  hi3  memory.  It 
should,  however,  be  remembered,  that  panegyric  is  not  history,  and  that  a 
perfect  human  being  is  a  lusus  naturte.  The  man  who,  like  Wykeham, 
amasses  an  ample  fortune,  from  high  political  offices,  is  suspected  to  want 
both  honesty  and  integrity  :  it  is  generally  supposed  that  he  aggrandizes  him- 
self at  the  expense  of  the  country,  and  that  he  is  influenced  more  by  a  lust 
of  power  than  by  the  amor  putrice.  But  if,  like  Wykeham,  he  bequeaths  the 
whole  of  his  wealth  to  promote  public  good  and  to  benefit  mankind,  he  will 
secure  the  applanse  of  posterity.  Wykeham  lived  at  an  important  era; 
was  fortunately  advanced  from  poverty  to  affluence,  and  from  his  connec- 
tion with,  and  power  over  the  English  monarch,  was  enabled  to  produce 
very  great  effects  on  the  country.  His  origin  was  obscure,  and  his  only 
school  education  appears  to  have  been  derived  from  the  charitable  patron- 

4  "  In  this  year,  130ti,  on  llie  1  Itli  day  of  September,  having  made  his  will,  Bishop  Edingdon 
directed  that  out  of  his  estate  and  goods,  money  should  he  expended  for  completing  the  nave  of  the 
cathedral  church  of  Winchester,  which  he  had  begun."  Cont.  Hist.  Wint.  ex  rcgistro  Langham, 
cited  by  Milner. 


BISHOP  WYKEHAM.  119 

age  of  Uvedale,  lord  of  the  manor  of  Wickham,  or  Wykeham,  a  village  in 
Hampshire,  the  birth-place  of  our  prelate.  This  gentleman  was  governor 
of  the  castle  of  Winchester,  and  placed  William  at  a  school  in  that  city ; 
from  which  he  was  advanced  to  be  his  secretary.  At  this  time  Edington 
was  bishop,  who  introduced  Wykeham  to  Edward  III.  This  splendid 
monarch  soon  appreciated  and  employed  the  talents  of  Wykeham.  He  was 
first  made  one  of  the  king's  chaplains  ;  and  in  1356  was  appointed  clerk  of 
the  king's  works  in  his  manors  of  Hendle  and  Yestampsted.  In  the  year 
1359,  he  was  also  nominated  surveyor  of  the  works  at  Windsor,  where  he 
appears  to  have  continued  engaged  till  1373.  By  his  letters  patent  he  was 
allowed  one  shilling  per  day,  and  two  shillings  when  travelling  on  business, 
with  an  allowance  of  three  shillings  a  week  for  a  clerk.  Soon  afterwards 
he  was  paid  an  additional  shilling  a  day.  The  latter  end  of  the  year  1359 
the  architect's  powers  were  further  enlarged,  and  he  was  appointed  keeper 
of  the  manors  of  Old  and  New  Windsor.  "  The  next  year  360  workmen 
were  impressed  to  be  employed  on  the  buildings  at  the  king's  wages,  some 
of  whom  having  clandestinely  left  Windsor,  and  engaged  in  other  employ- 
ments for  greater  wages,  writs  were  issued  to  prohibit  all  persons  from 
employing  them,  on  pain  of  forfeiting  all  their  goods  and  chattels;  and  to 
commit  such  of  the  workmen  as  should  be  apprehended  to  Newgate."  In 
1362,  writs  were  issued  to  the  sheriffs  of  different  counties  to  impress  302 
masons  and  diggers  of  stone,  for  the  same  works,  and  in  1363,  many 
glaziers  were  impressed,  and  the  works  at  Windsor  were  carried  on  till 
13735.  Wykeham  was  also  engaged  in  building  another  royal  residence 
for  his  monarch  and  master  at  Queenborough,  in  Kent.  He  was  not, 
however,  merely  an  architect,  but  was  a  man  of  the  world  and  a  man  of 
business,  and  as  such  was  frequently  employed  by  Edward  III. 

To  take  holy  orders  seems  always  to  have  been  his  design  ;  for  in  all  the 
patents,  and  even  as  early  as  in  1352,  he  is  styled  clericus  (clerk),  although 
he  had  only  received  the  tonsure,  and  was  not  ordained  a  priest  until  June 

s  Lysons's  Berkshire,  p.  419. 


120  WINCHESTER  CATHEDRAL. 

1362,  nor  even  admitted  to  the  low  order  of  alcolythis  until  the  December 
preceding.  His  first  ecclesiastical  preferment  was  to  the  rectory  of  Pulham 
in  Norfolk,  to  which  he  received  the  royal  presentation  in  the  end  of  J 357. 
Ecclesiastical  benefices  now  flowed  in  upon  him  in  such  profusion,  that,  as 
Dr.  Milner  observes,  "  we  should  condemn  any  other  clergyman,  except 
Wykeham,  for  accepting  them  ;  and  we  are  only  induced  to  excuse  him,  in 
consequence  of  the  proofs  we  have  still  remaining,  that  he  only  received  the 
revenues  of  the  church  with  one  hand  to  expend  them  in  her  service  with 
the  other."  The  yearly  value  of  his  benefices  amounted  to  no  less  a  sum 
than  £873.  6s.  8d.  money  of  those  days,  equal  to  about  £13,100.  of  present 
money.  So  numerous  were  the  offices  he  held  in  the  church,  that  it  required 
no  small  ingenuity  to  combine  them  in  such  a  manner  that  the  possession  of 
one  should  not  be  incompatible  with  that  of  one  or  all  of  the  others.  The 
advancement  of  Wykeham  in  the  State  kept  pace  with  his  preferment  in 
the  church.  In  1363  he  was  warden  and  justiciary  of  the  king's  forests 
south  of  Trent;  in  1364.  keeper  of  the  privy  seal,  and  two  years  afterwards 
the  king's  secretary.  He  is  next  styled  chief  of  the  privy  council,  and 
governor'  of  the  great  council.  Froissart,  his  contemporary,  says,  "  there 
was  at  that  time  a  priest  in  England  of  the  name  of  William  of  Wykeham  : 
this  William  was  so  high  in  the  king's  grace,  that  nothing  was  done  in 
any  respect  whatever  without  his  advice.  The  king,  who  loved  Wykeham 
very  much,  did  whatever  he  desired  ;  and  Sir0  William  Wykeham  was 
made  Bishop  of  Winchester  and  Chancellor  of  England7." 

While  Edward  retained  the  full  possession  of  his  faculties,  Wykeham 
continued  to  enjoy  his  confidence,  but  in  the  close  of  his  reign  the  jea- 
lousy and  intrigues  of  John  of  Gaunt,  Duke  of  Lancaster,  Edward's  only 
surviving  son,  suspected  to  entertain  some  views  of  ascending  the  throne  in 
the  place  of  his  young  nephew,  afterwards  Richard  the  Second,  succeeded 

6  The  prefix  of  Sir  to  the  christian  name  of  a  clergyman  was  usual  at  this  time,  and  implied  that 
he  was  not  graduated  in  the  University;  being  in  orders,  but  not  in  degrees  ;  whilst  others,  entitled 
masters,  bad  commenced  in  the  arts. 

'  Chronicles  of  England,  &c.  vol.  viii.  p.  385,  octavo,  1806. 


BISHOP  WYKEHAM.  121 

in  undermining  the  credit  of  our  eminent  prelate.  By  specious  pretences  he 
was  removed  from  his  office,  his  episcopal  revenues  were  sequestrated,  and 
he  himself  forhidden  to  approach  the  court,  or  the  capital.  Previously, 
however,  to  the  death  of  Edward,  in  June  1377,  the  bishop  had  in  some 
measure  the  satisfaction  to  be  restored  to  the  King's  wonted  favours  ;  and 
early  after  the  accession  of  Richard  the  Second,  all  difficulties  respecting  his 
affairs  were  completely  removed.  Disengaged,  as  far  as  his  station  would 
permit  from  his  usual  attendance  On  public  business,  Wykeham  prepared 
the  plans  for  his  two  celebrated  Colleges,  at  Winchester  and  at  Oxford.  In 
1373  he  had  opened  a  school  at  Winchester;  and  the  society  intended  for 
Oxford  was  formed  several  years  before  the  collegiate  buildings  were  com- 
menced. But  these  were  not  the  only  measures  by  which  his  government 
was  distinguished ;  for  among  many  others,  he  sedulously  exerted  himself  to 
restore  the  hospital  of  St.  Cross  to  its  original  charitable  purpose. 

To  appreciate  the  character  of  Wykeham,  we  must  divest  ourselves 
of  many  notions  (prejudices  indeed  they  may  justly  be  termed),  resulting 
from  the  state  of  things  in  our  days,  compared  with  that  exhibited 
in  England  four  centuries  ago.  Many  acts  and  measures  then  considered 
to  be  beneficial,  judicious,  and  meritorious,  may  now  be  regarded  in  a  very 
different  light.  Of  the  value  of  the  religious,  scientific,  and  eleemosinary 
institutions  of  former  times,  we  cannot  properly  form  an  adequate  estimate  : 
we  may,  therefore,  imagine  that  much  of  Wykeham's  munificence  might 
perhaps  have  been  better  employed.  It  must  not,  however,  be  forgotten, 
that  monastic  institutions,  (besides  contributing  their  proportion  to  the 
exigencies  of  the  state,)  supported  the  whole  body  of  the  poor;  exercising 
hospitality  to  all,  furnishing  schools  for  the  gratuitous  education  of  youth, 
and  hospitals  for  the  reception  of  the  sick  and  infirm.  To  the  industry  of  the 
monks,  prior  to  the  discovery  of  printing,  we  are  indebted  for  multiplied  copies 
of  the  scriptures,  and  of  the  ancient  classic  and  ecclesiastic  writings ;  and  also 
for  the  histories  and  records  of  past  times  in  general.  It  has  been  unfortunate 
for  Wykeham  that  he  was,  more  on  account  of  his  place  and  influence  than 
from  his  personal  character,  peculiarly  obnoxious  to  a  person  so  powerful 
as  John  of  Gaunt ;  but  Edward  held  him  in  singular  favour  :  for,  as  Godwin 
observes,  "  in  the  greatness  of  his  authority  the  king  found  two  notable 

Q 


12*2  WINCHESTER  CATHEDRAL. 

commodities,  one,  that  without  his  care  all  things  were  ordered  so  well  as 
by  a  wise  and  trusty  servant  they  might ;  the  other,  that  if  any  thing  fell 
out  amiss,  wheresoever  the  fault  were,  he  had  opportunity  to  cast  all  the 
blame  upon  the  Bishop  of  Winchester."  His  Will,  made  fifteen  months 
before  his  death,  extends  to  all  orders  and  degrees  of  men,  and  answers 
every  demand  of  piety,  gratitude,  affection,  and  charity.  Dying  in  Septem- 
ber 1404,  he  was  interred  in  the  chantry  he  had  erected  in  this  Cathedral. 

The  successor  of  Wykeham  was  a  prelate  of  a  different  description ; 
whose  character,  through  the  powerful  representations  of  Shakspeare, 
seems  consigned  to  perpetual  ignominy8.  This  was  Henry  Beaufort,  son 
of  John  of  Gaunt,  Duke  of  Lancaster,  by  his  third  wife,  Catharine  Swin- 
ford.  Educated  abroad  as  well  as  at  Oxford,  he  particularly  applied 
himself  to  the  civil  and  canon  law ;  studies  indispensable  for  one  who,  for 
various  reasons,  looked  forward  to  a  high  station  in  the  state  as  well  as  in 
the  church.  Translated  from  the  See  of  Lincoln  to  Winchester,  and  soon 
afterwards  distinguished  by  the  hat  of  a  cardinal,  and  involved  in  the  vortex 
of  worldly  politics,  he  at  first  allowed  himself  too  little  time  to  attend  to 
the  spiritual  concerns  of  his  diocess.  His  conduct,  however,  in  his  latter 
days,  was  very  different.  He  lent  to  Henry  the  Fifth,  whose  treasury  was 
exhausted  by  his  brilliant  but  destructive  successes  beyond  sea,  the  pro- 
digious sum  of  twenty  thousand  pounds,  to  ward  off  a  suspected  design  of 
appropriating  the  reveuues  of  the  church.  Besides  the  money  he  expended 
on  his  Cathedral,  and  on  various  other  religious  and  charitable  establish- 
ments, he  greatly  enlarged  the  usefulness  of  the  hospital  of  St.  Cross,  and 
erected  the  principal  part  of  the  domestic  buildings  now  existing. 

Having  filled  the  See  of  Winchester  forty-three  years,  Beaufort  gave 
place  to  William  of  Waynflete,  so  named  from  his  birth-place  in  Lin- 
colnshire. To  Wykeham's  colleges  at  Winchester  and  Oxford,  he  was 
indebted  for  his  education.  Become  master  of  the  former,  he  was  engaged 
by  Henry  the  Sixth  to  take  the  same  charge  of  the  new  institution  at  Eton. 
The  revenues  of  Winchester  enabling  him  to  carry  into  effect  the  project 
he  had  for  some  time  contemplated,  he  commenced  his  noble  institution  of 

e  Our  bard,  appears  to  be  supported  by  the  accounts  of  Hall,  Holinshed,  and  other  old  English 
Chroniclers. 


BISHOPS  WAYNFLETE  AND  COURTENEY.  123 

the  College  of  St.  Mary  Magdalen,  in  Oxford.  Attentive  to  whatever 
could  promote  the  views  of  his  new  establishment;  Waynflete,  preparatory 
to  a  visit  to  it  in  1481,  sent  thither  a  very  large  number  of  volumes;  eight 
hundred  as  some  say,  which  had  issued  from  presses  already  established 
in  England,  as  well  as  on  the  Continent,  or  works  still  in  manuscript.  Be- 
sides the  college  at  Oxford,  Waynflete  founded  a  free-school  in  his  native 
town,  and  was  a  benefactor  to  Eton  College,  and  to  his  Cathedral  of  Win- 
chester. Respecting  the  general  character  of  Waynflete,  his  biographer, 
Dr.  Chandler,  observes,  that  in  the  course  of  his  researches,  he  had  met 
with  no  accusation  of,  or  reflection  on  him.  Humane  and  benevolent  in 
an  uncommon  degree,  he  appeared  to  have  no  enemies  but  from  party,  and 
even  those  he  disarmed  of  their  malice.  The  prudence,  fidelity,  and 
innocence  which  preserved  him  in  the  waves  of  inconstant  fortune  are  justly 
the  subject  of  admiration. 

Waynflete  lived  to  behold  the  restoration  of  the  house  of  Lancaster,  in  the 
person  of  Henry  the  Seventh;  when  dying  in  the  year  1486,  the  king  had 
an  opportunity  of  promoting  to  Winchester  a  prelate  possessing  his  high 
regard.  This  was  Peter  Courteney,  of  the  family  of  that  name  established 
in  Devonshire;  a  prelate  of  respectable  character,  but  still  more  distin- 
guished by  his  descent  from  the  house  of  Courteney  in  France,  which  sprung 
from  two  kings  of  that  country;  Robert,  who  died  in  1031,  and  Lewis  Le 
Gros,  or  the  Sixth,  who  reigned  till  1137.  Of  this  family  one  branch  en- 
gaged in  the  Crusades  and  became  Counts  of  Edissa,  in  the  east;  another, 
established  in  France,  furnished  three  Emperors  to  Constantinople,  and 
continued  to  be  ranked  among  the  Princes  of  the  blood  royal,  until  it  was 
resolved,  in  late  times,  to  limit  that  distinction  to  the  descendants  of  St. 
Lewis,  or  the  Ninth.  The  third  branch  passed  into  England  in  the  beginning 
of  the  reign  of  Henry  the  Second,  and  soon  rose  to  rank  and  opulence  by 
inter-marrying,  at  different  periods,  with  the  royal  family. 

The  next  bishop  of  Winchester  was  Thomas  Langton,  removed  hither 
from  Salisbury,  a  prelate  described  by  Anthony  Wood  as  a  second  Mecaenas> 
on  account  of  the  protection  he  afforded  to  literature  and  learned  men- 
On   the  death  of  Morton,    Archbishop   of  Canterbury,   he  was  actually 


124  WINCHESTER  CATHEDRAL. 

elected   to  succeed  him,  but  a  few  days  afterwards  was  carried  off  by  the 
plague,  and  was  buried  in  the  curious  chapel  already  described. 

His  successor,  Richard  Fox,  had  long  been  the  confidential  friend  and 
minister  of  Henry  the   Seventh,  who  successfully    employed  his  talents 
in  sundry   negotiations    with    foreign    princes.      In    recompense,  he  was 
appointed  Bishop  of  Exeter,  retaining  still  his  other  offices  of  privy  seal 
and  secretary  of  state.     From  Exeter  he  passed  first  to  Bath  and  Wells, 
and  thence  to  Durham,  where  he  displayed  his  munificence  and  architec- 
tural taste.     But  in  order  to  have  him  nearer  the  court,  Henry  removed 
him  to  Winchester,  and  even  selected  him  to  be  sponsor  at  the  baptism  of 
the  young  Prince,  afterwards  Henry  the  Eighth;  to  whom  he  subsequently 
acted  as  one  of  the  leading  counsellors,  with  equal  zeal  as  when  he  served 
his  father.     Of  his  retirement  from  court,  in  the  young  king's  time,  various 
causes  are  assigned.    It  was  after  this  event  that  he  planned  the  munificent 
foundation  of  Corpus  Christi  College  in  Oxford.  The  original  purpose  of  this 
college  was  to  provide  monks  for  the  service  of  his  Cathedral ;  but,  dissuaded 
from  this  purpose  by  a  friend,  who,  notwithstanding  the  bishop's  long  and 
intimate  acquaintance  with  the  court,  had  penetrated  deeper  than  himself 
into    Henry's  schemes  respecting  monastic  institutions,    he  founded  the 
college  for  the  education  of  secular  clergymen.     He  also  provided  it  with 
some  of  the  most  celebrated  scholars  of  the  age,  among  whom  may  be 
named  John  Lewis  Vives,  and  Reginald  Pole,  afterwards  the  celebrated 
cardinal.     Dying  in  1528,  the  bishop  was  buried  in  the  exquisite  chantry 
he  had  erected  in  his  Cathedral. 

On  the  death  of  Bishop  Fox,  the  See  of  Winchester  devolved  to  the 
mighty  cardinal,  Thomas  Wolsey,  who  had  now  engrossed  the  favour  of 
Henry  the  Eighth,  and  obtained  some  of  the  richest  benefices  of  the 
church.  At  first  introduced  to  the  tyrant  by  Fox,  to  counterbalance  the 
influence  of  the  Earl  of  Surrey,  afterwards  Duke  of  Norfolk,  he  soon  rose 
superior  to  his  opponent  and  to  his  patron  himself.  The  history  of  Wolsey, 
independently  of  the  part  he  took  in  public  affairs,  is  little  more  than  a 
list  of  promotions,  following  one  another  with  a  rapidity  equally  alarming 
to  the  courtiers,  and  invidious  in  the  eyes  of  the  people.     Of  this  distiu- 


BISHOPS  WOLSEY,  GARDINER,  AND  POYNET.  J 25 

guished  prelate  and  politician,  we  are  furnished  with  ample  memoirs  in  a 
large  folio  volume,  by  Fiddes ;  and  recently  in  a  new  life  of  him,  by  Mr.  Gait. 
In  my  account  of  York  Cathedral,  I  shall  have  occasion  to  make  a  few 
remarks  on  his  character. 

From  the  death  of  Wolsey,  Winchester  was  without  a  bishop  for  nearly 
four  years,  when  the  vacancy  was  filled  by  Stephen  Gardiner,  who  was 
brought  into  notice  by  "Wolsey,  but  who  owed  his  preferment  to  his  readi- 
ness to  promote  and  justify  every  project  of  the  king.     Being  appointed  at 
the  moment  when  the  dispute  concerning  the  ecclesiastical  supremacy  of 
the  crown  was  at  its  utmost  height,  Gardiner  joined  the  two  metropolitans, 
and  some  other  prelates,  in  acknowledging  Henry  to  be  the  supreme  head 
of  the  church  of  England.     This  measure  was  soon  followed  by  the  sup- 
pression of  the  religious  houses  throughout  the  kingdom,  by  which  Win- 
chester suffered  greatly,  both  in  condition  and  outward  appearance.     Not- 
withstanding his  submissive  conduct,  during  the  life  of  Henry,  and  his 
taking  out  a  new  license  to  govern  his  See  on  the  accession  of  Edward  the 
Sixth,  Gardiner  resisted  all  further  changes  in  religion  until  the  young  king 
should  be  of  age,  and  was  therefore  by  the  protector,  Seymour,  committed 
to  the  tower.  At  last  he  was  declared  to  be  no  longer  prelate  of  Winchester,: 
and  Dr.  John  Poynet  was  appointed  in  his  place ;  who  was  the  first  bishop 
consecrated  according  to  the  new  ordinal.     On  the  accession  of  Mary  to  the 
thrOne,  Gardiner  was  reinstated  in  his  See,  and,  Archbishop  Cranmer  being  a 
prisoner  on  a  charge  of  high  treason,  he  officiated  at  the  Queen's  Coronation, 
and  at  her  subsequent  nuptials  with  Philip  of  Spain.     Of  the  conduct  of 
Gardiner  as  a  bishop  and  a  statesman,  the  accounts  of  writers  are  contra- 
dictory and  irreconcileable.     Whilst  the  Catholic  justifies  and  applauds 
him  for  courage,  consistency,  and  religious  integrity,  the  Protestant  repre- 
sents and  censures  him  for  cruelty  and  unmerciful  tyranny. 

Of  Bishop  Poynet  who,  on  the  deprivation  of  Gardiner  in  the  reign  of 
Edward  the  Sixth,  was  translated  from  Rochester  to  Winchester,  little 
more  is  known  than  that  he  was  an  early  and  a  strenuous  champion  for  the 
reformed  doctrines.  He  was  also  well  skilled  in  various  languages,  ancient 
and  modern,  well  read  in  the  fathers  of  the  church,  an  able  mathematician 
and  a  mechanist.     On  the  accession  of  Mary,  he,  with  many  other  Protes- 


126  WINCHESTER  CATHEDRAL. 

tents,  withdrew  to  the  continent,  not  only  on  account  of  religion,  but,  as 
it  is  said,  because  he  was  suspected  of  abetting  the  insurrectionary  move- 
ments under  Sir  Thomas  Wyatt.     He  died  at  Strasburgh  in  1556. 

Bishop  Gardiner  was  succeeded  by  Dr.  John  White,  on  the  condition 
that  he  should  pay  one  thousand  pounds  annually  to  Cardinal  Pole,  who 
complained  that  his  See  of  Canterbury  had  been  greatly  impoverished  in 
the  time  of  his  predecessor,  Cranmer.  He  pronounced  the  funeral  dis- 
course on  Queen  Mary,  whom  he  extolled  with  great  ardour,  while  he 
spoke  of  her  successor,  Elizabeth,  with  extreme  coldness.  Refusing  to 
take  the  new  oath  of  supremacy,  he  was  of  course,  in  June  1559,  declared 
to  have  forfeited  his  bishopric. 

The  See  of  Winchester  again  remained  vacant  for  some  time,  until  the 
appointment  of  Bishop  Robert  Horne,  a  Protestant  divine  of  great 
talents,  distinguished  by  his  controversial  writings,  and  by  the  voluntary  exile 
he  underwent  in  the  reign  of  Mary.  While  Bishop  of  Durham,  he  was 
noted,  according  to  Anthony  Wood,  as  "  a  man  that  could  never  abide  any 
ancient  monument,  acts,  or  deeds  that  gave  any  light  of  or  to  godly  religion." 
To  the  injudicious  zeal  therefore  of  this  prelate  may  be  ascribed  the  havoc 
made  at  that  period  in  the  Cathedral  and  in  other  edifices  of  Winchester. 

The  See  was  next  successively  occupied  by  Drs.  John  Watson  and 
Thomas  Cooper,  both  of  whom  had  studied  and  taken  their  degrees,  in 
medicine.  After  the  latter,  Winchester  possessed  a  second  William  Wick- 
ham,  who  died  in  less  than  ten  weeks  after  his  translation  from  Lincoln. 
The  next  Bishop,  William  Day,  dying  in  the  ninth  month  of  his 
episcopate,  was  followed  by  Thomas  Bilson,  a  native  of  Winchester  and 
a  Wykehamist,  there  and  at  Oxford,  of  whom  Elizabeth  had  a  very  high 
opinion.  She  appointed  him  of  the  privy  council ;  and  he  employed  his  pen 
in  justification  of  her  interference  in  the  affairs  of  Scotland,  France,  and  the 
Low  Countries,  yet  so  as  to  furnish  no  pretext  for  resistance,  in  any  case, 
on  the  part  of  her  own  subjects  against  himself.  "  It.  was  written,"  says 
Collier,  "  to  put  the  best  colour  on  the  Dutch  revolt."  Bishop  Bilson  con- 
tinued in  Winchester  for  several  years  after  the  accession  of  James  the 
First;  but  without  supporting  the  character  he  attained  under  Elizabeth. 
His  successor,  James  Montague,  so  much  esteemed  by  James  as  to  be 


BISHOPS  WATSON,  COOPER,  WICKHAM,  DAY,  ANDREWS,  AND  NEILE.     127 

chosen  the  editor  of  his  writings,  sat  only  about  eighteen  months,  and  was 
buried  in  the  Abbey  Church  of  Bath,  which  he  had  repaired  at  a  great 
expence. 

By  the  death  of  Montague  an  opening  was  made  for  Lancelot  Andrews, 
who  had  been  in  succession,  Bishop  of  Chichester  and  of  Ely.  The  inscrip- 
tion on  his  monument  in  the  church  of  St.  Mary  Overy,  in  Southwark,  notices 
with  peculiar  emphasis  the  distinctions  awaiting  him  in  another  world,  on 
account  of  the  celibacy  he  had  observed  in  this. 

Dr.  Richard  Neile  succeeded  Andrews  by  his  fifth  translation,  and 
notwithstanding  the  course  adopted -by  King  James  in  favour  of  the  rigid 
Calvinists  at  the  synod  of  Dort,  afterwards  united  with  him  in  embracing 
the  modified  system  of  Arminius.  So  far  did  Neile  push  his  animosity 
against  the  Calvinists,  whom  he  had  deserted,  as  absolutely,  while  Bishop 
of  Lichfield  and  Coventry,  to  consign  one  of  them  to  the  stake.  He  per- 
fectly agreed  with  Archbishop  Laud  in  forwarding  King  Charles's  views  of 
restoring  to  divine  service,  and  to  the  churches  themselves,  some  portion  at 
least  of  their  former  splendour  and  majesty ;  but  being  again  removed  to  York, . 
the  execution  of  the  scheme  was  left  to  his  successor  in  Winchester, 
Walter  Curle,  who  made  many  alterations  in  his  Cathedral. 

On  the  restoration  of  Charles  the  Second,  Winchester  recovered  its 
bishop,  after  an  interval  of  ten  years  from  the  death  of  Curie,  in  the  person 
of  Brian  Duppa,  who  had  been  the  king's  tutor.  It  was  not,  however, 
until  nearly  two  years  afterwards  that  the  church  of  England  and  its  ser- 
vices were  properly  re-established ;  an  event  which  the  bishop  did  not  live 
to  witness.  By  his  death  the  See  came  to  George  Morley,  Bishop  of 
Worcester,  "  a  man,"  says  Wood,  "  of  tried  loyalty,  and  no  temporiser, 
who  had  learned  to  shift  his  principles  to  be  ready  for  any  turn  of  afiairs 
that  might  happen,  and  always  to  stand  fair  for  promotion."  He  built  the 
episcopal  palace  at  Winton,  in  place  of  the  ruined  castle  of  Wolveseyr 
also  repaired  the  castle  of  Farnham,  and  purchased  Chelsea-house  as  a 
London  residence  for  the  bishops  of  Winchester. 

Dr.  Peter  Mews,  the  successor  of  Morley,  had  served  in  the  royal 
army  during  the  rebellion,  and,  retiring  into  Holland  on  the  king's  death, 
returned  with  Charles  the  Second,  who  advanced  him  to  the  See  of  Bath 


128  WINCHESTER  CATHEDRAL. 

and  Wells,  and  afterwards  to  Winchester.  He  signalized  himself  at  the 
battle  of  Sedgernoor,  where  he  commanded  the  artillery :  nor  was  he  less 
valued  for  his  integrity  and  hospitality  than  for  his  loyalty  and  prowess. 

The  succeeding  prelate,  Sir  Jonathan  Trelawney,  had  been  raised  to 
the  See  of  Bristol  by  James  the  Second  ;  but  in  1688,  opposing  the  king's 
declaration  of  liberty  of  conscience,  he  was,  with  his  metropolitan  and  five 
other  prelates9,  committed  to  the  Tower;  from  which,  however,  they 
were,  by  the  sentence  of  a  jury,  soon  after  liberated.  Joining  heartily  in 
the  revolution,  he  was,  by  William  and  Mary,  made  Bishop  of  Exeter,  and 
in  J  706  was  promoted  to  Winchester. 

The  successors  of  Bishop  Trelawney  were  Drs.  Charles  Trimnell  and 
Richard  Willis,  the  former  translated  from  Norwich,  the  latter  from 
Salisbury.  In  room  of  the  latter  was  appointed  Dr.  Benjamin  Hoadly, 
who  had  previously  occupied  the  Sees  of  Bangor,  Hereford,  and  Salisbury. 
This  prelate  will  long  be  remembered  in  the  church  of  England  from 
engaging  warmly  in  the  celebrated  Bangorian  controversy.  In  consequence 
of  the  notions  maintained  by  Bishop  Hoadly,  the  government,  it  is  be- 
lieved, resolved  to  dissolve  the  convocation  of  the  clergy  ;  and  since  that 
time,  although  regularly  assembled  on  the  opening  of  anew  parliament,  it 
has  never  transacted  any  business. 

On  the  death  of  Bishop  Hoadly,  his  present  Majesty  translated  from 
Salisbury  to  Winchester  Dr.  John  Thomas,  who  had  been  his  preceptor, 
and  who,  dying  in  1781,  was  succeeded  by  the  present  venerable  prelate  the 
Hon.  Brownlow  North,  then  Bishop  of  Worcester,  and  brother  of  the 
late  Lord  North,  afterwards  Earl  of  Guildford. 

'  These  were,  Saudcroft,  Archbishop  of  Canterbury  ;  Kcnn,  Bishop  of  Bath  and  Wells;  Turner, 
of  Ely;  White,  of  Peterborough ;   Lloyd,  of  Norwich  ;  and  Frampton,  of  Gloucester. 

END  OF  ACCOUNT  OF  BISHOPS. 


n  ©fjronoIOQtcar  tltet  of  tf)t  mtyop*  of  Wlinf%t$tn% 


WITH 


CONTEMPORARY  KINGS  OF  ENGLAND  AND  POPES. 


BISHOPS. 


DORCHESTER. 


Birinns  .. 
Agilbert . 


WINCHESTER. 


Wina 

Eleutheriiis . 
Hedda  


SEE  DIVIDED. 


Daniel.  See  again  divided  . 


Humfred 

Kinebard 

Athelard 

Egbald  , 

Dndda 

Kinebert , 

Almund 

Wighten  

Herewith , 

Edmund  

Helmstan 

St.  Switbun 

Alfiilb,  or  Adferth..., 

Dunbert 

Denewulf,  or  Dennlf. 

Alhelm 

Bertnlf 


Frithstan 

Brinstan 

Elpbege,  tbe  Bald  , 
Alfin,  or  Elsin 


Consecrated  or  Installed  Died  or  Translated 


From 


&ngIo=&axon  Bsnastg. 


635 

650 


660 

670 
676 


706 

745 
755 
780 
793 
705 
797 
808 
814 
8"27 
834 
835 
838 
863 
871 
879 
887 
892 

905 

931 
934 
951 


To. 


650 

See  divided 660 


(Expelled 666 

'Died  675 

674 

Julv7,705 


Resigned. 
Died 


Canterbury. 


Canterbury. 


744) 

745  J 

754 

780 

793 

795 

797 


834 

837 
862 
871 
879 


Resigned 931 


I  Died 
Canterbury 


934 
951 
958 


Dorchester 


Winchester 

Winchester 
Winchester 


Winchester. 
Winchester 
Winchester, 
Winchester 
Winchester, 
Winchester. 
Winchester. 
Winchester, 
Winchester 
Canterbury 


Winchester 

Winchester. 
Winchester 


WEST  SAXONS 


JKinegils  ) 

J  Kenewalsh  ...\ 
Kenewalsh 


Kenewalsh 

Kenewalsh 
Ina 


Athellard... 

Cuthred  .... 

Cuthred 

Sigebert.... 
Kenewnlph 
Kenewulph 
Kenewulph 
Kenewulph 

Egbert 

Egbert 

Egbert , 

Egbert 

Egbert 

Ethelred  ... 

Alfred  

Alfred 

Alfred 

Alfred 

Edward  .... 

Athelstan... 
Edmund  ... 
Edgar  


Popes. 


Honorius  I. 
St.  Martin  I. 


Vitalian. 

Adeodatus. 
Domnus. 


John  VII. 

St.  Zachary. 
Stephen  III. 
Adrian. 
Adrian. 
Leo  III. 
Leo  III. 
Leo  III. 
Stephen  V. 
Valentine. 
Gregory  IV. 
Gregory  IV. 
Gregory  IV. 
Nicholas  I. 
Adrian  II. 
John  VIII. 
Stephen  VI. 
Formosus. 

Sergius  III. 

John  XI. 
John  XI. 
Agapetns  II. 


130 


A  CHRONOLOGICAL  LIST  OF  BISHOPS,  ETC. 


26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 


33 


Brifbelm 

Ethelwold 

ElphegeH 

Kenulph  

Brithwold  or  Ethelwold . 
Elsinus  or  Eadsinus  

Alwyn  

Strand 


Consecrated  or  Installed 


Died  or  Translated 


From To 

958  963 

963  Alls:  1,  984 

984  Canterbury 1006 

10061 1°°8 

1008 1 1015 

1015  Canterbury 1038 

1038 


Elmbam 1047 


1047 

5  Canter'  cum 1052 1 
Died 1069J 

iSorman  Brmastg. 


Buried  at 


Winchester. 


Canterbury  , 
Winchester. 

Winchester.. 


34lWalkelyn 
35 


36 


57 
38 

39 

40 

u 

42 
43 
44 
45 

46 

47 

-IK 
40 
50 


51 

58 


53 


William  Giffard 
Henry  de  Blois  . 


Richard  Toclive,  alias  More 

Godfrey  de  Lucy 

Sir  Peter  de  Rnpibus 

William  de  Raleigh 

Etbelmar 

John  of  Exon,  or  Oxon 

Nicholas  of  Ely 

John  de  Pontessara 

Henry   Woodelock,    or    De 
Merc  well 

John  De  Sandale 

Reginald  De  Asser    

John  De  Stratford  

Adam  De  Orleton  

William  Edin^ton 


William  Wykeham 

Henry  Beaufort,  Cardinal. 


William  Waynflete,  alias  Patten 


54  Peter  Courteney 

55|Thoma<  Langton 

56  Richard  Fox 

57 ,  Thomas  Wolscy,  Cardinal 


1070 

(Appointed 1100) 

(Consecrated 1107J 

Nov.  17, 1129 


...  Jan.  3, 1097-8 
..Jan.  25,  1128  9 

...  Aug.  6,  1171 


Winchester., 
Winchester., 


Sbaxon  Line  HUstorro. 


Oct.  6,  1174 

Nov.  1,  1189 

Sept.  25,  1205 

Norwich 1243 

(Elected  1250) 

(    Never  Consecrated  $ 
1261 


1189 

;*!«  i  *«* 

June  9,  1238 

, Sept  1*50 

126 

...Jan.  20,  1267  8 

Feb.  12,1279-80 

Dec.  4,  1304 

....June,  29,  1316 


May  27,  1268 

June,  1282 

May  30, 1305 

Elected Aug.  5,1316 

Nov.  16,  1320  Apr.  12,  13*3 

June  .(,,  13*3  Canterbury,  Nov.  3,  1333 

Worcester,  Dec.  1,  1SS3 July  18,  1345 

1345!  Oct.  7,  1366 


.Nov.  1319 


Winchester 

Winchester 

Winchester 

Turon 

Paris  :    Heart   in ) 

Winchester $ 

Yiteruium,  Italy 

SWaveiley :  Heart  > 
in  Winchester..  J 
Winchester 


Winchester 

St.  Saviour's, 
Southwark. 
Avignon 


Lancastrian  Line. 


1367 

Lincoln,  March  14, 1405-6 


.Sept.  27,  1404,  Winchester. 
.April  11,  1447  Winchester. 


|?Qrfe  Hinc. 


.  July  30,  1447  | . 


Aug.  fl,  1486 1  Winchester. 


Pinion  of  g9orR  ana  Lancastrian  families. 


Exeter Jan.  29,  1486-71 Sept.  22,  1492 

Sarum June,  1493J Jan.  27, 1500 

Durham Oct.  17, 1500 Sept.  14, 1528 

With  York,  Apr.  11, 15291 . Nov.  29, 1530 


Winchester.. 
Winchester.. 
Winchester.. 
Leicester..... 


Kinffs. 


Edward  Mart... 

Ethelredll 

Ethelred  II 

Ethelred  II 

Canute 

5  Harold  I. 
(  Hardicanute 
J  Edward  Conf. ) 
(Harold  II J 


William  I.  II.. 
Henry  I 


S  Henry  I. 
Step.  Hen.  II. 


Henry  II 

Richard  I.,  John... 

John,  Henry  III... 
Henry  III 

Henry  HI. 

Henry  HI 

Henry  III.  Edw.  I. 

Edward  I 

Edward  I.  II 

Edward  II 

Edward  II 

Edward  II.  HI.... 

Edward  III 

Edward  III 


J  Ed.  III.  Ric> 

,11.  Hen.  IV...  J 

Henry  IV.  V.  VI. 


(Hen.  Vr.  Ed. 
(jlV.V.Ric.III. 


Henry 
Henry  . ; 
Henry  VII.  VIII. 
Henry  VIII. 


VII.. 
VII. 


Popes. 


John  XII. 
Benedict  V. 
John  XIV. 
John  XVIII. 
Sergius  IV. 
Benedict  VIII. 

Benedict  IX. 
Damasus  II. 


Alexander  II. 
Paschal  II. 

Innocent  II. 


Alexander  III. 

Clement  III. 

Innocent  HI. 
Innocent  IV. 

Innocent  IV. 

Urban  IV. 

Gregory  X. 

Martin  IV. 

Boniface  VIII. 

John  XXII. 

John  XXII. 
John  XXII. 
Benedict  XII. 
Clement  VI. 


Urban  V. 
Gregory  XII. 


Nicholas  V. 


Innocent  VIII. 
\IexamlerVl. 
Alexander  VI. 
Clement  VII. 


A  CHRONOLOGICAL  LIST  OP  BISHOPS,  ETC. 


131 


58 

59 
60 
61 

62 
63 

64 

65 
66 


67 
68 
69 
70 

71 

72 

73 

74 
75 
76 
77 
78 
79 


BISHOPS. 


Stephen  Gardiner. 


John  Poynet  

John  White  

Robert  Home 

John  Watson  

Thomas  Cowper  ... 

William  Wickham  . 


William  Day  ... 
Thomas  Bilson. 


James  Montague  ... 

Lancelot  Andrews  . 

Richard  Neile 

Walter  Carle 

Brian  Dnppa 

George  Morley 

Peter  Mews 


Sir  Jonathan  Trelawny,  Bart. 

Charles  Trimnt  II 

Richard  Willis 

Benjamin  Hoadley 

John  Thomas 

Brownlow  North 


Consecrated  or  Installed 


From To 


Died  or  Translated 


Buried  at 


.  Dec.  5, 1531 


Rochester,  Mar.23,1551-2 

Lincoln May  31, 1557 

Feb.  16,  1560-1 

Sept.  18, 1580 

Lincoln.. .Mar.  23, 1583-4 

Lincoln. ..Feb.  22, 1594-5 


Jan.  25,  1595-6 

Worcester,  May  13,  1597 


Information. 

f  Deprived 15501 

•^Restored 1553  ( 

(Died...Nov.l2,1555) 

April  11, 1556 

Deprived 1560 

June  1,  1580 

Jan.  23,1583-4 

April,  29,  1594 

June  12, 1595 

Sept.  20,1596 

June  18,1616 


Winchester., 
Strasbourg  . 


Winchester.. 
Winchester. 
Winchester. 

5  St.  Saviour's, 

1     8. 


South  wark.. 


Westminster . 


eSnfon  of  lEnglfgfj  anfc  £>totc&  ©rooms. 


Bath&Wells,  Oct.  4, 1616 

Ely  Feb.  25,  1618  9 

Durham. ..Feb.  7, 1627 -8 
<  Bath  and  Wells,  Nov.  > 
I     16, 1632  J 

Sarum Oct.  4, 1660 

Worcester,  May  14, 1662 

(Bath and  Wells, Nov, 
(      22,1684 

Exeter June  21, 1707 

Norwicb...Aug.  19,  1721 

Sarum Sept.  21, 1723 

Sarum Sept.  26,  1734 

Sarum 1761 

Worcester 1781 


July  20,1618 

Sept.  21, 1626 

York Oct.  1632 

1647 


.  March  26, 1662 
...Oct.  29, 1684 


..Nov.  9,  1706 

.  July  19, 1721 

1723 

Aug.  1734 

1761 

1781 


Bath 

St.  Saviour's, 
South  wark. 
York , 


Subberton,  Hants.. 


Westminster. 
Winchester... 


Winchester., 


In  Cornwall . 
Winchester.. 
Winchester... 
Winchester.., 
Winchester.., 


Kings. 


5  Henry  VIII 
jEdw.VI 

Edward  VI.  Mary 

Mary 

Elizabeth 

Elizabeth 

Elizabeth 

Elizabeth 

Elizabeth 

Eliz.  James  I 

James  I 

James  I.  Charles  I. 

Charles  I 

Charles  I 

Charles  II 

Charles  II 

James  II.  ) 
Will.  Mary  £ 
Anne ) 

Anne,  George  I.... 

George  I 

George  I.  II 

George  II 

George  III 

George  III 


Popes. 


Clement  VII. 


CIjrotwifoQtcal  %i$l  of  ^rior$  anti  Yearns  of  Wlimi)tfitzt:+ 


6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 
16 
17 

13 

19 
20 
21 

2.' 


24 


Appointed. 


Died  or  removed. 


2nd  Cent.  Abbot 

or  Prior 

963 

970 


Devotus,  or  Denotiis.  ... 

Britlmoth1  

Brithwold,  or  Ethelwold. 

Elfric,  or  Alfric I 1006 

Wnlfsig1 

Simon,  or  Simeon 1065 

Godfrey 1080 

Getfry,  or  Geotfry  1 1107 

G-ffrj  II 1111 

Eustace,  or  Emtachins 1114 

Hugh 1120, 


Ely  970 

Bishop 1006 

Archbishop  of  York  1023 

Died  1065 

Ely 1080 

Died  1107 

Deposed  1111 

Abbot  of  Burton 1114 

Died  1120 


Gerliylll ... 

[ngniphns ' 1126 

Robert  I ' 1130 

Robert  II.' 

Walter 1171 

John 

Robert  HI.  surnamed 
Filzhenry 


1126 

Abbot  of  Abingdon  1130 

S  Bishop  of  Bath  and 
Wells 1135  or6 

A  bbot  of  Glastonbury  1 17 1 

Do. Westminster  1175  or  6 

I Died  1187 

1187  Abbot  ol  Burton 1214 


Ruiier 1124 

Walter  II - — 

Andrew 1239i 

Walter  III."  

John  de  Cauz,  or  Ciiaucc  ...' 1247 

Wi'Iiam  Tanton J... 1249 


Died  1239 


Resigned  1247 

<  Abbot  of  Peterbo- 

/      roiieh 1249 

(Abbot  of  Middle- 

{      ton,  Dorset 1256 


Appointed. 


Andrew  of  London 1256 

Ralph  Riusel 

Valentin  


John  de  Durcville 

Adam  de  Farnham 

William  II.  de  Basynge., 
William  HI.  de  Ba«ynge 
Henry    Woodclock,    or 

Mereweli 

Nicholas  de  Tarente 

Richanl  de  Eniord 

Alexander  Heriard 

John  III.,  or  de  M<  rlow 

WillianiIV.Thudd.il 

Hugh  II.,  or  ile  Basynir 

Robert  IV.,  or  de  Rudborne 
Thomas  Nivil,  or  Nevyle... 

Thomas  Shy  re  bourne 

William  Aullon  

Rieliard  Marlbmg 

Robert  Wevtaate 

I'liomas  111.,  or  Huiiton  .... 
Thomas  IV.,  or  Sdkested  ... 
Henry  Brook 


William  V.  de  Basynge,  or) 
Kingsmill S 


1265 

1276 

.1278  or  9 

1284 

1284 


.1295 

.1S05 
.1309 


Died  or  removed. 


.1349 
.1361 
.1361 
.1384 
.1394 


.1450 
.1457 
.1470 
.1498 
.1524 


Deposed  1261  or  s> 

Died  1265 

(Resigned  1267,  Re- 

l     stored 1270- 

Died  Dec.  1278 

Died  1284 

Resigned  1284 

Died  1295 

Bishop  1305 

Died  1309 

Died  1349 

1361 

Laid  aside 

Died  1384 

Died  1394 

Died  1450 

Died  1457 

1470 

1498 

Died  1524 

C  Gave  up  his  Monas- 
<  tery  to  K.  Hen. 
t     VIII 1539 


DISSOLUTION  OF  PRIORY- ESTABLISHMENT  OF  DEANERY. 


William  Basyng'  

Sir  John  Mason,  Kt.  M.D 

Layman' 

Edmund  Steward,  LL.  D... 

John  Warner,  M.  D 

[Francis  Newton,  D.  D.' 

John  Watson,  M.  D 

Lawrence  Humphrey,  D.  D 
^lartin  Heton,  D.  D." 

George  Abbot,  D.  D.' 

Thomas  Morton,  D.  D 

John  Young,  D.  D.'° 


Died  or  renvived. 


March  28,   1540 
Oct.  9,  1549 


March  22, 
...Oct.  15, 
March  21, 
...Feb.  14, 
...  Oct.  24, 
March  20, 

...March  6, 

Jan.  3, 

Julv  8, 


1553 
1559 
1565 
1572 
1580 
1588 

1599 

1609 
1616 


Died  1543 

Resigned  1553 

1559 

Died  March  21,  1564 

Died  1572 

Bishop  1580 

Feb.  1,1589 

Bishop  of  Ely,Feb.3, 1599 

J  Bishop    of   Litch. 

(  andCov.Di-c.  3, 1609 
Bi-hop  of  Chester  ...1616 


Alexander  Hy<]e,LL.D."... 

Uilliam  Clark,  D.  D 

Richard  Miggot.D.  D 

J.ihn  Wickart,  D.  D 

William  Trinniell,  D.  D 

Charles  Naylor,  LL.  D  

Zachary  Pearce,  D.  D 

Thomas  Cheney,  D.  D 

Jonathan  Shipley,  D.  D 

Newton  Oule,  D.  D 

Robert  Holmes'2 

Thomas  Kennel,  D.  U.'K... 


Appointed. 


M 


..Aug.  8, 
Feb.  11, 
..Oct.  9, 
Jan.  14, 
Feb.  16, 
May  7, 
..Ann.  4, 
arch  25, 


.Oct.  21, 
.Feb.  22, 
..  Dec.  9, 


1660 
1665 
1679 
1692 
1721 
171*9 
1739 
1748 
1760 
1769 
1804 
1805 


Died  or  removed. 


Bish.  of  Sal.  Dec.  3, 1665 

Died  1679 

Died  1692 

Died  1721 

Died  1729 

Died  June  28,  1739 

Bishop  of  Bai'gor 1748 

Died  Dec.  27,  1768 

Bishop  of  Laiidati....1769 

Died  1804 

Died  1805 


1  See  a  particular  account  of  him   in  Bentham's  History, 
&c.  of  Ely. 

*  It  is  supposed  ttiere  were  one  or  two  Priors  between  him 
and  Elfric,  whose  names  arc  lost. 

s  Rudborne,  Hist.  Maj. 

*  MiVner  says  be  was  deposed  bv  bisbop  William  de  Hairy. 
Hist.  Winchester,  126. 


5  Su'rendered  Nov.  15,  1539,  was  installed,  according  to 
charter,  May  22, 1544,  and  henceforth  called  William  Kings- 
mill,  D.D. 

**  He  was  bred  a  layman. 

7  Storer's  list  says  1570. 

8  See  Bmiham's  History  of  Ely. 

p  Afterwards  promoted  to  London  and  thence  loCanlerbury. 


10  Afterwaids  promoted  to  Litchfield  and  Coventry,  and 
thence  to  Durham. 

11  See  Hislorv,  &c.  of  Salisbury  Cathedral. 
'»  Gents.  Mag.  1805,  Part  ii   p.  I0K6. 

13  This  list  furnished  by  the  present  learned  Dean,  who  is 
also  Master  of  the  Temple  in  London. 


A 

&tet  of  asooftg,  fEassasis,  anti  $*rot& 

THAT  HAVE  BEEN  PUBLISHED  RELATING  TO 

WINCHESTER  CATHEDRAL; 

ALSO  A  LIST  OF 

ENGRAVED    PORTRAITS   OF  ITS    BISHOPS. 

THIS  LIST  IS  SUBJOINED  TO  GRATIFY  THE  BIBLIOGRAPHER,  THE  CRITICAL  ANTIQUARY,  AND  THE  ILLUSTRATOR;  AS 
WELL  AS  TO  SHOW,  AT  ONE  VIEW,  THE  SOURCES  WHENCE  THE  CONTENTS  OF  THE  PRECEDING  PAGES  HAVE 
BEEN  DERIVED,  AND  THE  FULL  TITLES  OF  THE  WORKS  REFERRED  TO  IN  THE  NOTES. 


DIOCESS,  SEE  AND  CHURCH,  &c. 


Before  we  can  write  a  new  book,  with  any  pretensions  to  novelty,  it  is  necessary  to  ascertain  the 
contents  and  character  of  all  preceding  publications  on  the  same  subject.  On  many  occasions 
indeed  this  is  not  a  very  easy,  or  pleasant  task:  some  are  rare,  some  are  dogmatical,  some  are 
confused  and  contradictory,  some  are  replete  with  recondite  and  abtruse  learning,  others  with  fancy, 
and  few  or  none  can  be  safely  relied  on  for  fidelity,  and  discrimination.  Thus  the  cautious  and 
sceptical  writer  is  compelled  to  labour  through  an  intricate  and  thankless  labyrinth  ;  and  required 
to  analize,  collate,  and  scrutinise  the  improbable  and  contradictory  statements  that  come  before 
him.  On  no  former  occasion  have  I  felt  this  exemplified  more  forcibly  than  in  respect  to  the 
Cathedral  now  under  consideration.  The  early  writers  were  credulous,  and  partial,  whilst  some  of 
those  of  modern  date  have  come  to  the  task  with  strong  prejudices  and  predilections  ;  and  from 
neither  of  these  are  we  likely  to  obtain  the  whole  truth.  \\  hat  was  formerly  written  as  the  history 
of  the  church,  is  only  the  exaggerated  and  wondrous  account  of  saints  and  their  miracles,  super- 
natural agency,  martyrs,  and  visions.  From  such  romances  it  is  not  easy  to  extract  much  authentic 
history,  or  probable  narration.  Most  of  the  oldest  chroniclers  were  bred  up  and  naturalised  in 
monasteries.  Hence  every  thing  they  relate,  as  matters  of  dispute  between  the  clergy  and  laity,  is 
given  with  partiality.  The  first  account  we  find  of  Winchester  Church,  is  from  the  pen  of  Thomas 
Xtudborne,  a  monk  of  the  said  church,  who  is  said  to  have  lived  in  the  fifteenth  century.  He 
appears  to  have  written  a  "  History  of  the  Foundation  and  Succession  of  the  Church  if  Winches- 
ter ;"  also  "  Annals"  of  the  same,  from  A.  D.  633  to  1277.  From  the  latter  date,  to  the  Reforma- 
tion, the  succession  ot  Bishops  was  furnished  by  another  person.  These  memoirs  were  given  to  the 
public  by  Mr.  Wharton,  in  "  Anglia  Sacra,"  vol.  i.  in  which  are  the  following  papers:  "  A  Letter 
from  the  Monks  of  \\  inchester,  to  Pope  Alexander  II.  imploring  a  restitution  of  the  privileges  of 
which  they  had  been  deprived;  with  the  Pope's  answer,  granting  their  request." — "  Lantfred's 
Prologue  to  the  History  of  the  Miracles  of  St.  Sirithun,"  and  "  The  Succession  of  the  Priors  of 
the  said  Church."  "  It  is  unnecessary  to  observe,"  writes  Dr.  Milner,  and  very  truly,  "  to  persons 
who  are  accustomed  to  the  perusal  of  Monkish  Chronicles,  that  the  above-mentioned  works  can  only 
serve  as  memoirs  for  a  history,  not  as  histories  themselves  of  the  times  to  which  they  relate,  being 
upon  the  whole,  vague,  jejune,  and  unconnected,  redundant  in  many  particulars,  and  deficient  in 
others." 

The  "  Concilia  Magna  Britannia"  of  Wilkins,  folio,  1737,  contains  the  following  documents  re- 
lating to  Winchester  Cathedral,  &c: — Vol.1  p.  244.  Charter  of  King  Edgar  to  the  Monks  of  the  New 
Monastery,  A.  667-  Spelman: — p.  240.  Laws  of  the  Monastery,  given  by  Edgar,  A.  666.  ib. — 
p.  418.  Pope  Innocent's  Letter  to  Bishop  Henry,  Legate  and  Brother  to  King  Stephen,  empowering 
him  to  hear  the  complaints  of  the  Monks  of  Westminster,  1138: — p.  420,  421.  Councils  held 
before  the  said  Bishop.  Malmes. — Vol.  II.  p.  62.  Acts  against  the  Confirmation  of  the  Bishop  elect. 
Ex.reg  Peckham:  Archbishop's  Letter  thereon.  A.  1281: — ib.  p.  88.  Archbishop's  proceeding  against 
the  Bishop  [Pontisara].  A.  1282. — ib.  p.  16,  275,  6.  Letters  from  the  Archbishop,  on  his  privilege  in 
the  election  of  a  Bishop.  A.  1303.  Ex.  reg  Winchelsey,  fo.  339,  40:— p.  293.  Synodal  Constitutions 
by  Bishop  Henry  Woodloke.  A.  1308.  Ex.  MS.  Cotton.  Otho.  A.  15,  fol.  141.  a. :— p.  454,  Edward 


134  WINCHESTER  CATHEDRAL,  LIST  OF  BOOKS,  ESSAYS,  &C. 

IPs  Letter  to  Bishop  Henry  on  Tithes  :  Answer  to  the  King's  Letter.  A.  1315.  Ex.  reg.  Woodcock. 
Winton.  Vol.  III.  p.  20  Archbishop's  Mandate  to  the  Bishop  to  raise  a  Subsidy.  A.  1352.  Ex. 
reg.  Islip.  59 : — p.  89,  Bishop  Wykeham's  Mandate,  ditto.  A.  1370.  Ex.  reg.  Winton.  Wykeham. 
3,  44 : — p.  708,  Bishop  Fox's  Letter  to  Cardinal  Wolsey,  on  the  Reformation  of  the  Clergy  of 
England.  A.  1527-  Ex.  Autog.  in  MS.  Cott.  Faust,  c.  vii. —  p.  752,  Bishop  Gardiner's  Letter  to  the 
King,  on  his  Opinion  as  to  Doctrine.  A.  1532.  Ex.  regis,  convoc. — p.  780,  The  same  Bishop's  Oath 
to  the  King.   1534.   Fox's  Martyrs,  ii.  337. 

The  new  edition  of  Dugdale's  "  Monasticon  Anglicanum,"  contains  notices  respecting  the  See, 
and  Church,  from  Stevens  and  Gale ; — Short  accouuts  of  the  Bishops,  from  Milner,  Rudborne, 
Godwin,  &c.  up  to  the  time  of  Bishop  Gardiner  ;  also  a  list  of  forty-seven  Priors;  "  An  Inven- 
tory of  the  Cathedral  Church,"  as  furnished  to  Cromwell,  temp.  Henry  VIII.  from  Strype's 
"Memorials  of  Cranmer;"  An  Account  of  the  Sale  of  Church  Lands,  belonging  to  this  See,  during  the 
time  of  the  Civil  Wars,  Sept.  27,  1640.  This  work  also  embraces  copies  of  the  following  documents: 
— "No.  I.  Ex  AnnalibusWintoniensis  ecclesie :  MS.  iu  Bibliotheca  Cottoniana  sub  etiigie  Domitiani, 

A.  13." — These  annals  extend  only  to  1079,  when  Bishop  Walkelyn,  re-editied  the  church  from  its 
foundation. — "  No.  II.  Autographum  penes  Decantim  et  capilulnm  Wintonie,  1640,"  being  a 
charter  from  King  Fdward,  to  guarantee  the  possessions  of  the  church.  Dated  A.  D.  908. — "  No. 
IV.  Ex  vetusto  exemplari  penes  Thomam  dominnm  Brudwell.  An.  1652.  A  similar  grant  to  the 
former,  dated  975. — "  No.  V.  Sanctus  Edelwoldus  j actus  est  episcopus  ab  bldgaro  rege.  Ex  his- 
toria  de  primis  fundatoribus  Abandoniensis  Cenobii  in  Bibliotheca  Cottoniana,  sub  efhgie  Claudii, 

B.  vi.  fol.  85.  a."  An  account  of  the  translation  of  Ethelwold,  from  the  abbacy  of  Abingdon,  to  the 
See  of  Winton,  with  the  appointment  of  Osgar,  to  the  former,  in  96.1. — "  No.  VI.  Fumtalores  prin- 
cipalis Cathedratis  ecclesie  sancti  Sivithuni  Winton  Lei.  Col.  vol.  i.  p.  613"  [428],  with  lists  of 
Kings,  Bishops,  and  Saints  buried  iu  the  church. — "  No.  VII.  Innocmtii  Charta.  Ex.  Chron.  S. 
Swithini  Winton,  p.  8  :"  being  grants  of  lands,  and  churches,  to  the  Prior,  and  Mouks. — "  No.  VIII. 
Alia  ejusdem  Papa  Innocentii  bulla,  ibid."  On  the  same  subject. — "  No.  IX.  Charta  Edgari 
Regis  pucifici,  pro  rcnovr.lione  terre  de  i  hiltecumbe,et  prointroductione  M»naehorum,  ib.  p.  10." 
— "  No.  X.  Carta  de  llursbourne  Edwardi  Senioris." — "  No.  XI.  King  John's  Charter,  allow- 
ing certain  Duties  to  be  collected  on  the  liiver  Ilchin,  by  the  Bishop  of  Winchester.  Appendix 
to  Milner's  History  of  Winchester,  from  Trussel's  MSS." — "  No.  XII.  (  harta  Edgari  regis,  qua 
nullos  unquam  fttisse  perhibet  in  Wintoniensi  hoc  canobio  Monachos  ante  hos  quos  ipse  jam  intro- 
duxit  a  Monastcrio  Abingtoniensi.  Wilkinsii  Concilia,  vol.i.  p.  244." — "  No.  XIII.  Ada  contra 
Covfirmationem  electi  Winton.  Episcopi.  [1281.]  Ibid.  vol.  ii.  p.  62  Ex.  reg.  Peckham,  fol.  13, 
b." — "  No.  XIV.  Archiepiscopi  Cantuar.  literec  de  eodem.  Ibid,  ibid." — "  No.  XV.  Archiepiscopi 
Cantuar.  processus  contra  episcopum  Winton.  Ibid.  vol.  ii.  p.  88.  Ex.  reg.  Peck.  fol.  16.  a."  The 
three  last  documents  refer  to  the  election  of  Richard  More,  Archdeacon  of  Winton,  who  was 
chosen  Bishop  by  the  Monks,  and  approved  by  the  King  ;  but  was  strongly  opposed  by  Peckham, 
Archbishop  of  Canterbury,  ou  account  of  his  having  held  a  plurality  of  benefices:  he  was  finally 
rejected  by  the  Pope. — "  No.  XVI.  Episcopi  II  intun.  mundatum  pro  stibsidio  regio  colligendo  et 
solvendo.  Ibid.  vol.  iii.  p.  89.  Ex.  reg.  Winton.  Wykeham.  3  part,  fol.  44." — "  No.  XV11.  Bulla 
Urbani  Pdpe  Quint i  super  administratione  ecclesie  Winton.  E.  Registro  Wykeham.  Part  I.  fol.l." 
This  instrument  is  directed  to  William  of  Wykeham,  Archdeacon  of  Lincoln,  administrator  of  the 
spiritual  and  temporal  concerns  of  the  church  of  Winton,  requiring  him  to  provide  pastors  for  the 
vacant  churches,  and  to  supply  all  deficiencies  in  the  administration  of  the  See. — "No.  XV II I  Bulla 
domini  Pape  directa  domino  episcopo  Wintonien.  E.  Registro  Wykeham,  part  tcrt.  a  fol.  135." 
Pope  Gregory  here  announces,  that  lie  has  received  ambassadors  from  the  Kings  of  England,  and 
France,  for  concluding  a  peace  between  them  ;  and  calls  upon  the  clergy  of  England,  lor  a  subsidy 
to  defray  the  expences  which  the  holy  see  had  sustained  in  the  war. — "  No.  XIX.  lie  Cantaria 
Wilhelmi  Wyhehttm  Episcopi  llynton.  Ex  Libro  evidentiarum  ecclesie  cathedralis  Winton,  No. 
I.  fol.  18."  Specifying  the  several  masses  and  services  to  be  performed  in  St.  Mary's  College  of 
Winchester. — "  No.  XX.  [Bibl.  Cotton.  Cleop.  E.  iv.  8  pag.  258.  a.]  Com.  South.  Valor  omnium 
et  singulorum,  caslrorum,  honor um,  vianeriorum,  terrarumet  lenementorumac  aliarum  possessio- 
num  quurumcunque ;  nee  non  omnium  el  singulorum  prqjicuum  p.  roven.  de  spiritual,  et  jui  isdic- 
tionibus  spiritual. pettinen.  sire  speclan.  tarn  episcopatui  Winton.  et  monaster,  sancti  Swithini, 
Winton,  predict,  quam  omnibus  et  singulis  aliis  monaster,  priorat.  archidiaconat.  colleg.  rector, 
eicar.  cantar.  ac  liberis  capellis,  nee  non  omnibus  aliis  promotionibus  spiritual,  in  com.  predict, 
prout  ralent  commanibus  annis." 


WINCHESTER  CATHEDRAL: — LIST  OF  BOOKS,  ESSAYS,  &C.  1  35 

"  The  History  and  Antiquities  of  the  Cathedral  Church  of  Winchester :  containing  all  the  Inscrip- 
tions upon  the  Tombs,  and  Monuments  :  with  an  Account  of  the  Bishops,  Priors,  Deans,  and  Pre- 
bendaries; also  the  History  of  Hyde  Abbey.  Begun  by  the  Right  Honourable  Henry,  late  Earl 
of  Clarendon,  and  continued  to  this  time,  by  Samuel  Gale,  Gent.  Adorned  with  Sculptures. 
London,  printed  for  E.  Curll,  at  the  Dial  and  Bible,  against  St.  Dunstan's  Church,  in  Fleet-street, 
M.DCC.XV."  Octavo.  Some  on  large  paper.  Some  copies  have  a  reprinted  title-page,  with  the 
following  imprint : — "  London,  printed  for  W.  Mears,  at  the  Lamb,  without  Temple  Bar,  and  J. 
Hooke,  at  the  Fleur-de-luce,  against  St.  Dunstan's  Church,  in  Fleet-street,  MDCCXXII1." — Upcoit. 

List  of  Plates,  by  V.  dr.  Gucht,  except  13, 15, 16,  and  17.— 1.  View  of  the  Cathedral,  folded, 
2,  3,  4,  5,  6.  Five  Plates  of  the  Font.— 7.  The  Entrance  to  the  Choir,  the  work  of  Inigo  Jones, 
folded. — 8.  The  Chests  of  the  West  Saxon  King9,  &c.  on  the  North  Wall  of  the  Presbytery,  and  the 
Tomb  of  William  Rufus,  before  the  Altar,  folded. — 9.  No  title ;  but  showing  the  south  side  of 
Fox's  Chantry— 10.  "  Tomb  of  Bishop  Wainfleet."— 11.  "Tomb  of  Richard,  son  of  William  the 
Conqueror."— 12.  "  Monument  of  Richard,  Earl  of  Portland,"  folded.— 13.  "  Tomb  of  William 
Wyckham,  Bishop,  Founder  of  Winchester  College,"  Hulsbergh,  sc. — 14.  Slab,  with  Arms  for 
Baptista  Levinz,  Bishop  of  Sodor  and  Man. — ]5.  "  Monument  and  Statue  of  Sir  John  Clobery." — 
16.  "  Monument  of  John  Nicholas,  S.  T.  P."  Prebendary  of  Winton. — 17-  "  Monument  of 
William  Harris,  S.  T.  P."  Prebendary  of  Winton.— 18.  Seals  of  the  Cathedral,  and  of  Stephen 
Gardiner,  Bishop.  These  plates  are  not  only  bad  specimens  of  art,  but  extremely  inaccurate  and 
unsatisfactory.  The  most  useful  part  of  this  volume,  is  the  list  of  charters  in  the  tower  relating  to 
the  churches,  &c.  of  Winchester ;  and  the  collection  of  monumental  inscriptions  contains  some  that 
have  been  since  destroyed. 

"  A  Description  of  the  City,  College,  and  Cathedral  of  Winchester.  Exhibiting  a  complete  and 
comprehensive  Detail  of  their  Antiquities  and  Present  State.  The  whole  illustrated  with  several 
curious  and  authentic  Particulars,  collected  from  a  Manuscript  of  Anthony  Wood,  preserved  in  the 
Ashmolean  Museum  at  Oxford ;  the  College  and  Cathedral  Registers,  and  other  Original  Authori- 
ties, never  before  published."  12mo.  pp.  108.  London,  no  date.  ["  Price  one  shilling."]  18 
pages  are  appropriated  to  the  city ;  from  22,  to  68,  to  the  College ;  thence  to  108,  to  the  Cathedral. 
There  is  no  name  ordate  to  this  vade  mecum,  but  the  Rev.  R.  Slant,  in  his  Memoirs  of  T.  Warton, 
ascribes  it  to  that  learned  historian  of  English  poetry,  and  supposes  it  was  published  in  two  small 
tracts,  about  1754.  "  A  surreptitious  and  imperfect  edition  of  it,"  says  Mr.  Mant,  "  was  soon 
afterwards  printed  by  W.  Greenville,  Winchester1." 

"  The  History  and  Antiquities  of  Winchester,  setting  forth  its  Original  Constitution,  Govern- 
ment, Manufactories,  Trade,  Commerce,  and  Navigation ;  its  several  Wards,  Parishes,  Precincts, 
Districts,  Churches,  Religious  and  Charitable  Foundations,  and  other  Public  Edifices :  together 
with  the  Charters,  Laws,  Customs,  Rights,  Liberties,  and  Privileges  of  that  ancient  City.  Illustrated 
with  a  variety  of  Plates."  In  two  volumes  12mo. — vol.  i.  pp.  237;  exclusive  of  preface,  title,  and 
dedication,  vol.  ii.  pp.299.  Winton,  1773.  These  volumes  contain  twelve  "  cuts,"  and,  besides 
accounts  of  the  city,  cathedral,  &c.  comprehend  histories  of  the  College,  and  of  St.  Cross.  They 
are  evidently  compiled  by  a  person,  or  by  persons,  who  were  little  versed  in  topographical  and 
antiquarian  literature.  Formerly  they  were  said  to  have  been  written,  or  arranged,  by  the  Rev. 
Wm.  Wavel,  but  some  descendants  of  that  gentleman,  have  disavowed  his  connection  with  the 
work.  Dr.  Milner,  in  his  prelace,  shows  that  the  work  is  replete  with  "  flagrant  errors,"  enough 
"  to  require  a  whole  volume  to  detect  them  all." 

"  The  History,  Civil  and  Ecclesiastical,  and  Survey  of  the  Antiquities  of  Winchester.  By  the 
Rev.  John  Milner,  M.  A.  F.  S.  A."  In  two  volumes,  4to.  Winchester,  1793.  "  Vol.  I.  being  the 
Historical  Part,  Vol.  II.  the  Survey  of  the  Antiquities."    With  plates,  and  a  plan  of  the  city. 

A  second  edition  was  published  in  1809,  with  considerable  additions,  and  a  copious  postscript,  in 
which  the  several  strictures  contained  in  the  reviews,  &c  that  had  been  published  on  the  work,  are 
detailed  and  discussed.  12  copies  printed  on  large  paper  of  the  first  edition,  and  some  large  paper  of 
the  second.  The  following  extract  from  the  advertisement  will  explain  the  difference  between  the  two 
editions : — "  A  copious  postscript  is  annexed  to  the  present  edition,  in  which  the  several  strictures 
contained  in  the  reviews  and  other  works  that  have  been  published  on  the  subject  of  the  history,  are 
detailed  and  discussed.     Several  considerable  additions  are  interspersed  throughout  the  work,  and 

1  This  work,  says  Dr.  Milner,  "  is  exceedingly  defective  and  erroneous;"  some  instances  of  which  the  Doctor 
points  out  in  the  tenth  page  of  his  preface. 


130  WINCHESTER  CATHEDRAL  :— LIST  OF  BOOKS,  ESSAYS,  &C. 

particularly  amongst  the  notes  ;  one  of  these  contains  observations  upon  a  work  lately  published,  in 
two  octavo  volumes,  called  British  Monachism.  Another  addition  consists  of  a  whole  new  chapter, 
being  a  survey  of  the  most  remarkable  modern  monuments  in  Winchester  Cathedral. 

"  Certain  notes,  which  seemed  to  be  of  little  importance,  are  abridged  or  omitted  in  this  edition, 
and  the  whole  preface  to  the  second  volume  is  left  out,  as  the  substance  of  it  is  contained  in  the 
postscript. 

"  The  style  of  the  whole  work  has  been  carefully  revised,  and  (it  is  hoped)  considerably 
improved. 

"  Lastly,  the  plates  have  not  only  been  re-touched,  but  also  corrected  and  improved.  Three 
new  plates  are  also  given  in  this  edition." 

This  work,  from  the  principles  and  opinions  of  the  aulhor,  occasioned  a  warmly  contested  con- 
troversv,  between  himself,  Dr.  Sturges,  Dr.  Hoadley  Ashe,  and  several  anonymous  writers  in  the 
Antijacobin  Review,  British  Critic,  Hampshire  Repository,  and  other  critical  journals.  These 
disputts  were  chiefly  on  matters  of  opinion, — on  subjects  that  always  have  been,  and  ever  will  be 
unsettled  and  uncertain;  and  therefore  liable  to  sectarian  interpretation.  "Zealous  bigots"  have 
always  injured  the  cause  of  truth  and  history,  by  partial  and  intemperate  representations.  On  Dr. 
Miner's  work,  the  following  comments  have  been  recently  published  : — 

"  T.  Warion,  in  his  Description  of  Winchester,  had  said  of  the  college  library,  that  it  was  made 
by  Warden  Pinke,  which  Milner,  vol.  ii.  p.  144,  calls  an  unpardonable  error,  in  a  Wykehamist.  Dr. 
Milner's  is  a  good  and  useful  history  in  many  particulars;  but  he  should  have  been  aware  of  charg- 
ing any  other  w  liter  with  errors.  In  this  very  sentence  he  has  made  an  error  of  the  same  sort,  and 
as  great  as  that  which  he  censures.  T.  Warton,  was  not  a  Wykehamist,  as  any  member  of  the  college 
could  have  told  him;  and  with  as  little  trouble  he  might  have  learned  what  ground  there  was  for 
saying  that  Warden  Pinke  made  the  library  ;  for,  though  T.  Warton 's  expression  was  careless,  yet  in 
the  main  it  was  true.  In  the  same  part  of  the  volume,  besides  this  mistake  concerning  T.  Warton, 
there  are  left,  between  Dr.  M.  and  his  printer,  more  errors  than  pages  for  a  dozen  together.  Again, 
p.  141,  Dr.  M.  sa\s  of  Warton's  book,  that  the  errors  of  the  press  are  exceedingly  numerous  3nd 
gross,  p  irticulaily  in  the  epitaphs.  Now  he  himself  has  given  eight  of  those  epitaphs,  in  each  of 
which,  laking  one  with  another,  he  has  made  two  errors  ;  and  in  vol.  ii.  p.  27,  he  has  printed 
William  of  Wykeham's  epitaph,  in  which  he  has  made  as  many  faults  as  lines."  History  of  Win- 
chester College,  with  plales,  4to.  1806,  p.  40,  published  by  Mr.  Ackermann,  London. 

"  Reflections  on  the  Principles  and  Institutions  oj  Popery,  with  reference  to  Civil  Society  and 
Govt  rnincnt,  especially  that  of  this  kingdom;  occasioned  by  the  Rev.  John  Milner's  History  of 
Winchester.  In  Letters  to  the  Rev.  John  Monk  New  bolt,  Rector  of  St.  Maurice,  Winchester.  By 
John  Sturges,  LL.D.  Prebendary  of  Winchester,  Chancellor  of  ihe  Diocese,  and  one  of  bis 
Majesty's  Chaplain's  in  ordinary."     8vo.  Winchester,  pp.  2J)8. 

"  Letters  to  a  Prebendary  :  being  an  Answer  to  Reflections  on  Popery,  by  the  Rev.  J.  Sturges, 
LL.D.  Prebendary  and  Chancellor  of  Winchester,  and  Chaplain  to  his  Majesty  ;  with  Remarks  on 
the  Opposition  of  Hoadhism  to  the  Doctrines  of  the  Church  of  England,  and  on  various  publica- 
tions occasioned  by  the  late  Civil  and  Ecclesiastical  History  of  Winchester.  By  the  Rev.  John 
Milner,  M.  A.  F.  S.  A."  4to.  Winchester,  1800,  pp.300.  Six  editions  of  this  have  been  since 
printed  in  octavo. 

In  the  "  Hampshire  Repository,"  vol.  i.  and  ii.  is  a  Review  of  Milner's  "  History  and  Antiquities 
of  Winchester.'  Its  beauties  and  defects  are  pointed  out,  and  its  errors  refuted.  The  conductor 
of  the  Repository  defends  himself  from  the  censures  and  reflections  cast  upon  him  by  Mr.  Milner. 
Dr.  Sturges's  "  Reflections  on  Popery,"  and  Mr.  Milner's  Answer  thereto,  are  also  briefly  noticed. 

"  An  Historical  and  Critical  Account  of  II  inchester  Cathedral ;  with  an  engraved  View  and 
Ichnographical  Plan  of  that  Fabric,  extracted  from  the  Rev.  Mr.  Milner's  History  and  Antiquities 
of  Winchester.     To  which  is  added,  a  Review  of  its  modern  Monuments."     1801,  8vo.  pp.  148. 

"  The  History  and  Antiquities  vf  the  Cathedral  Church  of  Winchester,"  in  sixteen  pages,  with 
eight  prints,  and  a  plan,  constitutethe  fourth  number  of  "  A  Graphic  and  Historical  Description 
of  the  Cathedrals  of  Great  Britain,"  1813,  demy  8vo.  7s.  6d.,  super-royal  8vo.  12s.,  and  quarto 
II.  Is.  The  plates  are,  a  ground  plan : — PI.  1,  *'  great  west  door-way,"  or  porch  : — PI.  2,  west  front, 
from  north  west  angle: — PI.  3,  view  of  the  north  side  of  nave,  west  side  of  north  transept: — PI.  4, 
distant  view  from  the  ruins  of  Wolvesey : — PI.  5,  N.  E.  with  houses  in  the  foreground  : — PI.  6, 
S.  transept,  upper  part  of  the  choir,  &c— PI.  7,  part  of  S.  side  of  nave,  and  W.  side  of  transept ; — 
PI.  8,  interior  view  of  N.  transept. 


fltet  of  Wv ittt*> 

ILLUSTRATIVE  OF  WINCHESTER  CATHEDRAL. 


Subjects. 


I 
II 

III 

IV 

V 
VI 

VII 

VIII 

IX 

X 

—  XI 

XII 
XIII 
XIV 

XV 

XVI 


XVII 
XVIII 

XIX 

XX 
XXI 

XXII 

XXIII 
XXIV 

XXV 

XXVI 
XXVII 

XXVIII 

XXIX 
XXX 


Drawn  by 


Engraved  by 


Ground  Plan  of  the  Cathedral 
Plan  and  Section  of  the  Crypts,  &c 

<  Views  of  Capitals  and  Bases  of 
(     the  Nave  and  Choir 

View  of  the  West  Front 

Section  and  Plan  of  ditto 

View  of  the  North  Transept,  <Scc. 

<  View  of  North  Side  of  Choir,  J 
I     from  N.  E $ 

View  of  the  East  End 

South  Transept,  with  Ruins 

View  of  the  Nave,  looking  East... 
View acrossthe Nave, from  N.  toS 

(View  of  the  North  Transept,? 

\     looking  N.E J 

View  of  Ihe  Choir,  looking  West.. 

J  Part  of  the  Stalls  of  the  Choir.  > 

I     For  the  Title  Page  \ 

View  of  the  Altar  Screen 


View  of  Wykeham's  Chantry,  &c... 

(View  of  Beaufort's  Chantry,) 
}  with  Part  of  Fox's  and  Wayn-C 
(     flete's ) 

t  Waynflete's  Chantry  ,with  those ) 
J     for  Chandler  and  Beaufort...  J 

(Groined  Roof  of  Waynflete's ) 
■<     Chantry,  and  Plans  of  Clus-> 

I     tered  Columns ) 

\ Elevation  of  Three  Compart-? 
I      men  is  on  the  North  Side  ...  J 

Carved  Wood  Work 

< Parts  of  Altar  Screen;  Old) 
\     Screen  ;  and  Fox's  Chantry  $ 

5  Section  and  Elevation  East  of  > 
the  Altar  Screen $ 

(Elevation  and  Section  of  the) 
1     Church  and  Tower  from  N.V 

(     to  S ) 

C  Monumental  Effigies  of  Bis  j) 
<      hops    Edington,  Wykeham,  s 

t-     and  Waynflete * 

5  Side  of  an  ancient  Tomb,  and ) 

I     Two  Effigies S 

5  Nave,  One  Compartment,  ex- } 
(      ternally  and  internally S 

S  Elevation,  interior  and  exte- 
rior, near  the  Altar 

Arches  and  Parts  of  the  Tower.. 
Two  Viewsof  the  Font 


E.W.Garbett 
E.W.Garbett 

C.  F.  Porden. 


E.  Blore... 

E.  Blore... 
E.  Blore... 

E.  Blore.., 

E.  Blore.. 

E.  Blore.. 

E.  Blore.. 
E.  Blore.. 

E.  Blore.. 

E.  Blore.. 

E.  Blore. 

E.  Blore.. 


E.  Blore., 


G.  Gladwin... 
J.  Roffe 

T.  Ranson 

J.  Le  Keux... 

E.  Turrell 

J.  Le  Keux... 

J.  Le  Keux... 

R.  Sands 

R. Sands 

Edwards 

W.  Radclyffe 

R. Sands 

W.  Radclyffe 

H.  Le  Keux... 

H.  LeKeux... 

W.  Radclyffe 


E.  Blore. 


Inscribed  to 


E.  Turrell. 


E.  Blore.. 


E.  Blore. 


E.  Blore... 
E.  Blore... 
E.  Blore... 


J.  Le  Keux. 


R.  Roffe . 


J.  Roffe 

E.  Turrell . 
G.Hollis... 


E.  Blore 

C.  F.  Porden. 

E.  Blore 

E.  Blore 

E.  Blore 

E.  Blore 

E.  Blore 

E.  Blore 


( Hon.  aud   Rev.   Arch- 
(     deacon  Legge... 


Sir  Thomas  Baring,  Bart... 
Rev.  Dr.  Nott 

Rev.  H.  Lee 

S  Rev.  Dr.  Rt  nnell,  Dean 
I     of  Winchester 

B.  Winter,  Esq 

Rev.  Archdeacon  Hook... 

Dr.  Powell 


J.  Le  Keux... 
H.  LeKeux... 

Edwards 

H.  LeKeux... 
J.  Le  Keux... 

H.  LeKeux... 

G.Hollis 

J.  Le  Keux... 


Rev.  E.  Poulter 

(Warden  and  Fellows  of] 
J  New  College  Oxford,( 
}  and  of  Winchester^ 
College J 


fPresident  and  Fellows  1 
<  of  Magdalen  College  > 
f     Oxford ) 


Rev.  F.  Iremonger . 
W.  Garbett,  Esq 


81,  2,  3. 
87. 


88. 

88. 
89. 

90. 

90. 

90. 

90. 
91. 

91. 

91. 

92. 
92. 

93. 


94. 

96. 

97. 

82,  6,  97. 
98. 

98. 

98. 
99. 

101. 

83,  102. 
10?. 

103. 

104. 
104. 


A  CHRONOLOGICAL  TABLE 

OF  THE 

AGES  AND  STYLES  OF  DIFFERENT  PARTS  OF  THE  CHURCH,  &c. 


bishops. 


Kings. 


Walkelyn.. 


William  I. 


Hen.  de  Blois   Henry  I 
De  Lucy 


5  Rich.  I. .  ? 
}Jobn J 


N.  Eliensis.... 


5  Hen.  ill.  ) 
\  Ed.  I.  II.  j 


Edingtou Edward  III 


Wykeham . 


Beaufort 

Wayntiete.... 

Courteney  ... 
Langton 


5  Edw.III.  ? 
t  Rich.  II..  J 


Henry  IV 

Henry  IV 

Edward  IV... 
Henry  VII.... 


Fox 


Ditto. 


Gardiner Henry  VIII. 

Rich.  Ncile...   CharlesI 


Temp. 


1079 

to 
1093 


1129 

1189 

to 

1206 

1480 

to 
1310 


1330 


1370 

to 
1400 

1410 


1480 
1493 

1500 

1540 
1C27 


Parts  of  the  Edifice. 


'Crypts  under  the  Preshytery  and^ 
Ailes,  also  under  de  Lucy's  work. 
Part  of  the  Chapterhouse,  Tran-  I 
«(      septs  and  Tower,  Internal  Parts  f 
of  the  Piers,  and  Walls  of  the 
Nave,     afterwards     cased     by 
L     Wykeham.    Font 

Arches  in  S.  Transept  


(Chantry  Ailes,  east  of  the  Altar^ 
j  Screen,  with  Part  of  the  Ladyf 
S  Chapel,  the  Two  h'ide  Chapels.f 
(     and  Staircase  Turrets J 

(  Preshytery  from  the  Tower,  to  the  j 

<      Altar  Screen  J 

(  Old  Screen,  with  Niches,  &c 


'  Stalls  of  the  Choir 

)  West  Front,  Two  Windows  on  the  ) 
)  North,  and  One  on  the  South  ...  ) 
.  Edingtnn's  Chantry 


\Nave  and  Ailes ' 

)  Wykeham's  Chantry  and  Tomb...    I 

Beaufort's  ditto 

Waynflcte's  ditto,  and  Altar  Screen  < 

St.  Mary's  Chapel,  Pulpit j 

Langton's  Chapel 


C  Fox's  Chantry  Chapel,  Windows  of 
<  Presbytery  and  its  Ailes,  and 
(      the  Screens 

Gardiner's  Chantry  


5  Fitting  up  Altar  Screen,  Screen  to  7 
I      Choir,  &c J 


57,  8,  9...     (  II 
70,77....     1 
91,99,87     I 


57 

711 
'.'1 

105. 


III.  VI.  IX.  XII. 
XIII.  XXIII. 
XXIV.  XXIX. 


XXX. 


60,104...    XXIX. 


60,97., 


103. 


63,92.  ... 
64, 88,  09 
101 


65,75.... 
102,91... 

101,93... 


94 

101,98... 
96,  92.... 

67,  76.... 
97,90.... 

67,77,83 


67,94.... 


96. 
80. 


III.     VII.    VIII. 
XVII.  XVIII. 
'     XX.  XXIII. 


XIII.  XXVIII. 
XXII.  XXIII.  XXVI. 

XIII.  XIV. 
IV.  V.  XL 
XXV. 

5  III.  IX.  X. XL  XIII. 
I      XXVII. 

5  xvi.  xvii.  xviii. 

\     XIX. 

XVII.  XVIII.  XXV. 

5  xv.  xvii.  xxii. 

I     XXIII.  XXV. 

Win.  xx.  xxi. 

XVII.  XXL 

5  vii.  ix.  xv.  xvi. 

I     XXII. 

5  xvni.  xxiil 

I      XXVIII. 
X.  XXIV. 


138  WINCHESTER  CATHEDRAL  : — LIST  OF  BOOKS,  ESSAYS,  &C. 

8.  James  Montague  :  4to.  S.  Pass. onel2rao. one  by  Elstrake one  24mo.  by  S.  Pass, 

1617 one  in  the  "  Heroologia,"  copied.     Bromley. 

9.  Lancelot  Andrews  :  J.  Payne,  f.  1632,  Frontispiece  to  his  "  Exposition  of  the  Ten  Com- 

mandments," fol.  This  is  copied  by  R.  White,  in  12mo. R.  Vaughan,  sc.  4to. Hollar,  f. 

1643, 12mo.  In  Bishop  Sparrow's  "  Rationale  of  the  Common  Prayer,"  in  which  are  several 
other  heads  by  Hollar. — Prefixed  to  his  "  Preces  Privatse,"  D.  Loggan,  sc.  1675, 12mo.— Fron- 
tispiece to  his  "  Devotions,"  18mo.— By  Simon  Pass,  without  his  name,  1618,  4to. By 

Simon  Pass,  looking  to  the  left,  1616,  4to.  (rare),  inscribed  "Episcopis  Winton." From 

his  Monument  at  St.  Mary  Overies,  two  different  aspects.     Granger  and  Bromley. 

10.  Walter  Curle  :  fol.  T.  Cecil,  sc Another  by  Droeshout.     Bromley. 

11.  Brian  Duppa:  R.  W.  (White),  sc.  before  his  "  Holy  Rules  and  Helps  of  Devotion,"  &c. 
small  12mo.  1674 A  Portrait  of  him  at  Christ  Church,  Oxford.     Bromley. 

12.  George  Morley:  P.   Lely,  p.  R.  Tompson,  exc   large  h.  sh.  mez. —  Lely,  p.  Vertue,  sc. 

1740.  In  the  collection  of  Gen.  Dormer,  at  Rowsham.  lllust.  Head. — Sitting  in  a  chair,  h.  sh. 
mez. A  portrait  of  him  at  C.  Ch.  Oxford. —  Bromley  and  Granger. 

13.  Peter  Mews  :  D.  Loggan,  ad  vivium  del.  et  sc.  h.  sh. Two  oval  prints,  no  name. — A 

portrait  at  St.  John's  College,  Oxford.     Bromley. 

14.  Jonathan  Trelawney  :  portrait  at  C.  Ch.  Oxford.    Bromley. 

15.  Charles  Trimnell  :  mez.  J.  Faber.    Noble,  Bromley. 

16.  Benjamin  Hoadley  :  aet.  67, 1743,  sitting  in  robes,  sh.  W.  Hogarth,  p.  B.  Baron,  sc. — 

set.  80,  Profile  prefixed  to  his  "  Works,"  fol.  1773,  N.  Hone,  p.  J.  Basire,  sc.  1772. Oval, 

iu  a   canonical  habit,   J.  Faber,  mez. Altered  to  a  bishop's,  with  Simon's  name. 

Canonical  habit  altered  to  a  bishop's,  la.  fol.  G.  Vertue,  sc. — Oval,  in  a  canonical  habit,  4to. 
mez. — One  by  M.  V.  Gucht,  8vo.  oval  in  wood  before  his  "  Life."     Bromley. 

17.  John  Thomas  :  standing  in  the  robes  of  the  garter,  mez.  B.  Wilson, p.  R.  Houlston,  sc.  1771. 

PORTRAITS  OF  DEANS  OF  WINTON.       . 

1.  Lawrence  Humphrey:  in  the  "  Heroologia,"  by  Pass. Another  in  "  Boissard."  Bromley 

2.  Richard  Meggot  :  la.  fol.  G.  Kneller,  p.  D.  Loggan,  sc. Another  la.  fol.  G.  Kneller, 

R.  White. One  prefixed  to  his  "  Sermons,  1685,  8vo.  R.  White.     Bromley. 

3.  Zachary  Pearce  :  prefixed  to  his  "  Works,"  1777,  4to.  Penny,  1768,  T.  Chambars.- 

Three  quarters  length,  sitting,  mez.  T.  Hudson,  1754,  J.  Faber,  sc.     Bromley. 

4.  Jonathan  Shipley  :  oval  frame,  mez.  J.  Reynolds,  p.  J.  R.  Smith,  sc.  1777. Prefixed  to 

his  "  Works,"  1792,  8vo.  J.  Reynolds,  p-  T.  Trotter,  sc.     Bromley. 

VIEWS  AND  PRINTS  OF  THE  CHURCH,  AND  OF  ITS  MONUMENTS. 

In  addition  to  the  prints  already  specified  as  belonging  to  different  books,  the  following  have 
been  published  : — Sovth  protpect  of  the  Cathedral,  by  Dr.  King,  in  Dugdale's  Monasticon,  vol.  i. 
In  Gough's  "  Sepulchral  Monuments,"  are  the  following  :  Wil.  de  Basyng's  coffin  lid,  vol.  i.  pi.  ii. 
p.  63: — Inscriptions  from  the  Church,  ib.  vol.  ii.  pt.  i  pi.  xxxii: — in  Carter's  "  Ancient  Architec- 
ture of  England," the  following  subjects  are  represented,  viz.  Tomb  of  William  Rufus  : — An  Arch 
in  the  wall  of  the  west  aile  of  the  south  transept: — one  compartment  of  the  North  Transept,  with 
details  at  large : — Door-way,  formerly  in  the  wall  of  the  south  transept : — view  of  one  side  of  the 
Font .—  also  elevations  of  the  two  sides  charged  with  sculpture,  and  of  the  upper  surface. — Other 
prints  of  this  font  are  given  in  the  "  Archaeologia,"  vol.  x.  also  in  "  Vetusta  Monumenta,"  vol.  ii. — A 
South-east  view  ol  the  Cathedral,  drawn  and  etched  by  J.  Buckler,  and  aquatinted  by  R.  Reeve, 
was  published  in  1808  : — a  North-west  view  of  the  Cathedral,  drawn  and  etched  by  J.  C.  Buckler  ; 
and  a  Southeast  view,  by  the  same  artist,  are  published  in  No.  IV.  of  "  Etchings  of  the  Cathedral, 
Collegiate,  and  Abbey  Churches."— In  Carter's  "  Specimens  of  Ancient  Sculpture,  and  Painting," 
are  four  etchings  of  tlie  Paintings  on  the  Walls  of  St.  Mary's  Chapel,  with  a  long  dissertation  on 
the  subjects  by  the  Rev.  J.  Milner.— A  view  of  the  Nave  of  the  Cathedral,  engraved  by  D.  Havell, 
from  a  very  beautiful  drawing  by  F.  Mackenzie,  is  published  in  Ackennann's  "  History,  &c.  of 
Winchester  College,"  4to.  1816. 


WINCHESTER  CATHEDRAL  :— LIST  OF  BOOKS,  ESSAYS,  &C.  137 

In  the  second  volume  of  '•  Vetusta  Monumenta"  are  long  accounts,  by  R.  Gough,  of  the  Chan- 
tries of  Cardinal  Beaufort,  Bishop  Waynflete,  and  Bishop  Fox;  with  anecdotes  of  each  prelate, 
and  six  engravings  by  Basire,  from  drawings  by  Schnebbelie,  representing  the  said  chantries,  and 
some  of  their  ornaments.  Had  these  plates  been  accurately  drawn  and  engraved,  they  would  have 
proved  highly  interesting  and  valuable ;  but  the  slovenly  style  in  which  they  are  executed,  seems 
rather  to  tantalize  than  gratify  our  curiosity.  In  Cough's  Sepulchral  Monuments,  are  similar 
accounts. 

ACCOUNTS  OF  BISHOPS. 

"  The  Life  of  William  of  Wykehanr,  Bishop  of  Winchester;  collected  from  Records,  Registers, 
Manuscripts,  and  other  authentic  Evidences.  By  Robert  Lowth,  D.  D.  Prebendary  of  Durham, 
and  Chaplain  in  ordinary  to  his  Majesty."  8vo.  pp.  404, 1758.  This  is  the  title  to  the  first 
edition:  a  second  was  printed  in  the  following  year,  "  with  additions,"  and  a  third  in  1777-  Dr. 
Milner  says,  that  this  volume  "  contains  much  useful  information,  and  also  many  mistakes." 

"  Historica  Descriptio  complectens  Vitam  ac  Res  Gestas  Beatissimi  viri  Gulielmi  Wicami  quon- 
dam Vintoniensis  Episcopi,  et  Anglise  Cancellarii,  et  Fundator  is  duorum  Collegiorum  Oxoniae  et 
Vintoniae.  Oxoniae,  e  Theatro  Sheldoniano,  An.  Dom.  1G00.  4to.  137  pages."  With  the  arms  of 
William  of  Wykeham  to  front  the  title-page. 

N.  B.  The  author  of  this  Memoir,  was  Dr.  Thomas  Martin,  Chancellor  of  this  Diocese,  under 
Bishop  Gardiner,  and  it  was  first  printed  in  4to.  in  1507. — Gough. 

"  The  Life  of  William  Waynflete,  Bishop  of  Winchester,  Lord  High  Chancellor  of  England,  in 
the  Reign  of  Henry  VI.  and  Founder  of  Magdalen  College,  Oxford  :  collected  from  Records, 
Registers,  Manuscripts,  and  other  authentic  Evidences.  By  Richard  Chandler,  D.  D.  formerly 
Fellow  of  that  College."     8vo.  pp.  428,  London,  1811,  with  Plates. 

ENGRAVED  PORTRAITS  OF  THE  BISHOPS  OF  WINCHESTER. 

1.  William  of  Wickham  :   lloubraken,  sc.  I  h.  sh.  from  a  picture  in  Winchester  College.  Ulust. 

Head. — Whole  lcpgtlr,  from  the  picture  in  Winchester  College,  Grignion,  sc. —  tomb  of.  sh.  by 
J.  K.  Sherwin. — Large  4to.  New  College,  Wiutou,  ,/.  Faber,  f.— From  effigy  on  his  tomb. 
Grignion. — One  by  Parker.    Granger  and  Bromley. 

2.  Henry  Beaufort,  at  Mr  Walpole's,  done  for  Ilarding'sShakspeare,  by./.  Parker.  Granger. 

3.  William  Waynflete  :  lloubraken,  sc.  1742,  from  a  print  at  Magdalen  College,  Oxford, 

large  h.  sh.  lllust.  Head. — Gulielmus  Patten,  alias  Waynflete,  Maria;  Magdalen  College,  Oxou, 
1459,  ./.  Faber,  f.  large  4to.  inez. — One  by  Parker.    Granger  and  Bromley. 

4.  Richard  Fox:  Johannus  Corvus  Flandrus  faciehut,  Fertile,  sc.  1723.   In  Fiddes' "  Life  of  Car- 

dinal Wolsey,"  from  the  original  picture  at  C.  C.  C.  Oxon. — G.  Glover,  sc. — Sturt,  sc. — A 
small  oval,  for  Dr.  Knight's  "  Life  of  Erasmus  " — One  of  lire  founders,  J.  Faber,  fc.  large  4to. 
mez.  151(5. — One  by  Parker.     Granger  and  Bromley. 

5.  Thomas  Wolsey:  Ilolstein,  p.  Faber,  sc.    One  of  the  founders,  4to.  mez — A  label  from  his 

mouth,  inscribed  "  Ego  uicus  et  rcx,"4to. — Two,  with  and  without  arms,  prefixed  to  Iris  "  Life" 
by  Cavendish.  Elstrake,  sc.  4lo.  —  Head  by  Loggan,  in  Bnrnefs"  History  of  the  Reformation.'' 

in  Holland's  "  Heroologia,"  8vo. — W.  M.  (Marshall)  sc.  small  in  Fuller's  "  Holy  state." 

— P.  Fourdriner,  sc.  h.  len.  h.  sh.  in  his  "  Life,"  by  Fiddes,  fol.  1724. lloubraken,  sc. 

lllust.  Head,  in  the  possession  of  Mr.   Kingslcy. Desmchers.  sc.  4to. —  inscribed  C.  W. 

Verlue,  sc.  a  small  oval. One  by  Parker'.     Granger  and  Bromley. 

G.  Stephen  Gardiner  :  in  Harding's  Shakspeare,  1700,  1V.N.  Gardiner,  by  Gunst.  Bromley. 

7.  Robert  Horn  e:  inscribed  "  Stephen  fiardiuer,"  fol.  Holbein.  R.  \\ kite.  Granger  and  Bromley1. 

1  "  There  is  no  head  of  Wolsey  which  is  not  in  profile."     Bromley. 

1  "  It  seems  now  pretty  clear,  that  this  print  is  really  the  pprtiail  of  Bishop  Home,  as  appears  from  the  figure  of 
the  person,  and  the  arms,  "  three  bugle  horns."  Edmund  Tumor,  Esq.  of  Sackville-street,  who  did  me  the  honour 
of  communicating  this  article,  purchased  at  a  sale,  a  portrait  of  a  bishop,  with  the  arms  of  the  See  of  Winches- 
ter impaled  with  B.  a  cross,  or  ;  between  four  birds  heads,  erased  of  the  second,  in  the  centre  of  the  cross  a  cinque  foil, 
gules:  which  wen-  the  arms  granted  to  Bishop  Gardiner.  Mr.  T.  afterwards  compared  it  with  an  undoubted  por- 
trait of  that  bishop  in  the  lodge  of  Trinity  Hall,  in  Cambridge,  (whereof  Gardiner  was  some  time  master,)  and  found 
it  to  be  the  same  countenance  exactly,  but  iti  better  preservation,    Bromley. 

S 


INDEX. 


AGiLBERT,bp.  account  of,  26. 

Alfred,  King,  crowned  in  Winchester  Cath.  33. 

Alfrith,  or  Adferth,  bp.  32. 

Altar  Screen,  PI.  XV. ;  described,  92;  of  St.  Al- 
ban's,  93,  n. ;  PI.  XXII. ;  described,  98. 

Alwyn,  bp.  account  of,  42. 

Andrews,  bp.  127. 

Arches,  early  pointed  with  ornaments,  PI.  XXIX. ; 
described,  104 ;  semicircular  ditto,  pointed  ditto, 
60. 

Architecture,  Ancient,  only  to  be  understood  by 
Plans,  Sections,  &c.  88. 

Asser,  Reginald  de,  bp.  116. 

Athelm,  bp.  34. 

Austen,  Jane,  109. 

B. 

Balguy,  Dr.  Thomas,  107. 

Banbury,  Earl  of,  108. 

Beaufort,  Henry,  bp.  122. 

Beaufort's  Chantry,  PI.  XVII.;  described,  95. 

Bertulf,  bp.  34. 

Bilson,  Thomas,  bp.  127. 

Birinus,  extraordinary  Miracle  of,  23. 

,  death  of,  26. 

Bishops,  Seven  consecrated  in  one  day,  35. 

Bishop's  Throne,  76. 

Blois,  bp.  de,  54  ;  Account  of,  112. 
.  Brinstan,  or  Birnstan,  bp.  36. 

Buttress,  Profile  and  Plan  of,  PI.  V.;  Views  of,  PI. 
VI.;  various,  PI.  VII. 
C. 

Calefactory,  100. 

Canute,  King,  42. 

Capitular  Chapel,  82. 

Cathedral  Church  begun,  48;  converted  into  a 
Heathen  Temple,  22;  fortified,  31;  Chapter- 
house, 83 ;  Choir,  76,  80  ;  described,  91 ;  Crypt, 
58,  77;  described,  86;  Nave,  75;  described, 
102;  Tower,  56,  78;  Norman  Roof,  57;  Exte- 
rior described,  73  ;  Interior,  74. 

Cathedrals  considered  as  national  property,  78,  n.; 

disgraced  by  trifling  tombs,  79,  n. 

Cerdic,  obtained  possession  of  Venta,  22. 

Chapter-house,  83  ;  Plan  of,  PI.  I. ;  Ruins  of,  PI.  IX. 

Cheney,  Dean,  107. 

Chests,  with  remains  of  Saxon  Kings,  &c.  103; 
one  of  them  shown,  PI.  XV. 

Christianity,  conversion  of  the  Britons  to,  10. 

Choir,  76,  80  ;  View  of,  PI.  XIII. ;  described,  91. 

Civil  Wars  between  Stephen  and  Matilda,  54. 

Clobery,  Sir  John,  109. 

Cloister  Wall,  extent  of,  Plan  I. 

Columns,  Plan  of,  PI.  I.  VI. ;  one  of  the  Crypts,  PI. 
II.  3,  6;  Clustered,  Caps,  Eases,  and  Plan  of, 
PI.  III. ;  Plans,  PI.  XIX. 

Cooper,  bp.  account  of,  127. 

Cceur-de-Lion,  Rich,  the  First,  54 ;  account  of,  113. 

Courteney,  Sepulture  of,  84 ;  bp.  account  of,  123. 


Cross,  St.,  Hospital  and  Church,  112. 

Crypts,  77;  Plan  and  Section  of,  PI.  II. ;  described, 

86. 
Curfew  Bell  first  established  at  Winton,  47. 
Curie,  bp.  128. 

D. 
Daniel,  bp.  28. 
Davies,  Colonel,  109. 
Day,  Wm.  bp.  127. 
Defects  of  Exterior,  78. 

of  Interior,  79. 

Denewulf,  or  Denulf,  bp.  33. 
Dorchester  Church,  Account  of,  24. 
Dunbert,  bp.  33. 
Duppa,  bp.  128. 

E. 
Eadmund,  or  Edmund,  bp.  30. 
East  End,  View  of,  PI.  VIII. ;  described,  90. 
Edington,  bp.  account  of,  117  ;  Chantry,  PI.  XL 
Edington's  Effigy,  PI.  XXV. ;  described,  100. 
Edward  the  Confessor,  43. 
Edwy,  Coronation  of  at  Winchester,  37. 
Effigies  of  a  Knight,  PI.  XXVI.;  described,  102; 

of  a  bishop,  ditto. 
Effigiesr)f  Beaufort,  &c.  81 ;  Edington,  Wykeham, 

and  Waynflete,  PI.  XXV. 
Egbert,  King,  crowned  King  of  all  Britain  at  Win- 
chester, 29. 
Eleutherius,  bp.  27. 
Ely,  Nicholas  of,  bp.  116. 
Elphege,  St.  the  second,  bp.  41.  _ 
Elsin,  or  Alfin,  bp.  36. 
Emma,  Queen,  Fiery  Ordeal  of,  43. 
Ethel  wold,  St.  bp.  38. 

Ethclmar,  bp.  Sepulture  of,  91  ;  account  of,  115. 
Exon,  or  Oxon,  bp.  116. 
Eyre,  Dr.  108. 

3  F. 

Foix,  Wm.  de,  Effigy  of,  described,  102. 
Font,  two  Views  of,  PI.  XXX. ;  described,  104. 
Fox,  bp.  his  Architecture,  86  ;  Chantry,  PI.  XVII. ; 

described,  94;  Part  of,  PI.  XX.;  described,  98; 

PI.  XXII.;  described,  98,  99;  Account  of,  124. 
Free-masons,  113. 
Frithstan,  bp.  36. 

G. 
Garbett,Mr.  his  Architectural  Account  of  Winton 

Cathedral,  55. 
Gardiner's  Chantry,  PI.  XVIII. ;  described,  96, 99; 

bp.  account  of,  125. 
Giffard.  Wm.  bp.  50;  account  of,  111. 
Ground  Plan,  81. 
Groining  of  Roofs  of  Nave  and  Ailes,  PI.  I.  and 

PI.  V.;  of  Waynflete's  Chantry,  PI.  XIX. 
Guardian  Angels,  or  Portland  Chapel,  83. 

H. 
Harris,  Dr.  Wm.  108. 
Hedda,  bp.  28. 
Herefrith,  bp.  slain  at  Charmouth,  30. 


INDEX. 


Hclnistan,  or  Helinstan,  bp.  30 
Hoadlv,  Ben.  bp.  128. 
Holland,  Sir  Nath.  109. 
Home,  Robt.  bp.  108,  126. 
Huntingford,  Jas.  108. 

Improvements  made  by  Dean  and  Chapter,  78. 

K. 
Kenelwalsh,  King,  founded  the  See  of  Winton,25. 
Kenitlpli,  or  Elsius,  bp.  41. 
Kinegils,  death  of,  25. 
KiDgsmill,  Dean,  108. 

Liu 
Lady  or  Virgin  Chapel,  82;  Windows,  Plan,  &c. 

86;  Elevation  of  PI.  XX.;   described,   97;  PI. 

XXI.  p.  98. 
Langtou  Chapel,  77,  83,  96 ;  Wood-work  of  PI. 

XXL;  described,  98. 

,  bp.  account  of,  124. 

Lucius,  a   British   King,  enquiry  concerning  his 

history,  12;  death  of,  14. 
Lucy's,  bp.  de.  Architecture,  86;  Columns  of,  88; 

Elevation  of,  PI.  XX.  97 ;  Section  of  Three  Ailes, 

PI.  XXIII.;  described,  98;  account  of,  113. 
M. 
Mayor  appointed,  63. 
Mews,  bp.  128;  Vault  of,  83,  87. 
Minstrels  Gallery,  88  ;  View  of.  PI.  V. 
Misereres,  or  Scats,  92. 
Montague,  bp.  127. 
Montagu,  Eliz.  108. 

Monuments  and  Slabs  generally  injurious,  79.  n. 
Morlcy,  bp.  account  of,  128. 
Mullions  of  Windows,  PI.  I. 

N. 
Nave,  75;  Plan    of  Pier,   PI.  III.;  described,  88; 

View  of,  PI.  X. XL;  described,  91 ;  Elevation  of 

one  compartment,  PI.  XXVII. ;  described,  102. 
Naylor,  Dean,  108. 
Neile,  bp.  account  of,  127. 
O 
Orlcton,  bp.  116;  death  of,  83. 

P. 
Panelling  over  West  Front,  PI.  IV. 
Pinnacles  of  West  Front,  Pi  IV. 
Potitissara,  bp.  de,  116. 
Portland,  Earl  of.  and  Chapel,  83,  87. 
Poynet,  bp.  account  of,  126. 
Presbytery,  76;  Column  of,  88;  Elevation  of  one 

Compartment,  PI.  XXVIII.;  described,  103. 
Pulpit,  76;  PI.  XXI.  ;  described,  98. 
Pylc,  Edm.  108. 

Q- 

Quilchelm  baptized  at  Dorchester,  24. 

R. 
Richard  (Coeur-de-Lion)  crowned  a  second  time, 

54;  account  of,  113. 
Ralcy,  bp.  de,  account  of,  1 15. 
Rums,  Wm.  death  of,  49;  Tomb,  91. 

ERRATA. 

Page  48,  line  15,  for  "  three  dayt,"  read/our  days  andfeur  nights,  as  stated  by  Rudborne,  Annales,  p.  295. 
Page  62,  lines  17,  10,  &c.  omit,  and  substitute,  "  the  face  of  the  work,  as  well  as  the  mouldings,  are  wrought  with 
care  and  accuracy." 

END. 


Rupibus,  bp.  Effigy  of,  PI.  XXVI. ;  described,  102 ; 
account  of,  114. 

S. 

Screen  to  Choir,  80 ;  to  Altar,  81 ;  behind  Altar, 
PI.  XXII.  ;  described,  98. 

Silkstede's  Chapel,  83  ;  Sepulture  of,  85. 

Stalls  of  Choir,  PI.  XIV. ;  described,  92. 

St.  Paul,  doubts  of  his  residence  in  Britain,  12. 

Stigand,bp.44  ;  death  of  iu  Winchester  Castle,  45. 

Stratford,  John  de,  bp.  116. 

Swithun,  St.  bp.  30  ;  died,  32;  tomb  of,  86. 
T. 

Thomas,  bp.  108. 

Toclivc,  bp.  account  of,  113. 

Tower,  78 ;  Section  of,  PI.  XXIV. ;  described,  100 ; 
Part  of,  PI.  XXIX. ;  described,  104. 

Transepts,  South  and  North,  76,  80;  exterior  View 
of  the  latter,  PI.  VI. ;  described,  90  ;  S.Transept, 
View  of  PI.  IX.;  described,  90;  interior  of  N. 
PI.  XII.  ;  described,  91;  West  exterior  of  N. ; 
described,  99;  interior  of  S.  PI.  XXIV.;  des- 
cribed, 100. 

Trelawney,  bp.  128. 

Tribune,  or  Minstrels  Gallery,  88. 

Trimncll.  bp.  108  ;  account  of,  128. 
V. 

Vcnta,  Church  of,  rebuilt,  21 ;  obtained  the  rank  of 
a  Metropolis,  22. 

W. 

Walkclyn,  bp.  46  ;  account  of.  111  ;  curious  grant 
of  Win.  the  Conqueror  to,  48. 

Walton,  Isaac,  109. 

Warton,  Dr.  Jos.  109. 

Watson,  bp.  108,  127. 

Waynflclc,  bp.  account  of,  122;  Chantry,  PI. 
XVIII.;  described,  96;  Roof  of,  PI.  XIX.;  de- 
scribed^ ;  Effigy  of,  PI.  XXV.;  described,  101. 

Wert  Front,  View  of,  PI.  IV.;  Section  of,  V.;  de- 
scribed, 88,  89. 

White,  John,  bp.  account  of,  126. 

Wickham,  Win.  bp.  account  of,  127. 

W  ighten,  bp.  30. 

"\\  illis,  bp.  107,  128. 

Wina,  bp.  27. 

Winchester  partly  destroyed,  52;  partly  restored, 
53;  Castle  begnn,  47  ;  conquered  and  occupied 
by  French  troops,  54  ;  place  of  importance  at  an 
early  period,  10. 

Windows,  Plans  of  live,  PI.  I. ;  Great  Western,  PI. 
IV.;  square-headed  ditto;  Elevation  and  Sec- 
tion of,  PI.  V. ;  Circular,  PI.  VI. ;  of  Nave,  PI. 
XXVII.;  of  Presbytery,  PI.  XXVII.;  of-East 
End. 

Woodlokc,  or  Merewell,  bp.  116. 

Wolsey,  bp.  account  of,  125. 

Wykeham's  Chantry,  ill  placed  and  bad  in  design, 
79;  PI.  XVI. ;  described,  93;  Architecture  of, 
PI.  XXIV. ;  described,  100;  Elligy,  PI.  XXV.; 
described,  101 ;  account  of,  118. 


THE 

HISTORY  AND  ANTIQUITIES 

OF  THE 

SEE  AND  CATHEDRAL  CHURCH 

OF 


ILLUSTRATED    EY 


A  SERIES  OF  ENGRAVINGS, 

OF 

VIEWS  ELEVATIONS,  PLANS,  AND  DETAILS 

OF  THE 

&vs%it$ttnve  of  tbt  orimttf) : 

WITH 

BIOGRAPHICAL  ANECDOTES  OF  THE  BISHOPS 

OF 

LICHFIELD  AND  COVENTRY. 


BY 

JOHN  BRITTON,  F.S.A. 


EontJon : 

PUBLISHED  BY  LONGMAN,  HURST,  REES,  ORME,  AND  BROWN,  PATERNOSTER  ROW; 
THE  AUTHOR,  10,  TAVISTOCK  PLACE;    AND  J.  TAYLOR,  59,  HIGH  HOLBORN. 

1820. 


C.  WbitliDgham,  College  House,  Cliiswick. 


TO 
THE  VERY  REVEREND 

JOHN  CHAPPEL  WOODHOUSE,  D.D. 

DEAN  OF  LICHFIELD : 

AND 

TO  THE  REV.  CHARLES  BUCKERIDGE,  D.D. 

PRECENTOR,  AND  CANON  RESIDENTIARY: 

THE  REV.  HUGH  BAILYE,  M.A. 

CHANCELLOR,  AND  CANON  RESIDENTIARY: 

THE   REV.   EDWARD   OUTRAM,  D.D. 

TREASURER,  AND  CANON  RESIDENTIARY: 

THE  REV.  JOHN  NEWLING,  B.  D. 

CANON  RESIDENTIARY: 

THE  REV.  ROBERT  NARES,  M.A. 

CANON  RESIDENTIARY: 
AND  TO 

THE  REV.  SPENCER  MADAN,  M.A. 

CANON  RESIDENTIARY: 

®f)i0  Volume, 

ILLUSTRATIVE  OF  THE  HISTORY  AND  ARCHITECTURE  OF  THE  CATHEDRAL,  OVER  WHICH 
THEY  PRESIDE,  WITH  DISTINGUISHED  HONOR  TO  THEMSELVES, 

IS  RESPECTFULLY  INSCRIBED  BY 

THE  AUTHOR. 

December,  1819. 


PREFACE. 


It  is  a  common  remark,  that  "  church  work  is  slow;"  and  it  may 
be  also  inferred,  by  the  practice  of  authors  and  artists,  that  literary 
and  embellished  works  on  antient  Architecture  are  also  slow.  Two 
years  have  elapsed  since  the  present  volume  was  announced  ;  and  it 
may  have  surprised  and  disappointed  some  persons  to  have  watched 
its  tardy  progress  and  final  completion.  As  now  presented,  it  has 
not  been  accomplished  without  considerable  difficulties  and  solici- 
tude ;  and  though  it  may  not  afford  that  general  satisfaction  which 
the  author  is  always  anxious  to  impart,  or  be  equal  to  his  intentions 
and  wishes,  it  is  hoped  that  it  will  be  interesting  to  many  of  the 
collectors  of  this  species  of  literature.  It  must  be  allowed  by  the 
impartial  critic,  that  the  architectural  forms,  proportions,  and  or- 
naments of  the  church  have  never  before  been  given  with  equal 
accuracy  ;  and  it  is  presumed  that  its  history  and  description  will 
be  found  carefully  investigated  and  developed.  In  this,  as  in  all 
other  literary  works,  the  author  has  anxiously  endeavoured  to 
ascertain  facts,  and  to  elucidate  those  points  of  history  which  have 
hitherto  been  obscure  or  questionable ;  yet  he  cannot  help  re- 
gretting that  he  has  on  the  present  occasion  sought  in  vain  for 
original  documents  and  evidence.  His  practice  has  been  to  com- 
pare and  analyze  the  contents  of  all  published  works,  and  to  obtain, 
if  possible,  access  to  new  and  authentic  sources  of  information. 
From  these  he  deduces  historical  data,  and  in  every  instance  refers 
to  authorities.  Fastidious  and  scrupulous  himself,  he  concludes  that 
his  readers  may  require  the  same  demonstration  and  validity  of 
evidence  which  he  regards  as  necessary  to  produce  conviction. 
He  is  also  willing  to  believe  that  the  purchaser  of  this  work,  whe- 
ther architect  or  antiquary,  will  be  satisfied  with  nothing  less  than 

a 


PREFACE. 

accurate  delineations  of  the  o-eometrical  forms  of  arches,  and  other 
parts  of  the  edifice,  by  which  alone  substantial  knowledge  can 
be  obtained.  Many  persons,  no  doubt,  prefer  pretty  picturesque 
views  and  artificial  effects  of  light  and  shade ;  thev  seek  only  to 
please  the  eye,  and  do  not  wish  to  trouble  the  thinking;  faculties 
with  doubts  and  investigations.  To  such  persons,  however,  the 
Cathedral  Anticpiities  is  not  addressed ;  for  this  is  intended  to 
elucidate  and  define  the  ecclesiastical  architecture  and  antiquities 
of  our  native  country ;  which  can  only  be  done  by  plans,  sections, 
and  elevations  of  buildings.  Much  controversy  and  discussion 
have  been  employed  respecting  the  shapes  and  varied  gradation  of 
arches  ;  and  there  still  exists  much  uncertainty  and  confusion  on 
the  subject.  All  this  may  be  avoided  by  having  them  correctly 
drawn,  in  elevation,  and  their  mouldings  and  ornaments  defined 
by  horizontal  sections.  This  system  is  attempted  in  the  present 
work  ;  in  the  ground  plan,  sections  of  the  west  front,  transept,  &c. 
and  in  the  elevations  of  the  same,  with  parts  at  large. 

It  is  but  justice  to  the  respectable  members  of  this  church 
establishment,  to  acknowledge  their  polite  attentions  to  the  author, 
and  readiness  to  give  him  every  assistance  and  every  facility  of 
ingress  and  egress  to  their  cathedral,  its  books,  and  its  archives. 
Unlike  some  ecclesiastical  officers,  who  either  deny  access,  or 
render  its  attainment  difficult  and  vexatious,  here  the  worthy 
dean  and  chapter  seemed  as  if  they  were  the  obliged,  rather  than 
the  obliging  parties.  The  author  therefore  begs  to  present  his  best 
thanks  to  the  following  gentlemen,  for  their  many  marks  of  personal 
civility  and  assistance  during:  his  execution  of  the  volume  now 
submitted  to  the  public : — The  Dean  of  Lichfieed  ;  the  Rev.  Dr. 
Beckeridge  ;  the  Ret.  Hugh  Bailye  ;  the  Rev.  Archdeacon 
Nares  ;  the  Rev.  John  Newling  ;  the  Rev.  Henry  White  ; 
R.  J.  Harper,  Esq.  ;  Wm.  Hamper,  Esq. ;  Mr.  Potter,  Jun. ; 
Mr.  Johnson  ;  and  Mr.  Lomax. 


I^tetorp  an&  antiquities 


LICHFIELD  CATHEDRAL  CHURCH. 


<£fjap.  £♦ 


LICHFIELD,    THE    BIRTH-PLACE  AND    HOME    OF    PERSONS    OF    TALENT: THE 

ORIGIN    AND    NAME    OF    LICHFIELD  : TRADITION    RELATING  TO   BRITISH 

MARTYRS: — ESTABLISHMENT     OF     CHRISTIANITY     IN     THE     KINGDOM     OF 

MERCIA,  AND  OF  THE  FIRST  MERCIAN  BISHOPS: HISTORY  OF  THE  SEE  OF 

LICHFIELD  AND  COVENTRY. 


The  name  of  Lichfield  is  intimately  associated  with  the  history  and  litera- 
ture of  the  kingdom.  In  the  early  annals  of  Britain  we  frequently  find  it 
mentioned  in  the  accounts  of  several  religious  and  military  events.  It 
is  connected  with  our  national  literature  as  the  natal  spot,  or  the  home,  of 
many  distinguished  authors,  particularly  of  Dr.  Johnson,  David  Garrick, 
Bishop  Newton,  Joseph  Addison,  Lady  Mary  Wortley  Montague,  Mr.  and 
Miss  Edgeworth,  Dr.  James,  Gilbert  Walmsley,  James  Day,  Dr.  Darwin, 
Miss  Seward,  and  Richard  Green.  Many  of  the  Prelates  and  Deans  of  the 
See  have  also  been  distinguished  for  their  literary,  or  ecclesiastical  talents: 
and  have  been  promoted  to  high  stations  in  the  church  or  state.  Every 
reader  who  has  a  heart  to  feel,  and  a  head  to  appreciate  the  profound 
lucubrations  of  the  stern  moralist  Dr.  Johnson,  must  experience  a  degree 
of  reverence  and  respect  for  the  place  where  he  first  drew  his  breath  and 


8  LICHFIELD  CATHEDRAL. 

derived  his  early  perceptions.  In  the  character  of  this  colossus  of  litera- 
ture, we  observe  a  strange  and  anomalous  mixture  of  wisdom  and  weak- 
ness, of  philosophy  and  credulity;  whilst  the  consummate  histrionic 
talents,  and  professional  jealousies  of  a  Garrick,  naturally  excite  the 
mingled  emotions  of  pleasure  and  of  pity.  From  such  contemplations  we 
may  infer  that  Providence  organizes  and  regulates  the  mental  as  well  as 
the  material  world  on  a  plan  above  our  comprehension,  by  blending  wis- 
dom and  folly,  good  and  evil,  light  and  shade,  so  intimately,  but  incon- 
gruously together,  that  what  mankind  esteem  perfection  is  never  to  be 
found.  Of  Gilbert  Walmsley,  who  was  registrar  of  this  See,  Dr.  Johnson 
observes,  in  his  Life  of  Edmund  Smith,  that  he  was  "  not  able  to  name  a 
man  of  equal  knowledge.  His  acquaintance  with  books  was  great;  such 
was  his  amplitude  of  learning,  and  such  his  copiousness  of  communication, 
that  it  may  be  doubted  whether  a  day  now  passes  in  which  I  have  not 
some  advantage  from  his  friendship.  At  this  man's  table  I  enjoyed  many 
cheerful  and  instructive  hours  with  companions  such  as  are  not  often 
found;  with  one  who  has  lengthened,  and  one  who  has  gladdened  life; 
with  Dr.  James,  whose  skill  in  physic  will  be  long  remembered;  and  with 
David  Garrick,  whose  death  has  eclipsed  the  gaiety  of  nations,  and  impo- 
verished the  public  stock  of  harmless  pleasure."  Thus,  by  the  power  of 
exciting  particular  reflections  and  sentiments,  certain  spots  of  the  earth 
become  endeared  to  our  memories,  and  consecrated  to  our  admiration ; 
and  this  interest  belongs  preeminently  to  the  birth-place  of  genius  and  the 
asylum  of  talent.  Hence  Woolsthorpe  is  justly  immortalized  for  a  New- 
ton:— London  for  a  Milton  : — Plyinpton  for  a  Reynolds  : — Stratford-upon- 
Avon  for  a  Shakspeare,  and  Lichfield  for  a  Johnson.  It  is  thus  that 
places  and  persons  become  mutually  associated  and  linked  together,  and 
produce  those  "  Pleasures  of  Imagination"  which  at  once  afford  exercise 
and  delight  to  the  thinking  faculties.  Influenced  by  this  feeling,  we  shall 
view  with  additional  gratification  the  beautiful  cathedral  of  this  city.  As 
an  object  of  architecture  and  antiquity  it  excites  our  admiration :  but 
examined  in  all  its  relations  and  connexions  with  the  history  of  religion, 
the  progress  of  art,  the  varied  states  of  civilization,  and  with  the  good 


NAME  OF  LICHFIELD.  9 

and  eminent  persons  whose  ashes  repose  beneath  its  roof,  it  is  replete 
with  interest  and  importance.  It  invites  at  once  the  contemplations  of 
philosophy,  and  the  pleasing  toil  of  antiquarian  research  ;  which,  if  judi- 
ciously directed,  cannot  fail  to  elicit  additional  objects  of  mental  reci'eation 
and  pleasure.  Let  us  proceed  to  verify  this  position  by  a  brief  view  of  the 
history  of  the  See  and  Cathedral  of  Lichfield. 

When  the  fierce  and  credulous  Anglo-Saxons  were  induced,  by  the  mis- 
sionaries of  the  Roman  pontiffs,  to  exchange  their  gloomy  superstition  for 
the  name,  rather  than  the  principles  of  Christianity,  and  to  transfer  their 
idolatry  from  the  blood-stained  altars  of  their  imaginary  gods  to  harmless 
relics  and  images,  a  radical  alteration  commenced  in  their  manners,  institu- 
tions, and  policy,  and  rapidly  produced  the  most  important  results.  A 
faithful  and  comprehensive  history  of  these  events  would  be  peculiarly 
interesting  and  instructive;  but  most  of  the  meagre  records  of  the  Anglo- 
Saxon  age  have  long  since  perished,  and  those  which  remain  abound 
with  gross  fabrications.  The  most  blind  and  ignorant  credulity,  and 
the  most  humiliating  submission  to  ecclesiastical  despotism,  were  suc- 
cessfully inculcated  by  the  Roman  emissaries,  and  adopted  by  their  Saxon 
converts  as  the  primary  articles  of  their  new  religion ;  and  the  principal 
object  of  the  histories  or  legends  of  the  times  was  to  extend  and  perpetuate 
those  delusive  notions.  Hence  we  are  disgusted  by  their  clumsy  miracles, 
shocked  at  the  misapplication  of  the  most  sacred  epithets,  and  compelled 
to  view  their  simplest  statements  of  facts,  apparently  indifferent,  with 
doubt  and  suspicion,  because  we  know  not  how  far  the  interest  of  the 
writers  may  have  influenced  their  assertions.  Such  are  the  materials 
however  from  which  the  early  history  of  the  English  episcopal  sees  must 
necessarily  be  collected,  not  only  by  patient  and  laborious  investigation, 
but  by  the  exercise  of  rational  discrimination. 

The  introduction  of  Christianity  into  the  kingdom  of  Mercia,  the  insti- 
tution of  the  Mercian  episcopacy,  the  establishment  and  history  of  the  See 
of  Lichfield  and  Coventry,  are  subjects  on  which  antient  authorities  are 
so  discordant,  that  the  most  opposite  conclusions  have  been  drawn  from 
them.    The  following  account,  it  is  hoped,  will  be  found  the  most  clear  and 


10  LICHFIELD  CATHEDRAL. 

satisfactory  which  has  hitherto  appeared  :  it  has  at  least  been  procured  with 
great  care  and  research  from  original  sources  of  information.  Nothing  is 
advanced  without  authority;  no  single  authority  has  been  implicitly  relied 
on;  nor  have  even  the  most  rational  conjectures  been  assumed  as  facts. 
Where  certainty  could  not  be  obtained,  the  author  has  submitted  his  own 
opinions,  or  those  of  former  writers,  which  in  his  judgment  were  well 
founded,  together  with  the  grounds  on  which  those  opinions  have  been 
formed. 

The  name  of  Lichfield  is  of  Saxon  origin,  but  its  etymology  has  long 
been  a  subject  of  dispute.  In  the  Saxon  Chronicle  the  word  is  written 
Licet/eld;  in  Bede,  Lyccetfelth,  and  Licitfeld;  subsequent  writers  call  it 
Licethfeld,  Lichesfeld,  and  Lychfeld.  By  some  authors  it  is  derived  from 
"  leccian,"  to  ivater;  as  being  watered  by  the  river;  by  others,  from  "  laece," 
a  physician ;  perhaps  it  may  with  more  probability  be  supposed  to  have 
originated  in  the  verb  "  licean,"  or  "lician,"  to  like1,  or  be  agreeable;  and 
therefore,  to  signify  Pleasant  Field.  But  it  has  generally  been  considered  as 
derived  from  "  lie,"  a  dead  body,  and  consequently  as  signifying  "  cadaverum 
campus,"  the  field  of  dead  bodies.  This  derivation  is  however  conceived  to 
be  supported  by  a  tradition,  which  prevails  very  generally  in  Lichfield,  of 
the  martyrdom  of  a  great  number  of  British  Christians  there,  during  the 
persecution  under  Dioclesian  and  Maximian.  As  this  tradition  has  been 
noticed  in  every  history  of  the  cathedral,  and  in  some  is  adduced  as  the 
reason  for  the  establishment  of  the  See  on  the  spot  consecrated  by  an  event 
of  such  religious  importance,  it  cannot,  with  propriety,  be  neglected  in  this 
place.  The  substance  of  it  is,  that  a  thousand  Christians,  the  disciples  of 
St.  Amphibalus,  suffered  martyrdom  in  the  time  of  that  persecution,  on 
the  ground  whereon  Lichfield  was  afterwards  built.  "  Whence  the  city 
retains  the  name  of  Lichfield,  or  '  cadaverum  campus,'  the  field  of  dead 
bodies,  and  bears  for  its  device,  rather  than  arms,  an  escutcheon  of  land- 

1  To  like  was  formerly  used  in  the  sense  of  "  to  be  liked."  Thus  "  the  offer  likes  not,"  in 
Sbakspeare's  Henry  V.  (Act  III.  chorus)  means,  '  the  offer  is  not  liked.'  In  Hamlet,  "it  likes 
us  well,"  is  used  for  'it  is  well  liked  by  us;'  or,  as  we  should  now  say,  '  we  like  it  well.'  Act  11. 
Scene  2. 


KINGDOM  OF  MERCIA.  11 

scape  with  many  martyrs  in  it  in  several  ways  massacred2."  But  as  this 
device  could  not  have  been  used  in  any  authentic  shape  before  the  incor- 
poration of  the  guild  in  1387,  (when  it  might  be  borne  in  the  common 
seal)  it  can  add  little  weight  to  the  tradition  of  a  fact  so  very  remote. 
Several  writers  of  eminence  are  of  opinion,  that  St.  Amphibalus  (like  St. 
Veronica,  and  several  other  Saints  in  the  Roman  calendar,)  never  existed  ; 
that  his  name  originated  in  a  mistake  made  by  Jeffrey  of  Monmouth,  and 
that  the  whole  legend  relating  to  him  was  fabricated  after  the  time  of  that 
historian3. 

The  first  authentic  mention  of  Lichfield  occurs  in  Bede's  Ecclesiastical 
■History,  where  it  is  alluded  to  as  the  see  of  an  Anglo-Saxon  Bishop,  nearly 
four  hundred  years  after  the  date  ascribed  to  the  martyrdom  of  the  dis- 
ciples of  Amphibalus.  In  that  long  interval  the  Romans  had  been  com- 
pelled to  abandon  the  province  of  Britain,  in  order  to  defend  the  centre  of 
their  falling  empire :  the  Britons,  overpowered  by  their  more  warlike  neigh- 
bours, the  Scots  and  Picts,  had  summoned  the  Saxons,  an  idolatrous  nation 
of  Germany,  to  their  aid:  the  latter  having  possessed  themselves  of  the  coun- 
try they  were  invited  to  defend,  had  driven  its  aboriginal  inhabitants  into 
Wales  and  Cornwall ;  established  seven  kingdoms  in  Britain ;  and  almost 
universally  adopted  the  Christian  religion.  The  conversion  of  the  kingdom 
of  Mercia,  of  which  the  present  diocess  of  Lichfield  and  Coventry  antiently 
formed  a  part,  must  however  engage  our  present  inquiry. 

Among  the  kingdoms  of  the  Saxon  Heptarchy,  that  of  Mercia,  under 
its  pagan  monarch,  Penda,  was  the  most  extensive  and  powerful.  The 
neighbouring  princes  had  embraced  the  profession  of  the  Christian  faith, 

1  Plot's  "  Natural  History  of  Staffordshire,"  cb.  x.  §  12.  p.  398.  This  account  is  given  on  the 
authority  of  John  Ross  or  Rous,  whose  work  is  quoted  by  Plot  in  several  places  thus,  "  Ex  libro 
Johannis  Rufi,  MS.  de  episcopis  Wigorn."  Bishop  Nicholson  says  he  should  not  have  believed 
the  existence  of  this  MS.  had  it  not  been  quoted  by  Dr.  Plot.  (Historical  Library  fo.  1736, 
p.  135.)  And  Shaw  seems  disposed  to  think  that  it  never  existed,  and  misquotes  Bishop  Nichol- 
son in  support  of  his  opinion.  (Hist.  Staffordshire,  vol.  i.  p.  298.)  But  the  MS.  is  quoted  to 
the  same  effect  by  Speed.    (Hist.  Great  Britain,  fol.  339.) 

3  Lloyd's  "  Historical  Account  of  Church  Government,"  &c.  p.  151,  152;  and  Archbishop 
Usher's  work,  "  De  primordiis  Ecclesiae  Britannicae,"  p.  15],  156,  159,  641. 

B 


12  LICHFIELD  CATHEDRAL. 

and  as  Penda  was  continually  engaged  in  successful  warfare  against  them, 
he  has  been  erroneously  characterized  as  a  sanguinary  persecutor  of  the 
Christians  \  But  there  is  no  reason  to  believe  that  he  ever  attacked  any 
of  his  neighbours  on  account  of  their  religion5.  The  nominal  Christians 
of  those,  and  of  subsequent  times,  were  more  addicted  to  such  impious 
aggressions  than  the  Mercian  idolaters,  or  any  other  pagans :  and  it  is  not 
improbable  that  Penda  himself  fell  a  victim  to  their  fanatical  zeal.  This 
monarch  had  delegated  to  Peda,  his  eldest  son,  the  government  of  the 
Middle  Angles,  who  inhabited  Leicestershire.  That  young  prince,  in  653, 
visited  the  court  of  Oswy,  the  Christian  king  of  Northumberland,  and 
became  a  suitor  to  his  daughter,  Alcfleda.  Oswy  consented  to  their  union, 
on  condition  that  Peda  would  renounce  idolatry;  which  he  agreeing  to, 
was  baptized,  and  soon  afterwards  married.  On  returning  to  his  province 
he  was  accompanied  by  four  priests,  for  the  purpose  of  instructing  the  people 
in  the  Christian  faith6.  Within  two  years  after  these  events,  Penda  was 
defeated  in  battle  by  Oswy,  and  slain  ;  and  Peda  was  deputed  by  the  victor 
to  rule  the  Mercians,  south  of  the  Trent,  who  occupied  the  most  considerable 
portion  of  Penda's  dominions.  Although  the  monastic  historians  represent 
Penda  as  the  aggressor,  and  tell  us  that  Oswy,  with  a  small  band,  over- 
came the  mighty  host  of  the  Mercians,  through  the  special  interposition  of 
Providence,  the  modern  reader  may  be  allowed  to  distrust  this  marvellous 
tale.  Peda  does  not  appear  to  have  combated  for  his  father;  on  the  con- 
trary, we  find  him,  after  the  victory,  high  in  Oswy's  favour:  and  although 
it  is  not  recorded  that  he,  with  his  newly  converted  subjects,  followed  the 
banners  of  Oswy  in  this  war;  yet  we  must  at  least  conclude  that  he  ob- 
served a  neutrality,  which  would  deprive  his  father  of  a  very  material  part 
of  the  aid  he  had  a  right  to  expect.     But  Peda  was  not  long  permitted  to 

4  "  luimanissimi  tyranni,  et  pagauis  ritibus  deditissimi."     Ang.  Sac.  v.  i.  p.  423. 

5  "  Nor  did  King  Penda  obstruct  the  preaching  of  the  word  among  his  people,  that  is,  the 
Mercians,  if  any  were  willing  to  hear  it ;  but,  on  the  contrary,  he  hated  and  despised  those  whom 
he  perceived  not  to  perform  the  works  of  faith,  when  they  had  received  the  faith  of  Christ ; 
saying,  They  were  contemptible  and  wretched,  who  did  not  obey  their  God,  in  whom  they 
believed."    Bede's  Eccles.  Hist.  1.  iii.  ch.  xxi.  p.  234.     Translation  of  1?23. 

6  Bede's  Eccl.  Hist.  ut.  sup. 


FIRST  BISHOPS  OF  LICHFIELD.  ]3 

share  the  extensive  sway  of  Oswy,  being  murdered,  about  twelve  months 
after  the  death  of  his  father.  Common  report  imputed  the  deed  to  the 
treachery  of  his  wife,  the  daughter  of  Oswy7.  From  this  period  the  Nor- 
thumbrian king  possessed  the  throne  of  Mercia  nearly  three  years  without 
partner  or  rival ;  when  some  of  the  Mercian  nobles,  unable  longer  to  endure 
his  yoke,  raised  an  insurrection,  expelled  his  forces  from  their  country, 
and  placed  Wulfere,  the  younger  son  of  Penda,  on  the  throne8.  When 
we  consider  the  inveterate  enmity  between  Penda  and  Oswy,  the  impla- 
cability and  ferocity  of  the  latter9,  the  critical  period  of  Peda's  conversion, 
and  his  untimely  fate  so  speedily  following  the  overthrow  of  his  father,  it 
is  impossible  not  to  suspect  that  the  conversion  of  the  Middle  Angles  was 
undertaken  for  the  purpose  of  dividing  the  power  of  Penda:  and  that 
Peda  was  instrumental  in  advancing  the  ambitious  Oswy  to  the  Mercian 
throne.  The  crimes  and  follies  of  mankind  are  often  seen  to  aid  in  fulfil- 
ling the  benevolent  purposes  of  the  Almighty :  thus  the  ambition  of  Oswy, 
and  the  fatal  passion  of  Peda  for  an  unworthy  object,  introduced  the 
Christian  faith  into  the  most  powerful  kingdom  of  the  Saxon  Heptarchy. 

This  important  event  happened  in  656,  when  Oswy  and  his  son-in-law, 
Peda,  founded  the  Mercian  Church,  by  appointing  Diuma,  one  of  the  four 
priests  who  had  accompanied  the  prince  on  his  return  from  Northumbria, 
to  preside  as  bishop  over  the  Mercians,  Middle  Angles,  the  people  of  Lin- 
disfarue,  and  the  neighbouring  provinces ,0.  Cellach  succeeded  Diuma,  but 
retired  on  the  revolution  which  raised  Wulfere  to  the  throne,  who  nominated 
Trumhere  to  this  bishopric.  Jarumann  succeeded  Trumhere,  and  upon  the 
death  of  Jarumann,  the  famous  Ceadda  was  appointed  to  this  diocess11. 
This  prelate  had  been  consecrated  Bishop  of  York,  and  had  governed  that 
diocess  for  three  years.     But  on  being  reproved  by  Theodore,  Archbishop 

7  Bede,  1.  iii.  ch.  xxiv.  8  Ibid. 

9  Witness  his  base  assassination  of  Oswin.     Bede,  1.  iii.  ch.  xiv. 

10  Bede's  Eccl.  Hist.  1.  iii.  ch.  xxiv. 

"  Many  particulars  of  the  life  of  Ceadda  will  be  found  dispersed  through  Bede's  Ecclesiastical 
History  ;  and  little  reliance  can  be  placed  on  any  anecdotes  or  legends  relating  to  him  that  are 
not  derived  from  that  source. 


14  LICHFIELD   CATHEDRAL. 

of  Canterbury,  as  irregularly  ordained,  the  submissive  Ceadda,  with  great 
humility,  offered  to  resign  the  episcopal  dignity ;  and  although  Theodore 
would  not  accept  his  abdication,  he  retired  to  his  monastery  of  Lastinghain, 
which  had  been  founded  by  his  brother  Cedd,  then  Bishop  of  Loudon. 
From  this  seclusion,  Ceadda  was  summoned  by  Theodore,  in  669,  to 
assume  the  government  of  the  Mercian  diocess,  vacant  by  the  death  of 
Jarumann.  The  monks  of  Medeshamstead,  or  Peterborough,  invented  a 
romantic  tale  respecting  the  conversion  of  King  Wulfere  by  this  bishop I2. 
It  relates,  that  while  Ceadda  was  living  in  a  cell  by  the  side  of  a  spring, 
where  he  was  nourished  by  the  milk  of  a  Doe,  the  two  sous  of  King  Wulfere 
accidentally  discovered  his  retreat;  and,  being  converted  by  the  hermit  to 
Christianity,  frequently  repaired  to  his  cell  for  purposes  of  devotion.  But 
the  cruel  pagan,  their  father,  having  watched  their  movements,  slew  them 
both  in  the  presence  of  their  instructor.  Being  afterwards  distracted  with 
remorse  for  these  unnatural  murders,  he  sought  the  pious  bishop,  who  had 
fled  from  his  cell,  aud  earnestly  implored  his  forgiveness  and  intercession 
with  heaven.  Ceadda  embraced  this  occasion  to  impress  on  his  mind  the 
truths  of  Christianity  ;  but,  unwilling  to  trust  too  much  to  his  admonitions, 
adopted  the  expedient  of  banging  his  cloak  upon  a  sunbeam!  which  notable 
miracle  completed  the  conversion  of  the  penitent  idolater13.  But  if  this 
story  had  not  been  totally  unfounded,  it  would  surely  have  been  noticed 
by  Bede,  who  gives  a  very  particular  and  sufficiently  marvellous  account 
of  St.  Ceadda14;  nor  does  either  the  Saxon  Chronicle,  or  William  of 
Malmesbury's  History,  allude  to  any  such  events. 

"  Leland's  Collectanea,  vol.  i.  p.  1.  The  account  of  this  conversion  is  abridged  by  Leland, 
from  a  book  "  Autoris  incerti  nominis,  sed  monachi,  ut  cotligo,  Petroburgensis."  Speed  also 
relates  this  affair  on  the  authority  of  "  the  Liger-Booke  of  the  Monastery  of  Peterborow." 
Hist,  of  Great  Britain,  book  vii.  p.  35G. — In  Gunton's  "  History,  &c.  of  the  Church  of  Peter- 
burgh,"  this  account  is  noticed  in  some  monkish  verses  from  the  Cloister  Windows. 

a  See  Gunton's  "  History  of  the  Church  of  Peterburgh,"  pp.  2  aud  3,  with  the  Supplement 
by  Dr.  Patrick,  pp.  229  to  233,  where  this  silly  and  impious  story  is  treated  as  the  forgery  of  an 
old  anonymous  writer. 

'*  The  Legend  states,  that  the  monastery  of  Peterborough  was  founded  by  Wulfere  in  expiation 
of  his  crime ;  but  Bede  ascribes  the  foundation  to  Sexulf,  its  first  abbot,  afterwards  Bishop  of 
the  Mercians.  In  the  Saxon  Chronicle  it  is  attributed  to  King  Peda.  It  is  to  be  remarked,  that 
Wulfere  is  always  mentioned  by  Bede  as  a  zealous  Christian. 


DIVISION  OF  SEES.  Jg 

"  Ceadda,"  according  to  Bede,  "  had  his  episcopal  see  in  the  place  called 
Licitfeld,  in  which  he  also  died,  and  was  buried ;  where  also  the  see  of  the 
succeeding  bishops  of  that  province  still  continues.  He  had  built  himself 
an  habitation  not  far  removed  from  the  church,  wherein  he  was  wont  to 
pray  and  read  with  a  few,  that  is,  seven  or  eight  of  the  brethren,  as  often 
as  he  had  any  spare  time  from  the  labour  and  ministry  of  the  word15." 
After  presiding  upwards  of  two  years,  he  died  in  670,  and  was  first  buried 
near  St.  Mary's  ehurch l6 ;  but  afterwards,  when  the  church  of  St.  Peter  was 
built,  his  remains  were  removed  into  that  edifice17.  Miraculous  cures  were 
said  to  have  been  wrought  by  his  relics ;  and  a  story  having  been  indus- 
triously circulated  that  his  death  was  announced,  and  his  departure 
solemnized  by  the  songs  of  angels,  his  sepulchre  became  the  resort  of 
numerous  superstitious  devotees ls. 

In  673,  Archbishop  Theodore  assembled  a  synod  at  Heorutford19, 
wherein  ten  of  the  canons,  chiefly  relating  to  ecclesiastical  discipline,  were 
propounded  by  the  archbishop,  nine  of  which  were  agreed  to ;  but  one, 
which  directed  that  more  bishops  should  be  made,  as  the  number  of  the 
faithful  increased,  was  for  that  time  passed  over20.  Winfrid,  the  successor 
of  Ceadda,  was  soon  afterwards  deposed,  on  account  of  some  disobedience, 
(says  Bede) ;  whence  it  has  been  rationally  inferred  that  he  had  refused  his 
consent  to  the  ordination  of  more  English  bishops ;  a  measure  devised  by 
Theodore  chiefly  to  effect  a  division  of  the  immense  province  of  Mercia, 
which  comprised  nearly  half  of  England,  and  was  then  under  the  government 

15  Eccl.  Hist,  book  iv.  ch.  iii.     Translation  of  1723. 

•6  This  is  the  earliest  mention  of  a  church  at  Lichfield ;  which  appears  to  have  been  dedicated 
to  St.  Mary :  it  was  probably  one  of  the  monasteries  founded  by  Oswy  after  his  victory  over 
Penda.  See  Bede,  Eccl.  Hist,  book  iii.  ch.  xxiv.  Or  perhaps  it  was  one  of  the  parish  churches 
then  lately  raised  under  the  auspices  of  Archbishop  Theodore. 

"  Bede,  ut  sup.  ,s  Ibid. 

"  Generally  supposed  to  be  Hertford,  but  more  probably  Retford  in  Nottinghamshire,  as 
Bede  dates  this  council  in  the  third  year  of  King  Egfrid,  in  whose  dominions  it  must  therefore 
be  supposed  to  have  been  held.     Carte,  Hist.  England,  vol.  i.  p.  246. 

20  Bede,  lib.,  iv.  ch.  v..    Wilkins's  Concilia,  vol.  i.  p. .41. 


16 


LICHFIELD  CATHEDRAL. 


of  the  Bishop  of  Lichfield21.  This  object  was  steadily  pursued,  and  at  length 
procured  by  the  archbishop22;  but  the  dates  and  particulars  of  the  several 
alterations  and  divisions  are  involved  in  almost  impenetrable  obscurity*3. 
The   learned  editor   of  "  Anglia  Sacra,"  having  minutely  and  patiently 
investigated  the  subject,  by  comparing  all  the  authorities,  the  account  given 
by  him,  and  supported  by  numerous  references,  will  here  be  chiefly  relied 
on24.     Sexulf,  the  successor  of  Winfrid,  manifested  a  partial  compliance 
with  the  views  of  Theodore,  by  instituting  the  See  of  Hereford  in  676. 
Between  the  years  670  and  675,  King  Ecgfrid 25,  of  Northumberland,  having 
defeated  Wulfere,  reduced  the  province  of  Lindsey  under  his  own  domi- 
nion; which,  therefore,  according  to  the  law  of  that  age,  became  separated 
from  the  Mercian  See,  and  incorporated  with  that  of  Wilfrid,  the  Northum- 
brian bishop.     In  678,  after  much  contention  with  Wilfrid,  Theodore  pre- 
vailed on  King  Ecgfrid  to  divide  the  Northumbrian  province  into  several 
bishoprics ;  among  which  he  assigned  the  district  of  Lindsey  to  Eathed, 
whose  see  he  fixed  at  Sidnacester.     In  the  following  year  the  Mercians 
recovered  Lindsey,  and  restored  it  to  the  See  of  Lichfield ;  but  this  re- 
union was  of  short  duration,  for  Theodore  having  procured  the  confirmation 
of  the  Synod  of  Hatfield  to  the  decree  for  increasing  the  number  of  bishops 
in   the  same  year,    679,   prevailed  on  the  king  of  Mercia  to  divide  the 
remainder  of  the  Mercian  diocess  (that  of  Hereford  having  already  been 
taken  out  of  it)  into  four  bishoprics,  viz.  Lichfield,  Legecestre  (supposed 


11  Warton's  Ang.  Sac.  vol.  i.  p.  426,  note. 

"  Theodore  was  equally  distinguished  as  a  prelate,  a  scholar,  and  a  Christian?  and  his  religion 
seems  to  have  approached  nearly  to  the  primitive  standard.  His  extraordinary  talents  were 
uniformly  exerted  for  the  purposes  of  extending  and  inculcating  the  pure  doctrines  of  Chris- 
tianity. With  equal  firmness  he  maintained  his  own  legitimate  jurisdiction,  and  resisted  the 
ambitious  encroachments  of  the  court  of  Rome.  In  the  History  of  Canterbury  Cathedral  (now 
preparing  for  the  press)  the  author  will  attempt  a  sketch  of  the  biography  of  this  truly  eminent 
divine,  to  whom  the  church  of  England  is  probably  more  indebted  than  to  any  other  of  the 
prelates  who  presided  in  it  before  the  Reformation. 

23  "  Our  history  here  is  very  dark  :  and  the  succession  of  the  first  bishops  of  Rome  is  not  more 
involved  than  is  that  of  Lichfield."    Johnson's  "  Ecclesiastical  Laws,"  Part  I.  dclxxiii. 

14  Ang.  Sac.  vol.  i.  p.  423.  !5  Called  Egbert  by  Warton.     Ang.  Sac.  ut  sup. 


FIRST  CATHEDRAL. A.  D.  700.  17 

by  Johnson  to  be  West-Chester26,  but  by  William  of  Malmesbury  and 
Camden27,  stated  to  be  Leicester)  Lindsey,  and  Worcester.  The  See  of 
the  first  remained  at  Lichfield,  the  second  was  placed  at  Leicester,  the 
third  at  Dorchester,  in  Oxfordshire,  and  the  fourth  at  Worcester.  Sexulf 
being  allowed  his  choice,  preferred  Lichfield,  which  still  retained  by  far 
the  most  extensive  jurisdiction.  Soon  afterwards  Cuthwin,  who  had  been 
appointed  to  Leicester,  resigned,  or  died;  after  which  Sexulf  governed 
both  bishoprics  till  the  time  of  his  death,  which  happened  in  691.  At  that 
period,  Wilfrid,  having  been  expelled  from  the  See  of  York,  resided  with 
Ethelred,  king  of  Mercia,  who  committed  to  his  care  the  diocess  of  Lei- 
cester; while  Hedda  obtained  that  of  Lichfield.  But  Wilfrid  being  de- 
prived, by  the  Synod  of  Nesterfeld,  in  703,  both  dioceses  again  coalesced 
under  the  authority  of  Hedda;  nor  were  they  disunited  during  the  time  of 
his  successor,  Aldwin.  But  on  the  death  of  the  latter,  Huicta,  or  Witta, 
was  appointed  to  Lichfield,  and  Totta  to  Leicester.  Henceforth  the  diocess 
of  Lichfield  experienced  no  further  alteration  in  its  limits  until,  in  a  sub- 
sequent age,  that  of  Chester  was  dismembered  from  it.  Hedda  erected 
the  cathedral  church  of  St.  Peter  at  Lichfield,  which  he  consecrated,  2  Kal. 
January,  700,  and  the  bones  of  St.  Ceadda  were  then  translated  into  the 
new  edifice  as  already  mentioned 28. 

About  the  year  785,  OfFa,  King  of  Mercia,  who  had  subdued  the  respective 
kings  of  Kent,  of  the  East  Angles,  and  of  the  West  Saxons,  conceived  the 
idea  of  exalting  the  diocess  of  Lichfield  to  the  dignity  of  an  archbishopric. 

26  Ecclesiastical  Laws,  Part  1.  dclxxiii. 

27  De  Gest.  Pontif.  lib.  iv.  de  Epis.  Legecest.  Rer.  Angl.  Scrip,  post  Bedam  praecipiu,  1601. 
Gough's  Camden,  vol.  ii.  p.  202.  Much  confusion  has  arisen  from  the  similarity  of  the  Anglo- 
Saxon  names  of  these  cities,  which  are  frequently  mistaken  for  each  other  by  historians.  Lei- 
cester was  called  Legerciester,  Lygeraceaster,  Legraceaster,  Ligoracester,  and  Ligora — Chester, 
Legecestre,  and  Legeacester.  Yet  Malmesbury  applies  the  word  Legecestra  to  Leicester.  See 
Ormerod's  "  History  of  the  County  Palatine  and  City  of  Chester,"  vol.  i.  p.  70,  &c.  It  is  with 
peculiar  pleasure  that  I  refer  to,  and  recommend  this  valuable  work  to  the  attention  of  all  lovers 
of  topography. 

28  Thoinse  Chesterfeld,  Canonici  Lichfeldensis,  Historia  de  Episcopis  Coventrensibus  et  Liche- 
feldensibus.     Ang.  Sac.  vol.  i.  p.  428. 


18  LICHFIELD  CATHEDRAL. 

To  this  measure  he  was  induced  partly  by  a  jealous  dislike  of  Janbrycht, 
Archbishop  of  Canterbury,  and  partly  by  the  desire  of  increasing  the  im- 
portance of  his  native  kingdom,  and  emancipating  its  bishops  from  the 
jurisdiction  of  the  Kentish  prelate,  which,  after  the  conquest  of  Kent  by 
the  Mercians,  was  incompatible  with  the  civil  state  of  the  respective  king- 
doms. A  synod  of  English  bishops,  assembled  at  Calchyth,  compelled 
Janbrycht  to  resign  all  jurisdiction  over  the  Mercian  and  East  Anglian 
Sees,  which  were  made  subordinate  to  Higebert,  then  Bishop  of  Lichfield. 
Application  was  immediately  made  to  Rome  for  a  pall,  but  it  was  not 
received  during  the  life  of  Higebert,  who  died  in  786.  But  the  representa- 
tions and  munificence  of  Offa  obtained  this  favour  for  the  succeeding  pre- 
late, Aldulf,  who  enjoyed  the  archiepiscopal  dignity  during  the  life  of  that 
prince.  But  Kennlph,  the  succeeding  king  of  Mercia,  at  the  instigation  of 
the  English  clergy,  petitioned  Leo  III.  then  pope,  to  reverse  the  edicts 
made  under  the  influence  of  Offa29,  and  obtained  a  decree  that  the  See  of 
Canterbury  should  be  restored  to  all  its  rights  and  privileges.  Under  this 
sanction,  a  synod  held  at  Cloveshoe,  in  803,  unanimously  pronounced  the 
grant  of  the  pall  and  metropolitical  dignity  to  the  Bishop  of  Lichfield  to 
be  null  and  void,  as  surreptitiously  and  fraudulently  obtained.  The  name 
of  Aldulf  is  signed  to  this  council,  with  the  addition  of  "  Episcopus." 

The  history  of  this  See  presents  nothing  more  of  particular  interest  until 
after  the  Norman  Conquest;  when  the  national  council,  held  at  London,  in 
1075,  resolved  upon  the  removal  of  the  Sees  of  Sherburne,  Selsey,  and 
Lichfield,  to  the  cities  of  Salisbury,  Chichester,  and  Chester,  according  to 
the  decrees  of  the  councils  of  Sardica  and  Laodicea,  which  prohibited  the 
establishment  of  episcopal  sees  in  villages30.  The  Saxon  prelates  however 
had  never  been  disturbed  in  their  preference  of  solitude  and  retirement, 
and  this  measure  was,  in  reality,  only  part  of  the  Norman  policy,  which 


29  See  the  epistle  of  Kenulpb,  and  decree  of  Leo,  in  Will.  Malmes.  de  gestis  Regum.  Angl. 
lib.  i.  ch.  iv.  Also  an  epistle  of  Leo  to  Keuulph,  and  another  from  the  English  clergy  to  the 
Pope,  in  Ang.  Sacra,  vol.  i.  p.  460. 

30  Wilkins's  Concilia,  vol.  i.  p.  363. 


NORMAN  BISHOPS: — PREBENDS.  19 

aimed  at  the  entire  subjugation  of  the  English.  Norman  bishops  had 
been  introduced  into  almost  every  diocess,  and  their  sees  were  now  to 
be  fixed  in  towns  overawed  by  Norman  garrisons.  Accordingly  Peter, 
then  Bishop  of  Lichfield,  transferred  his  See  to  Chester,  where  he  was  buried 
in  1085  or  1086.  His  successor  was  Robert  de  Lymesey,  who  removed 
the  See  to  Coventry,  attracted,  as  it  is  said,  by  the  immense  riches  of  the 
monastery  which  had  been  originally  founded  there  by  Canute,  and  after- 
wards restored  and  greatly  enriched  by  Leofric,  Earl  of  Hereford,  and  the 
celebrated  Lady  Godefa,  or  Godiva,  his  wife,  about  the  year  1044.  De 
Lymesey  is  accused  of  having  plundered  the  monastery  of  its  treasures, 
and  of  oppressing  the  monks;  but  the  monastic  historian  who  charges  him 
with  these  crimes  is  not  remarkable  for  impartiality  in  cases  concerning  the 
regular  clergy31.  Robert  Peche,  chaplain  to  King  Henry  I.  was  consecrated 
bishop  of  this  See  in  1117;  and,  according  to  some  authors,  he  was  the 
first  who  established  prebends  in  this  church;  the  number  of  which  was 
augmented  by  the  succeeding  Bishop,  Roger  de  Clinton™,  who  was  con- 
secrated in  1128.  This  bishop  was  a  great  benefactor  both  to  the  city  and 
to  the  cathedral  church  of  Lichfield,  the  latter  indeed  he  is  said  to  have 
rebuilt.  A  modern  author  attributes  the  present  fabric  to  him,  but  it  may 
be  confidently  said,  that  the  greater  part  of  it  is  subsequent  to  the  time 
of  this  prelate,  as  will  hereafter  be  shown.  De  Clinton  restored  the  See 
to  Lichfield,  and  assumed  the  title  of  '  Bishop  of  Lichfield  and  Coventry'. 
The  succeeding  bishops  were,  until  the  establishment  of  the  modern  diocess 
of  Chester,  sometimes  called  Bishops  of  Lichfield,  sometimes  of  Coventry, 
and  often  of  Chester33,  having  episcopal  residences  in  each  of  those  places. 
The  title  of  Coventry  and  Lichfield'  was  that  most  frequently  borne,  until 
Bishop  Hacket,  on  the  restoration  of  monarchy,  placed  the  name  of  Lich- 

31  William  of  Malniesbury,  De  Gest.  Pontif.  ut  supra. 

32  In  Willis's  Survey  of  Cathedrals,  (vol.  i.  p.  425)  this  account  is  maintained  to  be  correct, 
contrary  to  the  assertion  in  the  Chronicle  of  the  Church  of  Lichfield,  which  ascribes  the  institu- 
tion of  prebends  to  Athelwald,  who  was  bishop  in  847. — Thomas  de  Chesterfield,  ut  sup.  p.  431. 

33  Ormerod's  History  of  Cheshire,  vol.  i.  p.  70. 


20  LICHFIELD  CATHEDRAL. 

field  before  that  of  Coventry,  on  account  of  the  approved  loyalty  of  the 
former  city.  "  Rob.  de  Peche — Rog.  de  Clinton — Walter  Durdent — Ric. 
Peche — and  Gerard  de  Pnella,"  all  successively  styled  themselves  Co- 
ventrice  Episcopi  only;  and  had  a  fair  palace  at  the  north-east  corner  of  St. 
Michael's  church  yard.     Du<>dale's  Warwickshire,  p.  101. 

The  violent  dissentions  between  the  chapters  of  Lichfield  and  Coventry, 
with  regard  to  their  respective  rights  in  the  election  of  bishops,  which  long 
agitated  this  diocess,  afford  some  remarkable  instances  of  the  ambition 
and  obstinacy  of  the  monks.  These  disputes  commenced  on  the  election 
of  a  successor  to  Roger  de  Clinton ;  although  it  was  the  first  occasion  on 
which  a  licence  to  elect  had  been  granted  ;  the  preceding  bishops  having 
been  appointed  by  the  king,  by  investiture  with  a  ring  and  pastoral  staff. 
As  no  election  could  be  made,  in  consequence  of  the  disputes  of  the  chap- 
ters, King  Stephen  appointed  Walter  Durdent  to  this  See".  By  the  me- 
diation of  Henry  II.  the  succeeding  bishops,  Richard  Peche,  Gerard  de 
Pnella,  or  La  Pucelle,  and  Hunk  de  Nonant,  were  elected  without  any 
material  commotion 3i.  The  latter  was  an  implacable  enemy  of  the  monks, 
on  account  of  their  unjustifiable  interference  in  secular  affairs,  and  ejected 
those  of  Coventry  from  their  monastery.  They  were  afterwards  recalled 
by  Hubert,  Archbishop  of  Canterbury,  who,  having  been  himself  a  monk, 
in  some  measure  favoured  their  proceedings.  Not  long  after  their  restora- 
tion a  new  quarrel  occurred,  in  which  they  beat  and  wounded  the  bishop 
and  his  attendants,  and  drove  them  out  of  the  church  of  Coventry.  For 
this  outrage  he  procured  their  solemn  excommunication ;  and,  but  for  the 
opposition  of  the  archbishop,  would  probably  have  succeeded  in  expelling 
the  monks  from  every  cathedral  in  England.  He  was  obliged  however  to 
confine  his  exertions  to  his  own  diocess,  and  prosecuted  his  complaints  at 
Rome  with  such  effect,  that  his  enemies  were  at  length  formally  ejected 
from  the  monastery  of  Coventry,  where  secular  priests  were  established  in 
their  stead30.     But  in    1198,  during  the  exile  of  this  bishop,  the  monks 

".  Warton  Aogl.  Sac.  vol.  i.  p.  -J34. 

JS  Vita  Hugouis  dc  Nonant  Giralili  Canibrensis  Speculo  Ecclesia;.    Ang.  Sac.  pars  ii.  p.  351. 

35  Vita  Hugonis  de  Nonant,  ut  sup. 


bishops: — 1228,  etc.  21 

were  restored  by  the  influence  of  their  patron,  Archbishop  Hubert,  under 
the  authority  of  a  papal  decree.  On  the  death  of  Nonant,  in  1 199,  Geofliy 
de  Muschamp  was  elected  by  the  monks  and  canons,  at  the  recommenda- 
tion of  Hubert37.  But  on  the  next  occasion,  both  chapters  being  left  to  their 
own  uninfluenced  choice,  the  monks  elected  Josbert,  their  prior;  while  the 
canons  chose  Walter  de  Grey,  afterwards  Archbishop  of  York.  Both  parties 
adhering  obstinately  to  their  respective  nominations,  Pandulf,  the  pope's 
legate,  annulled  all  the  proceedings,  and  afterwards  induced  them  to  concur 
in  the  election  of  William  de  Cornhull,  Archdeacon  of  Huntingdon.  To 
this  prelate  the  chapter  of  Lichfield  is  indebted  for  the  right  of  choosing  its 
dean38.  The  next  licence  to  appoint  a  bishop  was  granted  "  to  all  those  who 
ought  and  used  to  elect,"  upon  which  the  canons  entered  a  protest  against 
any  person  to  be  brought  in  by  the  monks  :  they  nevertheless  chose  their 
own  prior;  but  confirmation  was  refused,  and  the  election  annulled.  The 
monks,  however,  appealed  to  Rome,  and  a  tedious  litigation  ensued;  but 
in  order  that  the  See  might  not  remain  vacant,  the  Pope,  Honorius  III. 
prevailed  on  both  parties  to  commit  their  powers  to  him  on  that  occasion, 
and  he  assigned  Alexander  de  Stavenby  to  the  vacant  See.  In  1228  a 
compromise  was  effected  by  Gregory  IX.,  whereby  it  was  decreed  that 
the  chapters  should  unite,  and  form  one  body  of  electors,  and  that  the 
appointment  should  take  place  alternately  in  the  churches  of  Coventry  and 
Lichfield39.  According  to  this  agreement,  on  the  death  of  Stavenby,  Wil- 
liam de  Raleigh  was  elected  in  the  church  of  Coventry ;  but  being  at  the 
same  time  chosen  for  the  diocess  of  Norwich,  he  preferred  the  latter; 
upon  which  the  monks  insisted  that  a  new  election  should  take  place  at 

37  Thomas  de  Chesterfield,  ut  sup. 

18  "  Iste  Willielmus  episcopus  capitulo  Lichesfeldensi  prirao  liberam  in  Domino  concessit  potes- 
tatem  eligendi  aliquem  de  gremio  in  Decanum  Lichesfeldeusis  Ecclesiae.  Confirmata  est  hsec 
concessio  per  Papam  Honoriam  IV.  Nam  antea,  usque  ad  hoc  tempus,  episcopus  solebat  coii- 
ferre  Decanatum  sicut  et  Canonicaturn."     Thomas  de  Chesterfield,  ut  sup. 

39  "  Quod  una  vice  in  Coventrensi  ecclesia  conventus  Coventrensis  et  capitulum  Lichesfeldense 
electionem  episcopi  celebrent,  et  altera  vice  similiter  ab  utrisque  in  ecclesia  Lichesfeldensi 
electio  celebretur."     Thomas  de  Chesterfield,  ut  sup. 


22  LICHFIELD  CATHEDRAL. 

Coventry,  the  former  being  rendered  nugatory ;  while  the  canons  main- 
tained that  it  must  be  held  at  Lichfield,  as  Coventry  had  had  its  turn. 
This  dissention  again  produced  two  elections,  that  of  Nicholas  de  Farn- 
ham  by  the  monks,  and  that  of  William  de  Manchester  by  the  canons. 
The  latter,  however,  declined  the  See  in  favour  of  the  former,  to  whose 
election  the  canons  agreed,  saving  the  question  of  right.  But  Farnham  also 
declined  the  episcopal  dignity.  A  third  election  was  therefore  made  by 
the  two  chapters,  jointly,  at  Coventry,  when  Hugh  de  Pateshulle,  a  Canon 
of  London,  and  Treasurer  of  England,  son  of  Simon  de  Pateshulle, 
formerly  Chief  Justice,  was  duly  chosen,  and  consecrated  in  J 240.  The 
election  of  the  succeeding  prelate,  Roger  de  Weseham,  was  preceded  by 
new  differences,  and  an  appeal  to  the  court  of  Rome;  in  the  course  of 
which  proceedings,  the  canons  and  monks  entered  into  an  agreement  that 
each  party  should  vote  in  all  future  elections  by  an  equal  number  of 
persons.  This  agreement  was  reduced  to  writing,  and  sealed,  in  1255. 
These  disputes  were  not  again  revived  until  after  the  death  of  Bishop 
Walter  de  Langton,  in  1321;  when  a  new  quarrel  arose  on  the  subject 
of  the  number  of  electors,  the  monks  refusing  to  abide  by  their  solemn 
agreement.  An  appeal  was  instituted  by  the  canons,  pending  which, 
Pope  John  XXII.  appointed  Roger  de  Norburgh  to  the  vacant  See,  who 
was  accordingly  consecrated  in  1322. 

As  the  little  which  is  known  of  the  history  of  the  fabric  of  Lichfield  Ca- 
thedral will  be  noticed  in  the  succeeding  chapter,  the  next  remarkable  aera 
in  the  history  of  the  diocess  is  the  thirtieth  year  of  King  Henry  VIII.,  when 
the  church  of  Lichfield  was  despoiled  of  its  ornaments.  The  statues  of 
saints,  shrines  of  gold  and  silver,  gems,  and  other  valuable  articles,  were 
converted  to  the  use  of  the  crown,  with  the  exception  of  the  shrine  of  St. 
Ceadda,  which,  on  the  petition  of  Bishop  Roland  Lee,  the  king  granted  to 
the  use  of  the  church.  The  monastery  of  Coventry  was  surrendered  to  the 
crowu,  and  its  fine  church,  notwithstanding  the  urgent  remonstrances  of  the 
bishop,  was  entirely  demolished.  An  act  was  then  passed,  that  the  pro- 
ceedings of  the  dean  and  chapter  of  Lichfield  should  be  as  valid,  without 
the  chapter  of  Coventry,  as  the  joint  acts  of  the  two  chapters  had  formerly 


EXTENT  OF  DIOCESS.  23 

been40.  And  the  monastery  of  St.  Werburg,  in  Chester,  having  also  been 
suppressed,  was  by  letters  patent,  dated  July  16,  in  the  thirty-third  year 
of  King  Henry  VIII.  (1542)  made  the  episcopal  See  of  the  diocess  of 
Chester,  then  created ;  the  limits  whereof  include  a  very  considerable 
portion  of  the  district  formerly  within  the  jurisdiction  of  the  bishops  of 
Lichfield  and  Coventry.  This  new  diocess  was  made  suffragan  to  the 
Archbishop  of  York. 

The  diocess  of  Lichfield  and  Coventry  now  contains  the  whole  county 
of  Stafford,  (except  Brome  and  Clent,  which  belong  to  Worcester,)  all  Der- 
byshire, the  greater  part  of  Warwickshire,  and  nearly  half  of  Shropshire. 
It  is  divided  into  the  archdeaconries  of  Salop,  Coventry,  Stafford,  and 
Derby.  That  of  Salop  comprises  the  deanries  of  Salop  and  Newport, 
whilst  that  of  Coventry  contains  the  deanries  of  Coventry,  Arden,  Marten, 
and  Stonely,  in  the  county  of  Warwick ;  the  archdeaconry  of  Stafford 
includes  the  deanries  of  Lapley  and  Treizull,  Leek  and  Alton,  Newcastle 
and  Stone,  and  Tamworth  and  Tutbury,  all  in  the  county  of  Stafford; 
and  the  deanries  of  Derby,  Castillar,  Chesterfield,  Ashbourne,  High  Peak, 
and  Repington,  all  in  the  county  of  Derby,  appertain  to  the  archdeaconry 
of  Derby.  There  is  no  archdeacon  denominated  from  Lichfield,  which  is 
the  only  cathedral  (except  Peterborough  and  Bristol,  which  are  of  Henry 
the  Eighth's  foundation)  that  does  not  give  title  to  an  archdeacon.  The 
parishes  within  the  city  of  Lichfield  are  in  the  peculiar  jurisdiction  of  the 
Dean  of  Lichfield.  This  diocess  contains,  according  to  Heylin,  five 
hundred  and  fifty-seven  parishes;  and  the  clergy's  tenths  amount  to 
£590.  16*.  lid.41. 

*°  33  Henry  VIII.  Gulielmi  Wliitloeke,  Contiuuatio  Hist.  Liclifeld.  Ang.  Sac.  pars  i.  p.  458. 
See  also  Dugdale's  "Antiquities  of  Warwickshire." 

4'  Willis's  Survey  of  Cathedrals,  vol.  i.  p.  371. 


<£J)ajh  M* 


HISTORICAL  NOTICES  OF  THE  CATHEDRAL; — ITS  FOUNDATION,  ERECTION, 
SUCCESSIVE  ALTERATIONS  AND  ADDITIONS — WITH  AN  ACCOUNT  OF  ITS 
PRESENT  STATE. 


It  is  generally  said  that  King  Oswy,  and  his  son-in-law,  Peda,  founded  the 
Cathedral  of  Lichfield ;  and  Bede  relates  that  the  Mercians  received  the 
Christian  faith,  and  that  Diuma  was  appointed  their  hishop  in  605.  Thomas 
Chesterfield,  however,  who  wrote  the  "  Chronicle  of  the  Church  of  Lich- 
field"' in  1350,  asserts,  that  the  Mercian  Church  was  formed,  and  a  cathe- 
dral founded,  anterior  to  the  time  of  Diuma.  His  account  does  not  how- 
ever appear  entitled  to  much  credit.  According  to  Bede,  Ceadda  had  his 
episcopal  See  in  this  place,  where  he  was  buried,  and  where  the  seat  of 
the  succeeding  bishops  still  continues.  Warton,  in  Anglia  Sacra,  (1-424) 
infers,  that  the  prelates  who  preceded  Ceadda,  "  had  no  cathedral,  or 
certain  See  appointed  them,  but  were  content  to  live  in  monasteries."  We 
have  already  related  that  Ceadda  resided  in  a  habitation  built  by  himself, 
and  after  death  was  first  interred  in  the  church  of  St.  Mary,  but  his 
remains  were  afterwards  removed  to  that  of  St.  Peter.  This  church  may 
be  regarded  as  the  original  cathedral,  and,  as  before  shown,  was  finished 
and  consecrated  by  Hedda  in  January,  a.  d.  700. 

There  is  some  reason  to  suppose  that  the  church  was  commenced  by 
Jarumann,  the  predecessor  of  Ceadda '.     It  probably  occupied  the  site  of 

1  la  the  Harleian  MSS.  3839,  it  is  staled  that  Dugdale  found  an  old  document  in  the  treasury 
that  uoticed  the  consecration  of  ihe  church  in  the  close  by  Bishop  Jarumann,  the  predecessor 
of  Ceadda,  in  666. 


LICHFIELD  CLOSE.  25 

the  existing  edifice,  and  continued  to  be  the  cathedral  church  of  the 
diocess  until  after  the  Norman  conquest 2. 

An  inscription,  formerly  placed  over  the  great  western  door,  obscurely 
attributes  the  foundation  to  Oswy ;  but  as  it  purports  to  have  been 
written  above  a  thousand  years  after  that  event,  it  has  no  pretensions  to 
authority3. 

From  the  time  of  Hedda  to  that  of  Bishop  Roger  de  Clinton,  who  suc- 
ceeded to  this  See  in  1128,  a  period  of  four  hundred  and  twenty-eight 

3  A  memorial  from  the  archives  of  the  church,  printed  in  Angl.  Sac,  (pars  i.  459)  and  in  the 
Monasticon,  (vol.  iii.  p.  219)  which  must  have  been  written  after  the  twelfth  century,  details 
the  following  particulars ;  "  the  city  of  Lichfield  was  formerly  called  Liches,  from  War.  In 
it  are  two  monasteries ;  one  in  the  eastern  part  called  the  Station  of  St.  Ceadd,  or  Stow :  the 
other  in  the  western,  dedicated  to  the  Virgin,  and  inclosed  with  ditches  and  fences ;  and 
formerly  decorated  with  many  gifts  by  the  Mercian  kings.  In  this  was  the  Archbishop's  See. 
And  this  monastery  is  situate  between  Leman  Sych,  and  Way-cliffe.  The  close  of  this  monas- 
tery is  divided  into  two  parts,  the  greater  and  the  less.  In  the  greater,  the  bishop's  dwelling 
stands  in  the  eastern  corner  of  the  north  side,  and  contains  in  length  three  hundred  and  twenty 
feet,  and  in  breadth  one  hundred  and  sixty  feet.  The  dean's  habitation,  adjoining  the  bishop's, 
contains  half  the  dimensions  of  the  former  in  length  and  breadth.  The  dwellings  of  the  canons, 
built  round  the  monastery,  each  contain  half  the  dimensions  of  that  of  the  dean :  except  that 
mansion  which  lately  belonged  to  Master  Odo  de  Bikennar,  because  he  purchased  from  the 
bishop  a  certain  place  in  Lemanskey,  and  inclosed  it  with  stone.  There  are  in  the  said  close 
twenty-six  mansions,  including  that  of  the  bishop." 

3  As  this  inscription  is  mentioned  in  every  history  of  the  church,  and  incorrectly  quoted  by 
several  authors,  it  has  been  considered  proper  to  introduce  it  here. 

Oswyus  est  Lichfield  fundator,  sed  reparator 
Offa  fuit :  regum  fama  perennis  erit : 
R.ex  Stephanus,  rex  Henricus,  primusque  Ricardus, 
Rex  et  Johannes  plurima  dona  dabant. 
Supra,  haec  millenos  ecclesia  floruit  annos, 
Duret  ad  extremum  nobilis  usque  diem, 
Daque,  Deus,  longum  ut  haec  sacra  floreat  cedes, 
Et  celebrent  nomen  plebs  ibi  sanctum  tuum. 
Fundata  est  ecclesia  Merciensis 
Qua;  nunc  Lichfeldia  dicitur 
Facta  Cathedralis, 
Anno  Domini 
^   DC  LVII.  — Dugdale's  Visitation  of  Staffordshire. 


26  LICHFIELD  CATHEDRAL. 

years,  the  history  of  this  edifice  is  wholly  unknown.  Of  the  last  named 
prelate  the  chronicle  asserts,  that  "  he  raised  the  church  of  Lichfield,  as 
well  in  fabric  as  in  honour ; — increased  the  number  of  the  prebends, — 
fortified  the  castle  of  Lichfield, — surrounded  the  town  by  a  wall,  or  vallum, 
and  infeoffed  knights*." 

This  is  all  the  information  which  history  affords  on  the  subject  of  the 
erection  of  a  church  here  by  De  Clinton ;  but  modern  writers  have  sup- 
plied the  deficiency  from  their  own  imaginations.  By  merely  assuming 
that  the  whole  of  the  present  edifice  was  built  by  De  Clinton5,  it  has  been 
found  easy  to  describe  his  work  with  minute  accuracy6.  But  a  moderate 
acquaintance  with  ecclesiastical  architecture  will  be  sufficient  to  convince 
any  observer  that  little  of  De  Clinton's  architecture  now  remains. 

*  "  Ecclesiam  erexit  Lichesfeldensem,  tarn  in  fabrica  quam  in  honorc,  numcrum  praebendaruui 
augendo,  castruni  Licbesfeldense  muniendo,  villain  vallo  vallando,  uiilitcs  infeodando."  Ang. 
Sac.  pars  i.  p.  434.  Tbe  meaning  of  the  latter  words  is,  that  lie  granted  the  church  lauds  to 
be  held  as  knights  fees;  of  which,  according  to  Stow,  the  religious  houses  before  their 
suppression  possessed  28,015,  each  containing,  as  Coke  asserts,  twelve  carrucates,  or  plough 
lands. 

5  It  is  not  very  extraordinary  that  Plot  and  Bishop  Godwin  should,  in  the  absence  of  direct 
historical  evidence  on  the  subject  of  the  erection  of  the  existing  edifice,  have  concluded  it  to  be 
the  work  of  Clinton;  but  that  Mr.  Carter's  architectural  experience  should  not  have  prevented 
his  committing  the  same  error,  is  certainly  unaccountable.  See  the  Gent.  Mag.  vol.  lxxix.  part  ii. 
p.  607,  and  vol.  lxxx.  part  i.  p.  525.  It  has  been  however  the  common  practice  of  this  visionary 
antiquary  to  ascribe,  if  possible,  every  antient  edifice  to  the  date  of  its  original  foundation;  and 
if  precluded  by  notorious  facts  from  indulging  this  propensity,  to  seize  on  the  most  remote  date 
the  circumstances  of  the  case  would  permit,  without  regard  to  the  known  progress  of  our  national 
architecture. 

6  Jackson,  in  bis  "  History  of  the  City  and  Cathedral  of  Lichfield,"  p.  75,  states,  (without 
giving  any  authority)  that  "Clinton  pulled  down  the  old  church,  48  Henry  I.  1148,  (which  year 
was  not  the  48th  of  Henry  I.,  who  only  reigned  thirty-five  years,  but  the  13th  of  Stephen;  and 
was  the  very  year  of  Clinton's  death)  and  rebuilt  it  upon  its  present  magnificent  style — roofed 
it,  with  that  noble  stone  vault,  which  is  the  admiration  of  architects,  and  then  covered  the 
whole  with  lead."  This  account  is  evidently  erroneous:  as  may  be  inferred  from  its  own  state- 
ment, and  as  may  be  clearly  perceived  by  the  varied  styles  of  architecture  in  the  church. 
Browne  Willis  construes  more  rationally  the  Lichfield  Chronicle,  in  stating  that  Bishop  Clinton 
"  built  good  part  of  tbe  church."     Survey  of  Cathedrals,  vol.  i.  p.  377. 


BUILDING  THE  CATHEDRAL.  27 

In  1235,  King  Henry  III.  granted  to  the  dean  and  chapter  a  licence  to 
dig  stone  in  the  forest  of  Hop  was7  for  the  fabric  of  the  church  of  Lichfield, 
and  in  the  precept  then  addressed  to  the  Sheriff  of  Staffordshire,  com- 
manded him  not  to  impede  the  workmen  on  the  occasion.  Only  three  years 
afterwards  another  precept  was  issued  to  Hugh  de  Loges,  then  keeper  of 
the  same  forest,  to  allow  the  canons  of  Lichfield  to  dig  more  stone  from  the 
same  quarries  to  carry  on  the  works  at  their  church8.  From  these  docu- 
ments it  is  evident  that  some  buildings  were  prosecuting  at  that  time,  but 
we  do  not  find  any  evidence  as  to  the  parts  of  the  edifice  then  raised.  From 
the  year  1200  to  1385,  all  the  bishops  of  this  See  were  interred  in  the  ca- 
thedral, whence  it  may  be  inferred  that  the  church,  during  that  time,  was  in 
a  condition  for  the  performance  of  public  service.  It  is  also  very  probable 
that  the  greater  part  of  the  present  fabric  was  raised  in  the  same  time. 
The  registers  of  the  bishops  who  presided  during  the  progress  of  the  work, 
would  probably  have  furnished  the  dates  of  its  erection,  in  the  accounts 
and  documents  relating  to  the  expenses  of  the  building;  but  these  records 
were  unfortunately  destroyed  during  the  civil  wars  of  the  seventeenth  cen- 
tury, when  the  close  being  fortified  and  garrisoned,  the  cathedral  alternately 
suffered  the  injuries  of  a  siege  from  each  party;  and  when  in  possession 
of  the  parliamentary  forces,  its  monuments,  ornaments,  and  records  were 
spoiled  and  demolished,  to  gratify  their  avarice  and  fanaticism. 

Walter  de  Langton  who  succeeded  to  this  See  in  1296,  was  one  of  the 

7  This  forest  extended  over  a  large  tract  of  country  on  the  south  side  of  the  city. 

8  Pro  nova  fabrica  Eccl.  Lichf.  tem.  R.  H.  III. — Mandatura  est  Vicecomiti  Staffordiae,  quod 
non  impediat  vel  impedire  permittat  decanum  et  capitulum  Lichfeldiae,  quo  minus  fodere 
possint  petram  in  forest^  regis  de  Hopwas,  ad  fabricam  ecclesiae  suae  de  Lichfeld,  sicut  earn  fodi 
fecerunt  ante  tempus  suum.     Teste  rege  apud  Wallingford  xii  Junii.  (Claus.  19,  H.  III.  m.  9.) 

Mandatum  est  Hugoni  de  Loges  quod  permittat  Canonicos  de  Lichefeld,  fodere  petram,  ad 
fabricam  ecclesiae  suae  de  Lichefeld  in  quarrera  de  Hopwas ;  ita  tamen  quod  hoc  fiat  sine  detri- 
mento  forestae  nostras.     Teste  Rege,  &c.  xxviii  April,  Claus.  22,  H.  III.  m.  J  5. 

Mon.  Angl.  vol.  iii.  p.  239.  The  expression,  ad  fabricam,  used  in  both  these  writs,  has  been 
supposed  to  imply  that  the  work  then  proceeding  consisted  merely  of  repairs.  But  Dugdale  un- 
derstood it  to  allude  to  a  new  building,  as  appears  by  the  title,  pro  nova  fabrica,  which  he  has  pre- 
fixed to  these  records.  It  is  conceived  that  it  would  be  equally  applicable  to  either  case ;  and 
therefore  that  it  affords  no  light  to  guide  us  in  developing  the  history  of  the  fabric. 

D 


28 


LICHFIELD  CATHEDRAL. 


most  liberal  benefactors  to  the  church  and  city.  He  surrounded  the  close 
with  a  high  stone  wall,  and  constructed  "  two  beautiful  gates"  on  the  west 
and  south  sides  of  the  close ;  inclosed  the  relics  of  St.  Chad  in  a  magnifi- 
cent shrine,  at  the  expense  of  two  thousand  pounds  ;  founded  and  raised 
part  of  the  Lady  Chapel  at  the  east  end  of  the  cathedral,  and  constructed 
the  vaulted  roofs  of  the  transept;  but  dying  in  1321,  before  it  was  finished, 
he  bequeathed  a  sum  of  money  for  its  completion.  His  successor,  Roger 
de  Norburg,  or  Norbrigge,  removed  Langton's  remains  from  the  Lady 
Chapel  to  a  more  appropriate  sepulchre  on  the  south  side  of  the  high 
altar,  where  there  are  some  vaults  and  chantries  very  singularly  situated 
and  designed.  According  to  Fuller,  the  cathedral  had  attained  its  final 
completion  in  the  time  of  Bishop  Heyworth,  who  was  consecrated  in  14209. 
Early  in  the  sixteenth  century,  some  extensive  repairs  appear  to  have  taken 
place ;  and  Bishop  Blythe  contributed  fifty  oaks,  and  the  sum  of  twenty 
pounds  towards  the  same.  The  destruction  of  the  shrines  and  ornaments 
at  the  Reformation  has  been  already  mentioned.  In  the  wars  between 
Charles  I.  and  his  parliament,  this  church  suffered  great  injury.  The  close 
being  surrounded  by  a  wall  and  ditch,  presented  an  eligible  situation  for 
defence;  and  it  was  accordingly  garrisoned  early  in  1643,  by  the  royalist 
inhabitants  of  the  city  and  neighbourhood,  under  the  command  of  the 
Earl  of  Chesterfield.  The  parliamentary  forces,  not  only  anxious  to  dis- 
lodge them,  but  zealously  intent  on  pillaging  and  defacing  the  cathedral, 


9  "  But  now  in  the  time  of  the  aforesaid  William  Heyworth,  the  cathedral  of  Lichfield 
was  in  the  verticall  height  thereof,  being  (though  not  augmented  in  the  essentials)  beautified  in 
the  ornamentals  thereof.  Indeed  the  west  front  thereof  is  a  stately  fabric,  adorned  with  exqui- 
site imagerie,  which  I  suspect  our  age  is  so  far  from  being  able  to  imitate  the  workmanship,  that 
it  understandeth  not  the  history  thereof.  Surely  what  Charles  the  Fifth  is  said  to  have  said  of 
the  citie  of  Florence,  that  it  is  pitie  it  should  be  seen  save  only  on  holydayes ;  as  also  that  it  was 
fitt  that  so  fair  a  citie  should  hare  a  case  and  cover  for  it  to  keep  it  from  wind  and  weather,  so,  in 
some  sort,  this  fabric  may  seem  to  deserve  a  shelter  to  secure  it.  But  alas,  it  is  now  in  apittifull 
case  indeed,  almost  beaten  to  the  ground  in  our  civil  dissentions.  Now,  lest  the  church  should 
follow  the  castle,  I  mean,  quite  vanish  out  of  view,  I  have  at  the  cost  of  my  worthy  friend  here 
exemplified  the  portraiture  thereof:  and  am  glad  to  hear  it  to  be  the  design  of  ingenious  persons 
to  preserve  antient  churches  in  the  like  nature,  (whereof  many  are  done  in  this,  and  more  ex- 
pected in  the  next  part  of  Monasticon)  seeing  when  their  substance  is  gone,  their  very  shadows 
will  be  acceptable  to  posteritie."     Fuller's  Church  History,  cent.  xi.  book  iv.  sect.  iii.  p.  175. 


CIVIL  WARS.  29 

that  hated  temple  of  episcopacy,  as  they  termed  it,  soon  besieged  the 
close.  Their  leader,  Robert  Lord  Brook,  is  said  to  have  invoked  some 
special  token  of  God's  approbation  of  the  enterprise ;  and  it  is  certainly 
remarkable  that  on  the  commencement  of  the  cannonade,  this  commander 
was  shot  in  the  head  by  a  gentleman  posted  at  the  battlements  of  the 
great  tower 10.  This  event  happened  on  the  2d  of  March,  the  festival  of  St- 
Chad,  to  whose  influence  the  cavaliers  superstitiously  attributed  their 
success.  Sir  John  Gell  of  Hopton  succeeded  to  the  command  of  the  par- 
liamentary troops  on  the  following  day,  and  so  vigorously  pressed  the  siege 
that  the  garrison  surrendered  on  the  5th,  "  upon  condition  of  free  quarter 
to  all  in  general  within  the  close11."  In  April  following  Prince  Rupert 
marched  to  Lichfield,  aud  commenced  another  siege  of  the  close,  which 
was  now  better  fortified,  and  was  resolutely  defended  for  ten  days  by  the 
parliamentary  forces,  under  Colonel  Rouswell,  or  Russell.  At  length  the 
prince  succeeded  in  draining  the  moat,  and  springing  a  mine,  which 
enabled  him  to  storm  the  place ;  yet  he  was  repulsed  with  great  loss. 
But  the  garrison,  unable  to  withstand  a  second  siege,  made  proposals  of  ca- 
pitulation on  honourable  terms,  which  being  accepted,  the  whole  evacuated 
the  place  on  the  21st  of  April,  164312.  It  was  then  garrisoned  by  the 
king's  troops,  under  the  command  of  Colonel  Harvey  Bagot. 

The  most  sacrilegious  conduct  is  attributed  to  the  parliamentary  forces 
during  their  short  possession  of  the  cathedral.  They  demolished  and  de- 
faced the  monuments,  stripped  the  grave-stones  of  their  brasses,  broke 
the  painted  windows,  and  destroyed  the  records.  We  are  also  told  that 
they  "  every  day  hunted  a  cat  with  hounds  through  the  church,  delighting 
themselves  in  the  echo  from  the  goodly  vaulted  roof;  and  to  add  to  their 
wickedness,  brought  a  calf  into  it,  wrapt  in  linen  ;  carried  it  to  the  font, 
sprinkled  it  with  water;  and  gave  it  a  name  in  scorn  and  derision  of  that 
holy   sacrament  of  baptism ;   and   when  Prince  Rupert  recovered  that 

10  Dugdale's  "  Short  View  of  the  late  Troubles  in  England,"  p.  117. 

11  Historical  Tracts  collected  by  R.  Holme.     Harleian  MSS.  2043,  p.  24. 

"  A  perfect  Diurnal  of  some  passages  in  Parliament,  1643.     Clarendon's  History  of  the  Re- 
bellion, book  vii.  p.  313. 


30  LICHFIELD  CATHEDRAL. 

church  by  force,  Russell  the  governor  carried  away  the  communion  plate, 
and  linen,  and  whatsoever  else  was  of  value13." 

The  close  was  occupied  by  the  king's  garrison  till  July,  1646,  when  the 
king's  affairs  had  become  desperate,  and  the  parliamentary  forces,  under 
the  command  of  Adjutant-general  Lowthian  again  besieged  this  devoted 
place.  The  governors,  Sir  Thomas  Tyldesley,  and  Colonel  Bagot,  being 
satisfied  by  the  report  of  Colonel  Hudson  (who  had  gone  out  of  the 
garrison  to  obtain  information,  and  had  been  permitted  to  return  to  it)  "  that 
the  king  had  no  army  in  the  field  to  the  amount  of  one  hundred  men,  nor 
any  one  garrison  unbesieged,"  agreed  to  articles  of  capitulation,  whereby 
their  lives  and  some  part  of  their  arms  and  property  were  secured  to  them, 
and  surrendered  the  place  on  the  10th  day  of  July,  1646  '*. 

During  these  vicissitudes  of  war,  the  cathedral  suffered  most  extensive 
injury.  It  is  calculated  that  two  thousand  cannon-shot,  and  fifteen  hundred 
hand  grenades  had  been  discharged  against  it.  The  centre  spire  was  bat- 
tered down;  the  spires  of  the  west  end  nearly  demolished  ;  the  roof  beaten 
in;  the  whole  of  the  exterior  greatly  damaged  ;  and  the  beautiful  sculpture  of 
the  west  front  barbarously  mutilated.  The  bells,  lead,  and  timber  were 
afterwards  purloined  during  the  protectorship  of  Cromwell;  so  that  when 
Dr.  Hacket  succeeded  to  this  See  in  1661,  he  found  the  cathedral  in  a  most 
desolate  condition;  and  with  a  truly  laudable  zeal  immediately  com- 
menced the  necessary  repairs.  "  The  very  morning  after  his  arrival  in 
Lichfield,  he  roused  his  servants  by  break  of  day,  set  his  own  coach 
horses,  with  teams  and  hired  labourers,  to  remove  the  rubbish,  and  laid 
the  first  hand  to  the  work  he  had  meditated.  By  his  large  contributions, 
the  benefactions  of  the  dean  and  chapter,  and  the  money  arising  from  his 
assiduity  in  soliciting  the  aid  of  every  gentleman  in  the  diocess,  and  almost 
every  stranger  that  visited  the  cathedral,  he  is  said  to  have  raised  several 
thousand  pounds.  In  eight  years  he  restored  the  beauty  of  the  cathedral, 
to  the  admiration  of  the  country  ,5."     Besides  a  grant  by  King  Charles  II. 

13  Dugdale's  "  Short  View  of  the  late  Troubles  in  England,"  p.  560. 

,+  These  articles  of  capitulation  are  printed  in  Jackson's  History  of  Lichfield. 

15  Life  of  Bishop  Hacket,  by  Dr.  Plume,  prefixed  to  his  Century  of  Sermons. 


MODERN  REPAIRS  AND  RESTORATIONS.  31 

of  "  one  hundred  fair  timber  trees  out  of  Needwood  Forest,"  the  subscrip- 
tion for  the  repairs  amounted  to  90921.  Is.  l\d.  The  bishop  himself  con- 
tributed no  less  than  1683/.  12s.  Having  completed  the  repairs,  and  fitted 
up  the  choir  with  new  stalls,  pulpit,  and  organ,  he  reconsecrated  the 
church  with  great  solemnity  on  the  24th  of  December,  1669.  In  the  fol- 
lowing year  he  contracted  for  six  bells ;  the  first  of  which  only  was  hung 
during  his  last  illness.  "  He  went  out  of  his  bed-chamber  into  the  next 
room  to  hear  it,  seemed  well  pleased  with  the  sound,  and  blessed  God 
who  had  favoured  him  with  life  to  hear  it ;  but  at  the  same  time  observed 
that  it  would  be  his  own  passing  bell ;  and  retiring  into  his  chamber,  he 
never  left  it  until  he  was  carried  to  his  grave  16." 

Since  that  event,  the  cathedral  church  of  Lichfield  has  only  suffered 
from  the  effects  of  time  and  weather  ;  and  the  ravages  of  those  destructive 
agents  have  frequently  called  forth  the  zeal  and  liberality  of  the  clergy  and 
laity  of  the  diocess. 

The  general  appearance  of  this  building  was  considerably  improved  by 
several  judicious  alterations  effected  about  the  year  1760 ;  when  the  ca- 
thedral library,  built  by  Dean  Heywood,  and  an  adjoining  house,  very 
incommodiously  situated  between  the  church  and  the  deanery,  were  de- 
molished ;  the  ground  of  the  cemetery  was  at  the  same  time  levelled ;  the 
tomb-stones  were  laid  flat ;  some  useless  walls  and  gates  were  removed : 
and  slates  were  substituted  for  the  old  leaden  covering  of  the  roof.  But  in 
1788  it  was  found  that  the  fabric  itself  was  in  so  dilapidated  a  state  that  a 
heavy  expenditure  would  be  required  for  its  restoration.  For  this  pur- 
pose, subscriptions  were  immediately  raised  throughout  the  diocess; 
which,  chiefly  through  the  zealous  activity  of  Dean  Proby,  produced  a  sum 
of  money  considerable  in  itself,  but  inadequate  to  the  requisite  expense: 
The  present  worthy  bishop  not  only  contributed  liberally  on  this  occasion, 
but  exerted  his  influence  in  obtaining  an  act  of  parliament,  by  which  a 
fund  was  provided,  not  only  applicable  to  the  future  support  of  the  fabric, 
but  to  the  discharge  of  the  debts  which  it  was  unavoidably  necessary  to 
contract  for  completing  the  repairs  then  in  progress.  Dean  Proby  is 
said  to  have  advanced,  as  a  loan,  250/.  for  these  purposes. 
■6  Life  of  Bishop  Hacket,  by  Dr.  Plume. 


32 


LICHFIELD  CATHEDRAL. 


A  thorough  and  substantial  repair  was  accordingly  commenced  under 
the  direction  of  the  late  Mr.  James  Wyatt,  and  was  completed,  with  many 
improvements,  iu  the  year  179-5.  Besides  the  general  restoration  of  the 
doors,  windows,  and  flooring  throughout,  two  of  the  spires  were  partly 
rebuilt,  the  ends  of  the  transepts  were  strengthened  by  new  buttresses, 
the  external  roofs  of  the  ailes  were  raised,  and  five  divisions  of  the  stone 
roof  in  the  nave  were  taken  down,  and  replaced  with  plaster.  The  Lady 
Chapel  was  united  to  the  choir,  by  removing  a  screen  which  had  been 
erected  by  Bishop  Hacket.  On  taking  this  away,  the  workmen  discovered 
the  beautiful  old  screen  which  formed  in  all  probability  the  original  parti- 
tion when  the  Lady  Chapel  was  completed  by  the  executors  of  Walter  de 
Langton.  This  elaborate  piece  of  architecture  was  in  a  very  mutilated 
state ;  but  Mr.  Wyatt,  having  restored  it,  by  the  assistance  of  Roman 
cement,  to  a  very  perfect  condition,  appropriated  part  of  it  to  the  new 
altar  piece,  and  the  remainder  to  the  organ  screen,  or  partition  which 
divides  the  nave  from  the  choir. 

The  Stained  Glass  which  embellishes  some  of  the  eastern  windows  of  the 
Lady  Chapel,  formerly  decorated  the  magnificent  chapel  of  the  abbey  of 
Herckenrode,  a  wealthy  convent  of  Cistertian  nuns,  in  the  bishopric  of 
Liege,  in  Germany.  The  chapel  of  Herckenrode  abbey  was  rebuilt  in  the 
sixteeuth  century,  when  the  windows  were  adorned  with  these  choice 
specimens  of  the  art  of  glass-staining.  On  the  establishment  of  the 
French  republic,  this  abbey  was  suppressed  with  many  other  religious 
houses.  Sir  Brooke  Boothby,  who  happened  to  be  then  on  the  continent, 
purchased  the  stained  windows  for  the  moderate  price  of  two  hundred 
pounds,  and  very  generously  transferred  this  extraordinary  bargain  to  the 
dean  and  chapter;  who  expended  about  eight  hundred  pounds  more  in  the 
importation,  repair,  and  arrangement  of  the  glass  in  its  present  situation. 
The  Rev.  W.  G.  Rowland,  of  Shrewsbury,  superintended  the  latter  opera- 
tions, and  furnished  desigus  for  the  requisite  accessary  and  ornamental 
works,  the  staining  of  which  was  executed  by  Sir  John  Betton,  of  Shrews- 
bury, knight.  A  large  window  at  the  end  of  the  north  transept  is  filled  with 
stained  glass  by  the  latter  gentleman,  from  designs  by  I.  J.  Halls,  Esq.,  an 
artist  of  considerable  talent. 


mm*  ee& 


DESCRIPTION   OF    THE    FORM,    ARRANGEMENT,    AND    CONSTRUCTION   OF  THE 

CHURCH  :    OF  ITS  EXTERIOR    AND    INTERIOR    BEAUTIES    AND    DEFECTS  : 

REMARKS  ON  ITS  STYLES  OF  ARCHITECTURE,  AND  ON  THE  VARIOUS  POR- 
TIONS OF  THE  EDIFICE;  WITH  REFERENCE  TO  THE  ACCOMPANYING 
PRINTS. 


The  Cathedral  Church  of  Lichfield  possesses  many  singularities  and 
beauties.  Its  plan,  design,  general  features,  present  state,  and  situation, 
are  all  peculiar,  and  calculated  to  prepossess  the  stranger  in  its  favour. 
Unlike  the  generality  of  cathedrals,  which  are  surrounded  and  encroached 
on  by  common  dwellings,  shops,  and  offensive  appendages,  this  is  com- 
pletely insulated,  and  every  part  of  its  exterior  may  be  readily  examined. 
It  is  placed  in  an  open  lawn  or  close,  which  is  environed  with  handsome 
or  very  respectable  detached  houses.  These  have  their  respective  gardens 
and  plantations ;  and  on  the  north  and  eastern  sides  of  the  close  are  some 
fine  forest  trees.  Hence  the  external  appearance  of  the  church  and  effect 
of  the  whole  on  the  visitor  are  pleasing  and  interesting.  An  air  of  rural 
simplicity,  and  genteel  life,  pervades  the  precincts  of  the  edifice,  and  im- 
presses the  mind  with  quiet,  respectful,  and  religious  sentiments.  About 
one  hundred  yards  from  the  south  side  is  a  large  piece  of  water,  or  lake, 
which  may  be  regarded  as  a  pleasing  appendage :  and  but  for  a  few  houses 
which  are  placed  between  it  and  the  church,  would  be  a  beautiful  and 
unique  accompaniment.  In  Plate  vi.  the  Cathedral  is  shown  as  it  would 
appear,  if  some  houses  were  removed  from  the  south-east;  and  no  person 
can  deny  the  improved  effect  that  might  be  thus  made.  Such  a  material 
alteration  in  the  value  and  property  of  the  ground,  though  it  may  be  wished 


34  LICHFIELD  CATHEDRAL. 

for,  cannot  however  be  reasonably  expected.  Another  singularity  in  the 
edifice,  now  under  notice,  is  its  general  exterior  form.  At  the  west  end  are 
two  towers,  surmounted  by  spires,  and  at  the  intersection  of  the  nave  with 
the  transept,  is  another  tower,  with  a  spire  more  lofty  than  those  at  the  west 
end.  Hence  every  approach  to  the  city  is  distinguished  by  the  varied 
combination  of  these  acute  pyramids1.  From  the  east  and  west  they 
are  seen  grouped  in  a  cluster;  whilst,  from  the  northern  and  southern 
sides  the  two  western  spires  seem  attached;  and  the  central  one  is  shown 
as  springing  abruptly  from  the  middle  of  the  roof,  and  rising  much  higher 
than  the  others.  As  a  distant  object,  however,  this  church  has  no  preten- 
sions to  grandeur  or  beauty.  Very  little  but  the  ridge  of  the  roof,  and  the 
three  spires,  are  presented  above  the  houses  and  contiguous  trees.  From 
the  east,  at  Stow-pool,  the  view  is  picturesque  and  pleasing,  as  the  three 
spires  are  seen  grouped  together,  rising  above  the  surrounding  trees  and 
houses  ;  but  the  church  constitutes  only  a  small  object  in  the  scene. 

The  only  approaches  to  Lichfield  Cathedral  from  the  city,  are  on  the 
south-east,  and  on  the  west ;  and  these  present  the  best  and  most  interest- 
ing features  of  the  edifice.  The  south  side  of  the  Lady  Chapel,  with  its 
tall,  narrow  windows,  the  clerestory  of  the  choir,  and  its  southern  aile, 
with  the  present  vestry,  south  transept,  part  of  the  nave,  central  and 
western  lowers  and  spires,  are  successively  displayed  from  the  former 
approach ;  whilst  the  latter  presents  the  western  front  in  all  its  richness 
and  variety  of  ornament.  Though  now  much  mutilated  and  disfigured  by 
the  corrosive  effects  of  the  weather,  this  front  still  displays  simplicity  of 
design,  and  richness  of  ornament.  It  is  nearly  a  flat  facade,  with  small 
octangular  buttress-turrets  at  the  angles.  A  large  double  door-way,  re- 
cessed, is  seen  in  the  centre,  and  two  smaller  lateral  door-ways:  each  of 
these  was  formerly  much  ornamented  with  insulated  columns,  bold  archi- 
volt  mouldings,  charged  with  foliage,  statues,  &c.  Externally  the  church 
may  be  said  to  be  more  picturesque  than  beautiful.     It  has  no  pretensions 

1  Rippon  Minster  had  formerly  three  leaden  spires,  similarly  situated  with  those  at  Lichfield  ; 
but  these  are  now  pulled  down. 


C-^THEI>!Lf-T-     . 


I-r»-w-i  ty  rJIi^miu . 


J*r./5i*^    **,  ,*r  t  «*K*U    Sat^ini. 


Etrr*«d  by  O   Gladwin.. 


-neiHiiFnEiLiE    cathiees 


CP.orSD        PUS 
WITH     INDICATION  T3.Jtc. 


ZnfavJWUU  '  -jjinai  t  ^Jkww/w  ^«. 


STYLE  OF  THE  CHURCH  : — PLAN.  35 

to  grandeur;  and  therefore  cannot  vie  with  the  noble  and  imposing  cathe- 
drals of  York,  Lincoln,  Canterbury,  Wells,  or  Durham :  nor  is  it  so  pic- 
turesque or  beautiful  as  Salisbury.  The  natural  colour  and  quality  of  its 
materials  indeed  detract  from  its  beauty ;  for  the  stone  is  of  a  dusky  red, 
and  of  a  crumbly,  ragged  character.  Though  deprived  of  strongly  marked 
beauties,  yet  it  displays  many  pleasing  and  even  interesting  features.  The 
architectural  antiquary  will  find  in  it  much  to  admire ;  for  if  the  ope- 
rations of  time,  of  wantonness,  and  of  bad  restorations,  have  tended  to  de- 
face and  injure  it,  there  is  enough  left  to  indicate  its  original  and  pristine 
design.  The  exterior,  it  is  true,  displays  five  or  six  different  styles  and  cha- 
racters of  architecture ;  but  these  are  not  of  very  opposite  and  incongruous 
forms.  All  is  in  the  pointed  style,  and  of  quick  succession  as  to  dates, 
and  proportions.  There  is  no  part  of  the  circular,  or  Norman  style,  and 
none  of  the  last  period  of  the  pointed.  These  remarks,  however,  do  not 
apply  to  the  centre  spire,  or  modern  restorations.  The  general  character 
of  the  interior  of  the  Church  is  cleanness,  cheerfulness,  and  elegance.  Every 
part  is  preserved  in  good  condition,  and  displays  the  laudable  exertions 
made  by  the  present  dean  and  chapter  to  uphold  its  stability,  and  im- 
prove its  beauty.  Their  conduct,  in  this  respect,  is  not  only  highly  praise- 
worthy, but  ought  to  excite  the  emulation  and  shame  of  the  curators 
of  some  other  national  churches. 

The  more  particular  characteristics  of  this  Cathedral  will  be  noticed  in 
referring  to  the  accompanying  illustrative  plates. 

Plate  I.  Ground  Plan,  with  reference  to  the  monuments,  indications  of 
the  groining,  &c.  The  Roman  capitals,  from  a  to  w,  refer  to  different 
parts  of  the  church;  and  the  Arabic  figures  point  out  the  situations  of 
the  principal  monuments.  It  will  be  seen  from  this  plan  that  the  church 
consists  of  a  nave,  d.  with  its  ailes,  e.  and  p.  :— a  transept,  h.  and  I.  branch- 
ing from  the  centre  tower,  g.  : — an  eastern  aile  to  the  transept,  k.  and  l.  :— a 
choir,  from  m.  to  p. :— with  ailes,  n.  and  o. :— a  lady  chapel,  q.:— a  vestry,  r  : 
— an  inner  vestry,  or  chapel,  s. : — a  vestibule  to  the  chapter  house,  t: — and 
a  chapter  house,  w.  At  the  west  end  are  three  entrance  door-ways,  a.  b.  c, 
deeply  recessed  in  the  wall,  and  richly  adorned  in  their  sculptured  mould- 


36  LICHFIELD  CATHEDRAL. 

ings  and  capitals,  a.  communicates  to  the  nave,  b.  to  the  north  aile,  and  c. 
to  the  south  aile.  On  the  north  and  south  sides  of  the  west  end  it  is  shown 
that  the  walls  project  beyond  those  of  the  ailes,  and  thus  form  a  sort  of 
small  trausept.  These  walls,  with  the  octangular  buttresses  at  the  western 
angles,  square  buttresses  at  the  eastern  angles,  and  two  large  piers  at  the 
west  end  of  the  choir,  support  the  two  western  towers  and  spires.  The 
figures  refer  to, 

1.  A  font: — 2.  Stair-case  to  the  north-west  tower: — 3.  to  the  opposite 
tower,  which  is  entered  at  present  by  a  door-way  on  the  outside,  as  cor- 
rectly shown  in  the  plan,  Plate  IV.: — 4.  ascending  steps  to  the  door-way 
of  the  south  transept:— 5.  door-way  to  the  north  transept,  with  steps  de- 
scending to  the  church : — 6.  the  dean's  consistory  court,  or  eastern  aile  of 
the  south  transept,  in  which  are  placed  busts  of  Dr.  Johnson  and  Garrick, 
7.  and  22. : — and  the  monument  of  Mr.  Newton,  8.: — 9.  and  20.  point  out 
the  places  where  the  effigies  of  Bishops  Pateshull  and  Langton,  and  the 
remains  of  Hacket's  tomb,  are  laid  in  recesses  under  the  windows: — 10. 
is  the  famed  modern  tomb,  by  Chantrey  : — 11.  altar  table: — 12.  stair-case 
to  the  library  over  the  chapter  house: — 14.  effigy  of  Sir  Thomas  Stanley : — 
15.  an  antient  effigy  in  a  niche  in  the  wall: — 1G.  17.  18.  point  out  the  situa- 
tions of  three  old  effigies  in  the  walls: — 19.  an  old  tomb  in  the  wall,  sup- 
posed to  be  of  the  founder  of  the  chapel.  The  measurements  are  figured 
on  the  plan. 

Plate  II.  View  of  the  West  Front.  The  point  chosen  for  taking  this 
view  is  at  such  a  distance  from  the  church,  that  the  whole  facade  is  dis- 
played to  advantage,  and  exempt  from  quick  perspective  which  is  often  un- 
pleasing,  and  calculated  to  distort  the  objects  delineated.  By  taking  a  dis- 
tant station,  and  standing  at,  or  near  the  middle,  as  in  the  present  instance, 
the  proper  forms  and  proportions  of  the  front  are  shown  :  and  when  these 
are  in  unison  and  harmony,  the  effect  must  be  pleasing  to  the  eye,  and  be 
well  adapted  for  pictorial  delineation.  Believing  that  the  west  front  of  Lich- 
field would  be  best  represented  in  this  way,  and  that  its  three  spires  would 
form  a  pleasing  pyramidal  group,  was  the  reason  for  choosing  the  point  of 
view  now  alluded  to.  It  is  true  there  are  some  small  houses  that  inter- 
cept part  of  the  church  from  the  station  chosen ;  but  this  did  not  pre- 


CATHEBTRAL     ANTIQUITIES. 


pjL.n. 


jEngrw/e&  1-v KZe Kni.vtrcm  aDrawirm  ly  F.  Mackenzie-. 

JLEfT-MIFILlSILiE)    (CATMIEMSAIL.    (DHTtJISEffiL 

WEST      FRONT. 
TO    THE   MOST    NOBEli.    THE   MARQUIS    OF  ANGLESET,  IAHL    OF  UXBRTD  GE  &c  Sec  kc 
This  Plate  is  respectfully  inscribed  "by  ^AUTHOR. 
Zendm.Tublished  Octf1.16zo.by  Zongman,  &  C?  Paternoster  Row. 

Printad  bv  Havwu-d 


CATJEEDaLAZj    ^HTraOmTIES 


Drawn  'by  F.  Mackenzie 


BriaxnJ  girtery  kc.of  Ltrhfirfd  Cathedral. 

JLECMFKlEILffi)    CATMIEBI&AIL    CIHIU1K.CM, 

VIEW  OF  THE    WESTERN  E OCR   WAY. 

TO  MATTHEW  ROBINSON  BOULTON. ESQ?  jjf  ji&tf/RER  OF  ANTIE1TT  jSRClftTECTURE   See . 

This  Plate  is  iriflcH-bea.-bVj.BRn.ToN. 
Itmdcrv,  FUBSshed/jtugH  lMzo.tfy Longman,  &t  'fHazrnostser  Saw- 

Printed.  \iy  ti»vwaj-d. 


EngravedTy  JXe  Kenx. 


WEST  FRONT.  37 

elude  the  artist  from  representing  the  true  architectural  forms  of  the 
building  as  it  would  appear  if  these  obstructions  were  removed.  In  addi- 
tion to  what  has  been  already  said  of  the  western  facade,  it  may  be  de- 
scribed as  consisting  of  three  leading  divisions,  in  height;  viz.  two  towers 
with  spires  of  nearly  corresponding  design,  and  a  central  compartment, 
with  a  door-way,  a  large  window,  and  an  acute  pediment.  The  whole 
front  has  been  richly  and  beautifully  adorned  with  architectural  ornaments, 
and  sculpture.  These  comprised  niches,  arched  mouldings,  columns  both 
insulated  and  detached,  niches,  canopies,  pedestals,  statues,  doors,  windows, 
and  tracery.  At  each  angle  of  this  elevation  is  an  octangular  stair-case  tur- 
ret, corresponding  in  divisions  and  ornaments,  with  the  front ;  and  having 
the  same  divisions,  &c.  returning  round  the  north  and  south  sides.  Both 
turrets  are  terminated  with  stunted  pinnacles,  with  crockets  at  the  angles, 
and  finials  at  the  top :  and  attached  to  these  are  square  pinnacles,  which 
serve  to  connect  the  former  to  the  spires.  The  upper  part  of  each  tower 
is  finished  with  a  band  of  lozenge  mouldings,  inclosing  quatrefoil  and  tre- 
foil panels.  The  spires  are  divided  into  six  compartments,  four  of  which 
have  open  windows,  with  acute  pedimental  mouldings  in  each  face,  whilst 
the  fifth  has  only  panels  separated  by  crocketed  ribs.  The  upper  story  is 
plain,  but  has  some  small  windows.  These  spires  are  open  from  the  bottom 
to  the  top,  and  without  any  timber  or  cross  beams  of  any  kind.  (See 
Plate  IV.) 

By  the  accompanying  plate  it  will  be  seen  that  a  series  of  statues  still 
remain  in  niches  over  the  western  doors.  It  is  unusual  to  see  a  west  end  of 
a  cathedral  without  windows  to  the  ailes.  In  the  third  story  are  windows 
to  the  belfry  floors.  The  central  window,  as  well  as  the- niche  and  statue 
in  the  pediment,  do  not  harmonize  with  the  other  parts  of  this  front.  The 
statue  is  meant  to  represent  Charles  II.,  and  is  said  to  have  been  executed 
by  a  stone  cutter,  named  Wilson,  of  Sutton  Coldfield,  who  was  knighted 
for  his  loyalty.  Disfiguring  as  it  does  this  beautiful  front,  it  is  hoped  that 
it  will  be  speedily  removed. 

Plate  III.  View  of  the  principal  Door-way  in  the  West  Front,  which 
may  be  regarded  as  one  of  the  most  beautiful  designs  in  the  country.  It 
may  be  compared,  in  some  respects,  with  the  very  elegant  door-way  on  the 


38  LICHFIELD  CATHEDRAL. 

south  side,  near  the  east  end  of  Lincoln  Cathedral1,  which  is  nearly  of  the 
same  style  and  period  of  erection.  Both  are  peculiarly  rich  and  fanciful, 
and  calculated  to  excite  the  warmest  admiration.  The  present  door-way 
was  profusely  embellished  with  sculptured  foliage,  and  figures,  running 
round  the  architrave  mouldings,  and  between  the  columns.  These  are 
now. so  much  battered,  that  not  only  their  beauty  is  greatly  injured, 
but  it  is  almost  impossible  to  ascertain  the  characters  of  some  of  the 
statues.  The  door-way  is  divided  into  two  openings,  by  a  clustered 
column  in  the  middle,  to  which  is  attached  a  figure,  said  to  personify  the 
Virgin  Mary.  There  are  also  two  corresponding  statues  on  each  side  of 
the  door,  standiug  on  beautifully  formed  brackets,  and  surmouuted  by 
equally  beautiful  canopies.  Stukeley  conjectures  that  these  figures 
were  meant  for  the  Evangelists,  and  that  two  other  statues  on  the 
outside  of  the  door-way,  represented  Moses  and  Aaron.  These  are 
destroyed,  as  well  as  their  accompanying  canopies,  &c.  The  two  doors 
are  covered  and  strengthened  with  ornamental  iron  hinges,  or  scroll  work, 
which  appear  to  be  original2. 

Plate  IV.  Section  of  the  Southern  Tower  and  Spire,  of  the  Nave,  and 
North  Ailc,  also  an  Elevation  of  the  Eastern  Side  of  the  North  Tower  and 
Spire,  with  Ground  Plan.  The  architect  and  architectural  antiquary  will 
immediately  understand  the  design  and  construction  of  this  part  of  the 
fabric  by  the  annexed  plate.  It  shows  the  thickness  of  the  south  wall  of  the 
tower,  with  the  situations  of  the  two  windows  in  it,  the  return  of  its  octa- 
gon buttress,  the  floors  and  timber  roof  in  the  tower,  with  the  face  of  the 
western  wall,  and  the  interior  of  the  spire.  This  section  is  made  through 
the  centre  of  the  south  tower,  and  continued  in  the  same  line  to  the  middle 
of  the  nave,  when  the  line  of  section  is  taken  through  the  first  division  and 

'  A  view  of  this  door-way  will  be  given  in  "  The  Chronological  and  Historical  Illustrations  of 
the  A ntient  Architecture  of  England." 

'  Mr.  Carter  made  a  drawing  of  this  west  front  for  the  Gentleman's  Magazine,  1810,  in  which 
he  represented  the  statues  and  ornaments  as  in  a  perfect  state.  He  has  shown  the  middle  spire 
lower  than  those  at  the  west  end,  as  they  really  appear  when  the  spectator  is  near  the  church. 
In  his  "  Antient  Sculpture  and  Painting,"  folio,  1780,  he  has  given  an  etching  of  "  the  porch  or 
principal  entrance'— and  promised  to  furnish  "  a  particular  description  of  it,"  but  never  fulfilled 
his  engagement. 


<-_.7::e:..- .<i'-.T".'. 


Driwu  by  Joa. Potter. 


Britbmj  Strtcry  tee,  of  liOiiirf.1  I'atiirriral 

SECTION"    &c  ,'OF     THE     Y7ESTEKN   WWEKS. 
TO  THE  ICEV*    CHA3U.ES   BUCKF.RIDGE  ,  D  .1) .  FXECZNTOR  8c  C&NON  JtZSJDKBTJABY  OFLICHFIELD     CJTREDRAI 


Engravod.  bj-  H  Le  Zeux. 


This  Plate  is    rnscTi'bea.  by 


J.BR1TTON  . 


Louden-  Tubiu-hed'  Dee'.i.idig.bv  Lonanum  k  C.P.i[ertwster  Mow. 


CATHEDRAL    ANTIQUITIES 


Drawn  by  F  Mackenzie 


3LSCCIHIF21Sa.lE)       CATSG  D  i'/JIECHE, 

DOOR  Wl-QT    IN  N  .  TRANSEPT  . 

TO  SIR  THOMAS  LAWRENCE  rjtZ.WE.VT  I'F  J'JIK    ROYAL  .-tO.WLMr  Ln-SNUJ^lND/a  Ice. 
Thl.<   Hate  U  msmW  hy  ^  j^m^ 

JL.'tnf.-'i  jnUfluhed  Jurtr  1,282a    >■< ;■  Z.'HiWiitn  It  Cf  Tattrru-.'ltr  Jfow- 
Printed  bTBinnd 


■■I  try   t  Li*  Kcux. 


DOOR-WAY  OF  NORTH  TRANSEPT.  39 

window  of  the  north  aile.  This  should  have  been  indicated  on  the  plan, 
but  was  omitted  by  mistake.  By  the  present  plate,  the  real  proportion  of 
the  arch  of  the  north  aile,  (and  the  south  is  the  same,)  is  displayed,  and 
the  section  of  the  arch,-  with  the  size  of  the  columns  and  piers  under  the 
tower,  are  shown.  Over  the  northern  pier  is  a  section  of  the  triforium 
arch,  as  well  as  of  the  clerestory  window  over  it.  A  profile  and  elevation 
of  the  two  buttresses  at  the  north-east  corner  of  the  tower,  with  their 
plans,  are  represented;  and  the.  design  of  the  eastern  face  of  the  north 
tower  and  spire,  with  its  panelled  and  purfled  pinnacles,  are  shown.  In 
the  centre  we  perceive  the  double  doors,  with  an  ogee  moulding,  an  em- 
battled gallery  above,  and  behind  that  the  chief  window.  This  is  termi- 
nated with  a  flattened  roof,  over  which  is  the  high  pitched  roof,  with  its 
timber  ties.  It  is  also  seen,  that  a  lofty  wall  screen,  with  an  acute  pedi- 
ment and  crocketed  sides,  rise  considerably  above  the  roof. 

Plate  V.  A  perspective  View  of  the  Door-way  in  the  Northern  Transept 
is  a  fine  and  peculiar  specimen  of  this  style  of  architecture.  It  consists  of 
a  deeply  recessed  arch,  divided  into  five  principal  and  several  smaller 
mouldings,  the  former  of  which  are  charged  with  sculpture.  Two  of  these 
consist  of  foliage,  scrolls,  &c.  and  the  other  three  are  enriched  with  ovaler 
compartments,  inclosing  basso-relievos  in  groups,  of  angels,  saints,  patri- 
archs, &c.  Among  them  are  two  figures  supposed  to  represent  St.  Chad 
baptizing  the  Saxon  Prince  Wulfere.  On  each  side  of  the  door-way  are 
detached  and  clustered  pillars,  with  fine  foliated  capitals,  with  five  rows  of 
ornament,  commonly  called  the  dog-tooth  moulding.  In  the  centre  is  a 
clustered  column,  composed  of  four  pillars,  with  a  very  richly  cut  capital, 
and  supporting  a  double  archivolt  moulding,  also  covered  with  foliated 
sculpture. 

Plate  VI.  Is  a  view  of  the  whole  Church,  from  the  south-east,  and 
displays  the  general  forms  and  tracery  of  the  windows  in  the  Lady  Chapel, 
the  choir,  the  aile  of  the  choir,  the  south  transept,  and  the  clerestory  of 
the  nave.  Beneath  the  windows  of  the  Lady  Chapel  are  three  recesses,  or 
arched  vaults,  with  pedimental  roofs,  and  which  appear  to  have  constituted 
sepulchral  chambers  for  some  distinguished  members  of  the  church.     It  is 


40  LTCHFIELD  CATHEDRAL. 

supposed  that  Bishop  Langton's  remains  were  finally  placed  in  one  of  them. 
The  clumsy  modern  buttresses,  to  the  south  transept,  are  shown  conspicu- 
ous, and  the  lofty  crocketed  pinnacles  to  the  vestry  are  also  prominent 
features  in  this  view.  The  flattened  arched  window,  with  several  perpen- 
dicular mullions,  and  the  circular  window,  with  the  small  triangular  one 
above,  in  the  gable  of  the  south  transept,  are  all  delineated.  Beneath  the 
aile  window  of  the  transept  is  an  arched  recess,  containing  a  mutilated 
statue.     This  view  has  been  already  noticed. 

Plate  VII.  View  of  the  Nave,  looking  east.  As  the  style,  or  treat- 
ment, of  this  plate  has  been  objected  to,  it  may  be  proper  to  remark,  that 
I  directed  this  view  to  be  drawn  and  engraved  in  outline,  as  a  mode  best 
calculated  to  define  and  characterize  the  architectural  members  of  the  nave. 
Here  are  many  lines  of  columns,  mouldings  of  arches,  enriched  capitals, 
and  other  ornaments;  and  had  these  been  covered  over  with  colour,  for  the 
purpose  of  imitating  the  effect  and  perspective  of  the  scene,  the  detail  of 
the  architecture  would  have  been  inevitably  obscured  and  sacrificed  by  the 
process.  Having  seen  several  interesting  architectural  subjects  spoiled,  and 
the  real  forms  disfigured,  by  attempts  to  represent  a  real  perspective  and 
the  accidental  effects  of  light  and  shade  in  similar  scenes,  I  am  convinced 
that  it  can  only  be  satisfactorily  displayed  by  an  outline,  or  with  a  slight 
degree  of  shadowing.  In  subjects  with  large  columns,  and  plain  arches, 
&c.  as  in  the  nave  of  Norwich  Cathedral,  a  high  degree  of  finish  and 
bright  effect  may  be  successfully  and  pleasingly  employed,  without  sacri- 
ficing any  essential  details  of  the  building;  but  in  such  a  subject  as  the 
one  now  under  notice,  or  the  chapels  of  King's  College,  and  Henry  the 
Seventh,  it  would  be  absurd  and  unjust  to  attempt  to  display,  in  a  small 
scale,  their  numerous  beautiful  members  and  details,  in  union  with  pictu- 
resque effect. 

The  Nave  of  Lichfield  Cathedral  is  a  beautiful  and  interesting  part  of 
the  Church.  Its  piers  are  solid  and  large,  and  consist  of  several  attached 
and  insulated  shafts,  with  deep  mouldings  between.  These  are  raised  on 
bases  of  many  mouldings,  and  are  terminated  at  top  with  richly  sculptured 
foliated  capitals.     From  the  latter  spring  the  architrave  mouldings  of  the 


CATHEBBAL  ANTIQUITIES. 

mm 


Drawn  trr  F,  Mackenzie . 


Srittgrix  MLrtaru  kc-.t>fZtihfield  CaOidntl. 

HAVTE  ,    LHJOKraC    JEAST  . 
TO    THE  REV?  JOHN  WEWLTNG,  B .  TJ  .  CANON  JLESIDENTLUOT  OF  LICHFIELD  CATKEDSdL . 

This  YlaXe  is  inscribed  "by  .,  BBrrTo;N. 
London,Tttilirhed.^ivril  i .  i$ip.  hu  Longman  kC-fiiternosterltow. 

Priiucd  "bv  HayFani- 


Engraved,  by  J.LcKcux, 


\  "Z2" :«-.:.  .-"■::.  .v:  .ul.: 


pi  m 


Drawn  br  Tio*  '■»"-■"■ 


Engraved    "by  3 .  ^c  Eeai . 


HALF    SECTION.  HALF    EI^VATIOOT    OF  THAN  SEPT  fce. 

"HZ  REV?  HENRY  WHITE  .  *t  a  mark  or  esteem t>y  ttie  . , . 

■    JUMutod    Janfi  iSio.Sy  Zangman/kCTitomanr Mew. 

AiQl«a  hr  Co*  i-  < '  ' 


— M 


H 

:> 


TRANSEPT  AND  CENTRAL  TOWER  AND  SPIRE.  41 

arches,  which  are  numerous  and  bold,  and  produce  a  fine  effect.  Between 
every  two  arches  is  a  cluster  of  three  demi-columns,  rising  from  the  base 
to  the  springing  of  the  vaulting,  and  sustaining  five  ribs,  which  diverge  to 
a  central  rib  and  to  a  small  transverse  one.  The  two  last  are  ornamented 
with  foliage,  and  bold  rich  bosses  at  the  junction  of  the  different  ribs. 
The  spandrils  of  the  arches  are  adorned  with  trefoil  panels.  Above  these 
arches  is  the  triforium,  each  compartment  consisting  of  a  double  arch,  and 
each  arch  again  divided  into  two  others.  The  clustered  columns,  deep 
arches,  rich  capitals,  and  dog-tooth  moulding,  combine  to  produce  a 
peculiarly  fine  and  elegant  effect.  The  elaborately  sculptured  capitals  of 
the  lofty  pilaster  columns,  the  ornamented  string  course,  and  numerous 
ribs  and  mouldings,  tend  to  render  this  portion  of  the  Church  highly  in- 
teresting and  sumptuous,  without  being  overcharged  with  minute  detail. 
In  the  clerestory  we  perceive  a  triangular  window  of  rather  unusual  shape 
and  style.  Latterly  the  inner  mullious  of  these  windows  have  been  filled 
in  with  trefoil  mouldings.  The  interior  and  exterior  elevation  of  the  nave, 
with  the  arcade  and  window  of  the  aile,  are  shown  in  Plate  IX.  c.  d. 

Plate  VIII.  Section  of  one  half,  and  Elevation  of  the  other  half  of  the 
Church,  from  north  to  south,  looking  east.  This  plate  shows  the  forms 
and  designs  of  the  windows  of  the  transepts,  both  externally  and  internally, 
the  style  of  the  buttresses,  the  section  of  the  north  aile  of  the  nave,  with 
its  roof  and  flying  buttress  above,  the  form  of  the  great  arch  under  the 
centre  tower,  with  the  external  and  internal  peculiarities  of  that  and  the 
spire.  Beneath  the  arch  of  the  tower  is  the  organ  screen,  with  a  glazed 
window  above,  which  separates  the  nave  from  the  choir,  and  serves  to 
render  the  latter  more  warm  and  comfortable  in  winter.  It  will  be  seen  by 
this  section,  that  the  ground  is  higher  than  the  level  of  the  floor  on  the 
north  side,  and  that  there  is  a  descent  of  some  steps  on  the  south  side.  It 
also  shows  that  the  design  of  the  transepts  is  very  different  to  that  of  the 
nave,  in  arches,  piers,  triforium,  clerestory  windows,  &c. 

Plate  IX.  Elevation  of  one  compartment  of  the  Choir,  externally  and 
internally,  a.  and  b.,  and  of  the  Nave  c.  and  d.  The  latter  has  been  already 
described,  and  the  former  will  be  noticed  in  referring  to  the  next  plate. 


42  LICHFIELD  CATHEDRAL. 

Plate  X.  View  of  the  Choir,  looking  west.  For  the  reasons  already 
assigned,  this  plate  has  been  executed  in  outline;  and  it  must  be  admitted 
that  the  surface  of  the  plate  is  abundantly  covered  with  work,  indicating 
the  mouldings  of  the  arches,  clustered  columns,  &c.  The  present  choir  of 
Lichfield  Cathedral  is  noted  for  its  length  and  narrowness,  the  former  of 
which  is  occasioned  by  the  whole  extent  from  the  organ  screen,  under  the 
tower,  to  the  east  end  being  an  uninterrupted  open  space :  and  the  latter, 
by  the  filling  up  the  side  arches  to  the  ailes.  These  two  great  innovations  in 
cathedral  architecture  were  advised  by  Mr.  Wyatt,  in  1788,  and  have  been 
much  censured  by  some  antiquaries,  whilst  others  approve  of  the  change. 
Since  Mr.  Wyatt's  time  an  essential  improvement  has  been  adopted,  by 
widening  the  choir.  This  celebrated  architect  had  directed  a  plain  walled 
skreen  to  be  raised  flush  with  the  inner  face  of  the  arches,  and  thus  forming 
a  flat  surface  on  each  side  of  the  choir.  This  wall  has  been  removed, 
and  re-erected  farther  back;  thus  showing  nearly  the  whole  of  the  clustered 
columns  with  the  soffits  of  the  arches  to  the  choir:  the  general  architec- 
tural design  of  this  part  of  the  Church  is  accurately  delineated  in  Plate 
IX.  a.  b.  In  this  elevation  is  shown  the  styles  and  marks  of  two  distant 
dates:  as  the  clerestory  windows  are  evidently  of  a  later  period  than  the 
arches  beneath.  Here  is  no  triforium  in  these  divisions,  but  merely  blank 
panelling  beneath  the  windows,  with  an  open  ornamented  parapet.  The 
jambs  and  soffits  of  the  windows  are  adorned  with  quatrefoil  panels;  and 
thus,  as  well  as  in  its  windows,  greatly  resemble  the  choir  part  of  Norwich 
Cathedral.  The  groining  of  the  roof  nearly  corresponds  with  that  of  the 
nave. 

Plate  XI.  View  of  the  Lady  Chapel,  looking  east.  Although  this 
subject  is  rather  elaborate  in  detail,  and  abounds  with  ornaments,  yet  I 
was  induced  to  attempt  a  finished  plate,  in  consequence  of  the  beautiful, 
delicate,  and  true  effect  which  the  artist  had  given  to  his  drawing.  This 
Lady  Chapel  may  be  regarded  as  one  of  the  finest  and  most  elegant 
examples  of  the  ecclesiastical  architecture  in  England.  Its  semi-octangular 
form  is  well  adapted  to  display  both  its  sumptuous  painted  glass  win- 
dows and  its  numerous  and  rich  sculptured  ornaments.     The  whole  is  cal- 


CATHEDRAL    ANTIQUITIES. 


Dra-Wii  "by  T.KackeYLzie. 


'  grtu.ms  History  LcpfZicftneZd  aahe&vl-. 

ILKOEFHEILB    CATTTHUfiUMBAk    SffiTUmCM. 

TKCIR     LOOKING  "WX3T, 
7U  1WTEWAHT    GEKERAL    THE    HONORABLE  SIR  EDWARB    PAGET  .  C.  C.B.  S--C.fa.fec. 
This    Plltt  is    -respectiblly  inscribed  Vftie  AUTHOR. 
Xciuton.ltiMiriied  Xorcli  i.iBio.by ■  Longman  li CI ■  FtOpimster  Jbn : 


Engraved  ty  Jonn  Cleghum. 


CATHEDRAL    ANTlCtTrTJES 


Inrawn  "by  F.  Mackenzie. 


%titti"iit  JTisr.-r-v  .<-,-  <-f7Jr/iririJ  Ottfiedral 

3LECIHI3F1II11LE;    (SATIHIIIIMEAIL    (DEHUIEtDIHI, 

LADY  CHAPEL. 
TP   GEOHGE  WATSON    TAyLOR.ESQ!<  A  FATBOX  OF  THE  FINE  ARTS  Sc FCZITE  IZTE/Li  TFHE . 

This    Plate   is  inscribed  "by^ AUTHoa, 
J.?n./.-it,riditi.r>ie,l  Jum i .  ilio lylm.iinMiS: C l ErtrnesKr  Hew. 


Engraved  Tjy-WBarlclyffe 


-.^'SAL    ant:  [ 


fcrj^m  bv  P.llaOcnxie, 


-■JOIMJEILJE     (DATIHIEMEAJL    CfflUIlEClBI . 

IBTLK    TO    CHAPTER  HOUSE. 
ESSE   WATTS    RUSSELL    ESQ?  I..L.D.  HIGH  SHERIFF    PF   THF  COt'XTY  I'F   STAFFORD,    kc.    ice. 
His    Plate    is   respectfully   inscribed  \sy  }  BHIT.raN 


tngTflvpd  >w  W.  Woolnotii. 


J.sriJ?n  .TubUitud  July  :    ills  ty  Zmgmtn  ^-"'  l-twni-strr  Sa«, 


3mifflM®aMkmmmzwB&M 


VESTIBULE  AND  CHAPTER  HOUSE.  43 

culated  to  seduce  and  convert  even  infidelity  itself;  for  cold  and  callous 
must  that  person  be,  who  can  contemplate  such  a  scene,  and  such  lessons 
as  here  exhibited,  without  emotions  of  admiration  and  some  degree  of  en- 
thusiasm. Here  the  two  branches  of  art  seem  to  vie  with  each  other  for 
superiority  5  Architecture  prefers  her  claim  to  dignity,  beauty,  and  utility, 
whilst  Painting  vaunts  her  captivating  powers  of  pleasing  every  eye  and 
fascinating  the  enlightened  mind.  This  Lady  Chapel,  or  as  it  may  be  now 
termed,  the  chancel,  is  of  the  same  height  as  the  choir,  and  nearly  of  the 
same  width:  it  is  lighted  by  nine  tall  windows,  with  mullions  and  varied 
tracery.  Seven  are  filled  with  antient  and  very  fine  stained  glass ;  whilst 
the  two  nearest  to  the  choir  are  embellished  with  modern  glass,  which 
appears  gaudy  and  meretricious  compared  with  its  elder  neighbours.  Six 
of  the  very  elegant  sculptured  brackets  of  this  chapel  are  delineated  in 
Plate  XIV.  This  cathedral,  like  Salisbury,  has  no  crypt  beneath,  and  its 
pavement  is  level  from  east  to  west,  excepting  at  the  altar  table,  where 
there  are  three  steps. 

Plate  XII.  Vieiv  of  the  Vestibule,  or  entrance  passage  to  the  chapter 
house,  marked  I.  in  the  ground  plan.  The  architecture  of  this  apartment 
is  simple  in  forms,  but  from  the  depth  and  boldness  of  the  mouldings  and 
ornaments,  is  calculated  to  produce  very  fine  effects.  The  bases,  capitals, 
bosses,  &c.  are  all  cut  in  bold  and  powerful  relief.  On  the  west  side  is  a 
singular  passage,  or  arcade,  of  thirteen  arches,  beneath  the  windows ;  the 
original  intention  of  which  is  not  ascertained :  whether  to  receive  the 
thirteen  minor  canons  or  priest-vicars  belonging  to  the  cathedral,  or  for 
communication  with  the  outside,  as  there  is  a  small  aperture  behind  each 
recess  in  the  wall,  is  not  known.  The  opposite  side  of  the  vestibule  has 
eight  niches,  or  spaces  between  the  columns,  and  suited  to  receive  the 
eight  choristers :  and  on  the  same  side  are  entrances  to  the  chapter  house 
and  to  a  staircase  leading  to  the  library  over  it.  The  niches  at  the  north 
end,  and  the  plain  window  above,  are  modern,  and  the  latter  is  executed  in 
a  very  bad  style. 

Plate  XIII.  Arches  at  the  East  End  of  the  Chapter  House.  These  are 
of  the  same  style  and  date  (beginning  Henry  III.)  as  the  arches  in  the 

F 


44  LICHFIELD  CATHEDRAL. 

vestibule;  but  the  capitals  and  bracket  are  more  profusely  enriched,  and 
the  outer  hollow  moulding  of  the  arches  are  filled  with  the  dog-tooth, 
ornamented.  The  capital  of  the  centre  column,  or  clustered  columns  of 
the  chapter  house,  is  shown,  with  six  brackets,  in 

Plate  XIV.  This  capital  is  very  highly  ornamented  with  a  series  of 
trefoil  leaves,  fancifully  and  variously  disposed,  and  many  of  them  cut  in 
complete  relief.  The  cluster  consists  of  a  large  central  column,  with  ten 
smaller  detached  shafts,  resting  on  a  base  with  many  mouldings,  and  a 
plinth  of  ten  sides.  From  the  capital  diverge  twenty  ribs,  which  spread 
across  the  roof,  and  terminate  against  the  exterior  walls  in  thirty  ribs. 

Plate  XV.  Is  a  View  of  the  Door-way  to  the  Chapter  House,  with  a 
representation  of  the  interior  of  that  apartment. 

Plate  XVI.  View  of  a  Monument  raised  to  the  memory  of  two  daugh- 
ters of  the  Rev.  Wm.  and  Ellen  Jane  Robinson  :  the  black  slab  behind  the 
tomb  records  the  decease  of  the  father,  who  was  a  prebendary  of  this 
cathedral,  and  died  March  21,  1812,  aged  35.  In  a  subsequent  page  will 
be  given  a  description  of  this  tomb,  with  remarks  on  its  merits. 


CATHEDRAL    ANTIQUITIES . 


by  F  Mackenzie. 


Briaanj  fflttery  i-r  .•rL,rfa\dd  farAt&al 


ILECEHFIIEILID)    ©ATMIEBIEAIL   ©HEHJ3EC1HI, 

1  .  CAPITA!.     IN     CHAP?  EOUSJS.  2.  3.-2.  5.6.  7.  BEACE1TS    IH  LADY    CHAPEL. 

TO    THE   REV?,  JOHN    NEWLING.B.  D.  CANOIT  RESIDENTIARY  OF  LICHFIELD     CiTHEDX.1L. 

This  Hale  is   inscribed  byTHJ.  AUTH0R 

Londan.TuZ'lisTied  Jitlu  2 .  i8iq ,  by  Longman  tc  C?  J'aterncster  Ttow. 

Ir.lm.ed.  by  Qjywnrd 


Engraved  by   J.  Le  Ke 


CATHEDRAL  ANTIQUITIES 


Drawn  "by  T.MacltenKte . 


JBrdterfs  Mstsry  kc<yriicMleld  aahalral . 

ILIKDHIFIIIEILHD     CATHIE  JBJEAIL    (DMTOSIHI, 

SOOA'VAT  TO      TBTE    CHAPTETR  HOTUSTE. 

TO  feOBERT  JOHN HAEBEa,Z5(?s  F.£A.as  a  testimony  of  respect,  TtdaHflte  ^s  irL3Clibeo-  "by  ^  a^hor. 

Xon.&en,JhdtUs1ied Decri  iByf  ,by Lcwman  Sc  C Hwrncstzr  Raw. 


Engraved  "by  J..Le  IKcox. 


ACCOUNT  OF  THE  MONUMENTS  AND  PAINTED  GLASS. 


Perhaps  there  is  not  a  cathedral  in  England  that  has  been  so  completely 
stripped  of  its  antient  monuments  and  brasses  as  that  of  Lichfield.  We 
look  in  vain  for  fine  specimens  of  old  monumental  sculpture,  engravings  on 
brass,  and  inscriptions.  Excepting  two  mutilated  statues  of  bishops,  and 
two  or  three  other  fragments,  all  have  been  destroyed.  There  are,  how- 
ever, a  few  sepulchral  memorials  which  claim  attention,  for  the  talents 
and  virtues  of  the  individuals  to  whom  they  are  raised,  rather  than  for  any 
excellence  of  sculpture.  In  noticing  the  monuments,  I  cannot  neglect 
the  opportunity  of  reproving  the  common-place  practice  of  opposing  white 
marble  slabs  by  black  backgrounds ;  and  inserting  both  in  the  walls,  or 
against  the  pillars  of  a  fine  church.  Where  an  edifice,  like  Lichfield  Cathe- 
dral, presents  a  general  effect  of  symmetry  and  harmony,  it  is  painfully  offen- 
sive to  have  the  eye  and  attention  distracted  by  spots  of  black  and  white 
—by  the  obtrusion  of  subordinate  parts  on  the  attention  as  principals.  If 
monuments  be  admitted  within  a  fine  church,  they  should  be  made  subser- 
vient to  general  effects ;  and,  what  is  still  of  greater  consequence,  they 
should  not  be  indiscriminately  inserted  in  or  attached  to  beautiful  and 
substantial  parts  of  an  edifice.  It  is,  however,  merely  justice  to  observe, 
that  the  present  worthy  dean  and  chapter  are  laudably  careful  in  preserv- 
ing the  stability  and  beauty  of  their  Cathedral,  and  I  am  confident  would 
not,  knowingly,  permit  any  thing  to  be  done  injurious  to  its  walls  or 
to  its  architectural  ornaments. 

It  appears  by  Dugdale's  "  Visitation  of  Staffordshire,"  in  the  Herald's 


46  LICHFIELD  CATHEDRAL. 

College,  that  this  cathedral,  previously  to  the  civil  wars,  contained  many 
handsome  tombs,  coats  of  arms,  effigies,  brasses,  and  inscriptions1.  Of 
these  monuments  the  wrecks,  or  fragments,  of  four  only  remain:  viz.  a 
part  of  an  effigy,  or  statue,  representing  the  human  body  in  an  emaciated 
state,  which  formed  a  portion  of  a  large  monument,  raised  to  the  memory 
of  Dean  Hey  wood,  who  died  in  1492,  and  who  had  been  a  liberal  bene- 
factor to  the  church.  The  tomb  was  battered  down  in  the  time  of  the 
civil  wars,  but  an  idea  of  its  character  may  be  formed  by  a  print  in  Shaw's 
Staffordshire,  from  Dugdale's  "  Visitation." 

A  mutilated  effigy,  placed  in  the  wall  of  the  south  aile,  supposed  to 
represent  Captain  Stanley,  son  of  Sir  Humphrey  Stanley,  knight  of  the 
body  to  King  Henry  the  Seventh.  Pennant,  in  his  "  Tour  from  Chester  to 
London,"  says  that  Captain  Stanley  was  excommunicated,  but  was  allowed 
to  receive  funeral  rites,  in  holy  ground,  having  evinced  signs  of  repentance, 
on  condition  of  having  his  monument  distinguished  by  certain  marks  of 
disgrace. 

In  the  south  aile  of  the  choir  are  two  broken  effigies,  in  purbeck  marble, 
of  prelates,  said  to  commemorate  Bishops  Langton  and  Pateshulle.  These 
are  shown  in  Plate  XVI.  but  not  in  the  situation  in  which  they  are  now 
placed.  Gough,  in  "  Sepulchral  Monuments,"  vol.  i.  part  2,  has  given  a 
plate  of  these  figures,  from  drawings  by  J.  Carter,  and  relates  some  particu- 
lars of  Langton,  p.  84.  The  former  effigy  has  been  finely  executed,  and 
had  some  peculiarities  in  design. 

In  the  south  wall  of  the  nave  are  parts  of  tivo  monumental  effigies, 
singularly  placed  in  square  holes,  and  showing  only  the  heads  and  lower 
parts  of  the  figures,  whilst  the  bodies,  or  intermediate  parts,  are  either 
concealed  iu  the  wall,  or  were  never  formed.  They  are  said  to  represent 
two  old  canons  of  the  church;  and  are  evidently  of  antient  date,  as  they 
appear  to  have  been  placed  in  the  present  situation  at  the  time  of  building, 
or  finishing  the  nave. 

The  monuments  erected  since  the  restoration  of  Charles  the  Second  are 

1  See  also  Abingdon's  "  Antiquities  of  Worcester,  with  the  Antiquities  of  Lichfield,"  8vo.  1723. 


MONUMENTS.  47 

numerous ;  and  some  of  them  commemorate  persons  of  the  first  celebrity, 
while  others  attest  the  domestic  virtues  of  individuals  whose  lives  were 
confined  to  a  more  limited  sphere  of  action.  Few  of  them,  however,  are 
remarkable  for  any  particular  excellence  in  design  or  execution. 

In  the  south  aile  of  the  choir  is  a  table  monument,  sustaining  an  effigy  of 
Bishop  Hacltet,  who  died  October  21,  1670.  It  is  placed  beneath  a  win- 
dow, the  soffit  of  which  is  ornamented  with  a  profusion  of  sculptured 
foliage.  On  the  face  of  the  tomb  is  an  interesting,  well  written  Latin  in- 
scription, eulogizing  his  merits,  and  recording  his  preferments;  and  stating 
that  the  whole  was  executed  by  the  direction  of  Sir  Andrew  Hacket, 
Knight,  the  son  of  the  bishop. 

At  the  western  end  of  the  north  aile  of  the  choir,  is  a  marble  figure  of  a 
female,  to  the  memory  of  Lady  Mary  Worthy  Montagu,  with  an  inscrip- 
tion recording  her  philanthropic  exertions  in  the  introduction  of  inocula- 
tion for  the  small  pox  into  this  country;  by  which  that  fatal  disease  has 
for  nearly  a  century  been  checked  in  its  destructive  career.  Lady  Mary 
was  born  at  Lichfield,  and,  whatever  were  the  faults  or  follies  of  her  private 
life,  her  benevolent  character  and  eminent  literary  talents  will  always 
render  her  memory  dear  to  her  native  city.  "  Her  letters,"  says  Smollett, 
"  will  be  an  immortal  monument  to  her  memory,  and  will  show,  as  long  as 
the  English  language  endures,  the  sprightliness  of  her  wit,  the  solidity  of 
her  judgment,  the  elegance  of  her  taste,  and  the  excellence  of  her  real 
character." 

Against  the  west  wall  of  the  north  transept  is  a  marble  monument,  with 
a  statue  in  relief  of  a  female,  by  R.  Westmacott,  with  a  simple  and  affect- 
ing inscription  to  the  memory  of  Mrs.  Buckeridge,  wife  of  the  Rev.  Charles 
Buckeridge. 

In  the  east  aile  of  the  south  transept,  (called  the  Dean's  Consistory 
Court)  is  a  bust  of  Dr.  Samuel  Johnson,  a  native  of  this  city,  whose  name 
and  memory  are  commemorated  by  the  inscription,  written  by  the  doctor's 
friends,  "  as  a  tribute  of  respect  to  the  memory  of  a  man  of  extensive 
learning,  a  distinguished  moral  writer,  and  a  sincere  Christian."  Had  all 
the  admirers  of  Johnson  been   content   with   this  moderate  and  justly 


48  LICHFIELD  CATHEDRAL. 

merited  praise,  his  weaknesses  would  never  have  been  drawn  iuto  that 
public  notoriety,  which  makes  the  present  generation  hesitate  to  rank 
him  with  the  truly  great.  In  early  life,  Johnson  attempted  to  establish  a 
school  at  Lichfield,  for  preparing  gentlemen  for  the  universities.  Of  his 
three  pupils,  David  Garrick  was  one ;  and,  after  a  short  probation,  the 
master  and  the  scholar  migrated  together  to  the  metropolis,  in  search  of 
more  congeuial  pursuits.  This  journey  ultimately  led  the  way  to  fame  and 
fortune  for  the  latter,  and  literary  fame  to  the  former.  Their  friendship 
was  only  terminated  by  death.  Mrs.  Garrick  erected  a  cenotaph,  after  a 
design  by  James  Wyatt,  to  her  husband,  near  that  of  Dr.  Johnson,  with 
a  bust  by  AVestmacott. 

A  fine  marble  monument  with  figures,  by  R.  Westmacott,  R.  A.  adjoin- 
ing, attests  the  extensive  charities  of  Andrew  Newton,  Esq.  a  native  of 
Lichfield,  who  founded  a  noble  institution  in  the  Close  for  the  widows  and 
orphans  of  clergymen,  by  a  donatiou  of  twenty  thousand  pounds  in  his  life 
time,  and  a  testamentary  bequest  to  the  same  amount.  Mr.  Newton  died 
January  14,  1806,  aged  77. 

In  a  recess  of  the  north  transept,  against  the  aile  of  the  choir,  is  a 
handsome  monument,  designed  and  executed  by  Mr.  Bacon,  jun.  in  1813. 
It  was  erected  by  order  of  Miss  Ann  Seicard,  who  died  March  25,  1809, 
aged  66,  to  the  respective  memories  of  her  father,  mother,  and  sister2.  A 
female  figure,  intended  to  personify  filial  piety,  is  represented  as  weeping 

■  The  Rev.  Thomas  Seward,  father  of  Miss  Seward,  was  a  prebendary  of  Salisbury,  a  canon 
residentiary  of  Lichfield  Cathedral,  and  rector  of  Eyam,  in  Derbyshire.  He  was  a  poet,  as 
may  be  seen  in  Dodsley's  collection,  and  also  edited  an  edition  of  Beaumont  and  Fletcher's 
plays  in  1750.  The  poetical  and  epistolary  talents  of  Miss  Seward  are  rendered  familiar  to  the 
general  reader  by  an  edition  of  her  Poems,  in  3  vols,  with  a  biographical  preface  by  Walter 
Scott,  Esq.;  and  of  her  LetUrs,  in  6  vols.  The  former  she  bequeathed  to  the  accomplished  and 
cxhaustless  author  of  "  Marmion,"  Ac.  &c.  and  the  latter  to  Mr.  Constable,  of  Edinburgh. 
Whilst  the  Poems  manifest  considerable  fancy  and  facility  at  versification,  the  Letters  at  once 
characterize  the  benevolence,  weakness,  and  vanity  of  the  writer.  Rhodes,  in  his  interesting 
work  on  the  "  Peak  Scenery  of  Derbyshire," happily  remarks,  "  A  fire  that  sparkles  and  dazzles, 
but  warms  not,  pervades  the  productions  of  Miss  Seward  and  Dr.  Darwin  ;  pictures  for  the  eye, 
and  not  the  mind,  crowd  on  their  respective  canvasses,  and  towards  the  close  of  their  intimate 
connexion  there  was  a  marvellous  assimilation  of  style  and  construction  of  their  verse." 


MONUMENTS.  49 

over  a  tomb,   Avhile  her  harp  hangs  on  a  willow.     The  inscription,  by 
Mr.  Scott,  concludes  thus, 

"  Honour'd,  belov'd,  and  mourn'd,  here  Seward  lies ; 
Her  worth,  her  warmth  of  heart,  our  sorrows  say, — 
Go  seek  her  genius  in  her  living  lay." 

In  the  nave  and  its  ailes,  and  in  the  transepts,  are  many  mural  tablets, 
among  which  is  a  large  slab  of  marble,  placed  on  the  north  side  of  the 
west  door,  to  the  memory  of  Dean  Addison,  who  died  1703,  aged  71. 
Against  the  same  wall  is  an  inscription  to  Gilbert  Walmesley,  Esq.  who 
died  August  3,  1751,  aged  71 :  he  was  registrar  of  the  ecclesiastical  court 
at  Lichfield ;  and  of  his  learning  and  abilities  Dr.  Johnson  has  passed  a  very 
high  encomium,  in  his  life  of  Smith3.  A  plain  tablet  records  the  decease 
of  Richard  Smallbrooke,  D.  D.  "  who  was  consecrated  Bishop  of  St. 
David's,  February  2,  1723 ;  confirmed  bishop  of  this  diocese,  February  20, 
1730,  and  died  December  22,  1749,  aged  77." 

Against  the  west  wall  of  the  north  transept  is  a  mural  slab,  inscribed  to 
the  memory  of  the  Rev.  Wm.  Vyse,  LL.D.  Chancellor  of  the  diocess  of 
Lichfield  and  Coventry,  &c.  who  died  February  20,  1816,  aged  75. 

At  the  eastern  extremity  of  the  south  aile  is  a  modern  monument, 
which  justly  attracts  the  attention  and  admiration  of  all  visitors.  Though 
it  be  not  the  chief  province  of  this  work  to  animadvert  on  the  produc- 
tions of  living  artists,  yet  the  present  subject  has  such  imperious  claims 
on  the  critic  and  historian,  that  they  would  neglect  their  duty,  were 
they  to  pass  it  without  comment  and  without  praise.  It  is  a  small  tomb, 
raised  to  commemorate  the  guileless  characters  and  elegant  forms  of 
two  female  children  of  the  Rev.  W.  Robinson,  and  Ellen  Jane,  his 
widow.  This  memorial  may  be  regarded  as  original  in  design,  and 
tasteful  in  execution  ;  and,  as  calculated  to  commence  a  new  era  in  our 
national  monumental  sculpture,  must  be  viewed  with  exultation  by  every 
real  lover  of  art.     From  the  demise  of  Henry  the  Eighth  to  the  beginning 

3  See  ante,  p.  2. 


50  LICHFIELD  CATHEDRAL. 

of  the  present  century,  the  sculpture  of  this  country  has  rarely  presented  any 
thing  admirable  or  excellent.  It  has  either  exhibited  a  vulgar  imitation  of 
vulgar  life,  in  monstrous  costume,  or  tasteless  copies  of  Greek  and  Roman 
models.  The  present  age,  however,  is  likely  to  acquire  a  better,  and  indeed 
a  good  character,  and  prove  to  surrounding  nations,  that  while  Britain  is 
justly  renowned  for  science,  commerce,  and  arms,  she  boldly  and  confi- 
dently prefers  a  claim  to  competition  with  former  ages  in  her  artists.  Some 
departments  have  certainly  failed,  either  for  want  of  talents  or  for  want 
of  patronage ;  but  the  sculptor  is  now  publicly  employed  and  publicly 
rewarded :  and  if  something  truly  English,  original,  and  interesting  is  not 
produced,  we  shall  still  have  cause  to  attribute  the  failure  to  the  ungenial 
climate  of  Britain,  or  the  want  of  talents  in  our  countrymen.  In  traversing 
the  abbey  church  of  Westminster,  and  that  of  St.  Paul's,  we  look  in  vain  for 
tasteful  and  apposite  English  sculpture.  Almost  every  subject  is  disfigured 
by  unintelligible  emblems,  mythology,  and  allegory;  and  crowded  with  lions, 
fames,  and  angels.  It  is  time  this  incongruity  of  composition,  this  viola- 
tion of  taste,  be  avoided,  and  that  a  little  of  nature,  of  Shakspeare,  and  of 
England,  be  substituted  in  the  place. 

To  appreciate  Mr.  Chantrey's  monument  fully  and  justly,  we  should 
inquire  what  has  been  effected  by  the  sculptor;  what  is  usually  done,  and 
what  the  art  is  susceptible  of.  The  Egyptians,  Greeks,  and  Romans  have 
certainly  left  behind  them  many  works  of  peculiar  beauty  and  excellence; 
they  have  also  bequeathed  to  us  many  pieces  of  inferior  workmanship.  In 
the  former  we  readily  perceive  their  reference  to  nature  as  a  prototype ; 
and  in  the  latter,  the  presumptions  of  art.  It  is  thus  with  sculptors  of  the 
present  age :  most  of  them  are  wholly  educated  in  the  school  of  art — 
in  studying  and  copying  from  the  antique  ;  whereas  the  greatest  masters  of 
the  old  world  sought  beauty  of  form  and  truth  of  expression  in  the  inimit- 
able and  diversified  face  of  nature.  Hers  is  an  unerring  and  unmannered 
school :  it  is  untrammelled  by  laws  and  regulations  ;  every  student  may 
readily  obtain  admission  into  it,  and  freely  pursue  the  bent  and  energy  of  his 
genius.  From  this  school  arose  the  artist  who  executed  the  monument 
now  under  notice:  he  looked  at  living  models  and  English  forms  for  proto- 


chantrey's  sculpture.  51 

types;  and  has  skilfully  extracted  from  the  shapeless  marble  the  resem- 
blance of  two  pleasing  female  figures.  These,  however,  are  not  common- 
place forms,  nor  imitations  of  Vennses,  Graces,  or  Hebes ; — but  they 
faithfully  and  feelingly  resemble  the  persons  of  young  and  lovely  maidens. 
These  are  represented  as  lying  on  a  couch;  the  head  of  the  eldest  impress- 
ing the  downy  pillow,  and  that  of  the  youngest  reclining  on  the  other's 
bosom.  One  of  its  arms  is  beneath  her  sister's  head,  and  the  other  extends 
over  the  body.  In  one  hand  is  a  bunch  of  snow-drops,  the  blossoms  of 
which  are  apparently  just  broken  off,  but  not  withered.  The  faces  of  both 
incline  towards  each  other  with  apparent  affection — the  eyelids  are  closed, 
and  every  muscle  seems  lulled  into  still  and  serene  sleep :  all  the  other 
bodily  members  partake  of  the  same  serenity  and  repose.  The  arms  and 
the  legs,  the  fingers,  and  the  very  toes,  are  all  alike  equally  slumbering :  the 
drapery  is  also  smooth  and  unruffled,  and  is  strictly  in  unison  and  in  harmony 
with  every  other  part  of  the  design.  The  whole  expression  seems  to 
induce  silence,  caution,  and  almost  breathless  solicitude  in  the  observer. 
A  fascinating  and  pathetic  sympathy  is  excited;  at  least  these  were  the 
effects  and  sentiments  produced  on  myself  in  contemplating  it  alone,  and 
towards  the  close  of  day.  Analyzing  it  as  a  work  of  art,  and  endeavouring 
to  estimate  its  claims  to  novelty,  beauty,  and  excellence,  I  must  own 
that  all  my  powers  of  criticism  were  subdued  by  the  more  impressive 
impulses  of  the  heart.  With  these  sensations,  and  with  mingled  emotions 
of  admiration  at  the  powerful  effects  of  English  art,  and  the  appeals  to 
nature  through  this  medium,  I  was  turning  away  from  the  pleasing 
group,  when  the  plaintive  song  of  a  robin,  which  had  perched  in  the 
adjoining  window,  diverted  the  train  of  reflection,  but  touched  another 
chord  of  the  heart,  which  vibrated  in  perfect  harmony4. 

Painted  Windoivs. — The  magnificent  display  of  stained  glass  which  dis- 
tinguishes this  cathedral,  cannot  fail  to  attract  the  admiration  of  the  spec- 
tator.    Seven  of  the  principal  windows  at  the  east  end  are  enriched  with 

4  If  the  fastidious  critic  examines  these  remarks  with  a  wish  to  find  fault  with  either  the  senti- 
ment or  language,  I  have  only  to  observe,  in  explanation,  that  they  were  penned  in  Lichfield 
Church,  on  a  fine  summer  evening,  and  with  the  monument  immediately  before  me. 

G 


52  LICHFIELD  CATHEDRAL. 

verv  fine  specimens  of  this  exquisite  species  of  decoration.  Five  of  the  win- 
dows are  filled  with  scriptural  designs,  but  one  on  the  north  side  contains 
several  portraits  aud  legendary  subjects.  They  are  supposed  to  be  executed 
from  designs  of  Italian  and  Flemish  masters.  In  the  first  compartment  of 
the  north-east  window,  the  Annunciation  to  the  Virgin  and  her  visit  to 
Elizabeth  are  represented  ;  above  this  are  two  compartments,  representing 
"  Jesus  crowned  with  thorns,  derided,  and  beaten,"  and  "  Jesus  scourged." 
The  east  window,  over  the  altar-piece,  presents  two  appropriate  subjects, 
"  Jesus  with  the  two  disciples  at  Emmaus,"  and  the  Ascension.  In  these 
pieces  the  figures  are  of  a  large  size,  and  are  finely  designed  and  drawn; 
the  faces  in  the  Ascension  are  touched  with  peculiar  force  and  spirit.  The 
south-east  window  contains  three  compartments,  enriched  with  the  follow- 
ing subjects,  1.  "Jesus  washes  his  disciples  feet,  and  then  takes  the  pascal 
supper  with  them."  "  Judas  Iscariot  goes  out  to  betray  him,"  (John  xiii. 
4 — 0.)  2.  "  Jesus  enters  into  Jerusalem,  and  afterwards  the  Greeks  are 
brought  to  him,"  (Mark  xi.  7 — 9.);  and  3.  "  Jesus  betrayed  by  Judas,"  (Luke 
xxii.  51.)  The  glass  of  these  pictures  has  suffered  some  injury  from  the 
attacks  of  time  and  weather,  but  the  parts  which  remain  perfect  are  very  fine. 
The  first  window  ou  the  south  side  from  the  east  end,  contains  three  subjects, 
viz.  1.  "The  Last  Judgment;"  2.  "  The  Descent  of  the  Holy  Ghost  upon  the 
Apostles;"  and,  3.  "The  Incredulity  of  Thomas,  reproved."  These  are  justly 
admired  for  composition  and  execution.  The  next  window,  on  the  same  side, 
is  divided  into  four  compartments,  which  are  embellished  with  1.  "  Pontius 
Pilate  delivering  Christ  to  be  crucified,"  (Mat.  xxvii.  24 — 27.)  2.  "Jesus 
going  forth  to  Crucifixion,"  (John  xix.  17.)  3.  "  The  Descent  from  the  Cross," 
(John  xix.  38,  40.)  and,  4.  "  The  Resurrection  of  Christ,"  (Mat.  xxviii.  4.) 
All  these  are  rich  in  architectural  ornaments,  and  executed  after  designs  of 
considerable  excellence.  The  two  easterly  windows,  on  the  north  side,  are 
filled  with  portraits  of  distinguished  characters  connected  with  the  abbey  of 
Herckenrode.  Among  them  are  said  to  be  Matilda  de  Lechy,  or  Lexy, 
abbess  of  Herckenrode,  in  1532.  St.  Bernard,  who  was  abbot  of  Clairval 
in  the  twelfth  century  ;  Humberlina,  his  sister,  and  the  Emperor  Lotharius 
the  Second.     In  the  larger  window  are  Cardinal  Evrard,  or  Erard  de  la 


PAINTED  GLASS.  53 

Marck,  enthroned  Prince  Bishop  of  Liege,  in  1505 ;  Floris,  Count  Egmont; 
Maximilian,  Count  Egmont;  John,  Count  Horn,  and  his  Lady  Anne. 
These  portraits,  with  many  shields  of  arms,  are  richly  emblazoned. 

The  westerly,  or  episcopal  window,  on  the  south  side,  contains  the 
armorial  bearings  of  the  Bishops  of  Lichfield  and  Coventry,  from  the  period 
of  the  Reformation  to  the  present  time,  impaled  with  the  arms  of  the  see 
over  which  each  prelate  presided  at  the  time  of  his  death.  This  heraldic 
window  was  executed  under  the  direction,  and  in  part  from  the  designs, 
of  the  Rev.  W.  G.  Rowland,  of  Shrewsbury,  prebendary  of  Curborough, 
by  Sir  John  Betton,  of  the  same  place.  The  expense  amounted  to  £226, 
of  which  the  Hon.  and  Right  Rev.  James  Cornwallis,  the  present  bishop, 
most  liberally  contributed  £163.  The  westerly  window,  on  the  north 
side,  or  prebendal  window,  is  divided  into  three  columns  j  the  first  contain- 
ing the  arms  of  the  deans  aud  residentiaries,  and  the  second  and  third 
those  of  the  prebendaries,  who  were  possessed  of  stalls  during  the  time  this 
window  was  under  the  hands  of  the  respective  artists,  i.  e.  from  1806 
to  1808  inclusive. 

In  one  compartment  of  a  window  in  the  South  Aile  of  the  Choir,  is  the 
portrait  of  a  knight  worshipping,  supported  by  St.  Hubert,  the  patron  of 
hunters.  Another  compartment  contains  the  armorial  bearings  of  the  same 
knight;  and  between  those  compartments  is  a  beautiful  picture  of  a  dead 
Christ,  lying  in  the  arms  of  a  venerable  old  man  ;  a  dove,  encircled  with 
celestial  glories,  hovers  near;  the  whole  is  intended  to  symbolize  the 
sacred  Trinity. 

The  Window  at  the  extremity  of  the  North  Aile  presents  figures  of  a 
knight  and  his  lady,  between  whom  is  St.  Christopher,  with  the  infant 
Jesus.  In  that  of  the  Deans  Consistory  Court  is  seen  Mary  Magdalen, 
embracing  the  cross  upon  Mount  Calvary. 

It  is  to  be  regretted  that  no  historical  information  on  the  subject  of  these 
fine  productions  of  the  art  of  glass-staining,  was  ever  obtained  from  the 
abbey  of  Herckenrode5. 

5  The  foregoing  account  is  abridged  from  a  very  useful  and  well  written  pamphlet,  entitled 
'-'  A  short  Account  of  Lichfield  Cathedral,  more  particularly  of  the  Painted  Glass,"  &c.  Lich- 
field, 2d  edit.  1818. 


54  LICHFIELD  CATHEDRAL. 

The  great  Window  of  the  North  Transept  is  decorated  with  stained  glass, 
presented  by  the  very  Rev.  Dr.  Woodhouse,  the  present  dean.  The  prin- 
cipal founders  and  patrons  of  this  cathedral  are  here  represented  standing 
on  pedestals,  under  lofty  canopies  of  tabernacle-work ;  viz.  Oswy,  King  of 
Northumberland;  St.  Ceadda;  Offa,  King  of  Mercia;  King  Stephen; 
Roger  de  Clinton ;  King  Richard  I. ;  King  John  ;  Walter  de  Langton ;  and 
the  worthy  Bishop  Hackett.  The  original  designs  for  this  window  were 
made  by  John  James  Halls,  Esq.;  the  architectural  ornameuts  by  the  Rev. 
W.  G.  Rowland,  and  the  glass  is  painted  by  Sir  John  Betton.  The  same 
artists  are  now  engaged  on  a  corresponding  decoration  for  the  great  window 
of  the  south  transept,  exhibiting  eighteen  figures  of  the  most  distinguished 
characters  and  inspired  writers  in  the  Old  and  New  Testament. 

The  great  Western  Window  was  restored  by  King  James  II.  when  Duke 
of  York,  whose  arms  are  seeu  in  the  centre.  It  was  afterwards  filled  with 
painted  glass,  the  work  of  Brookes,  by  the  legacy  of  Dr.  Addenbroke, 
who  died  dean  of  this  Cathedral,  in  1776. 


BIOGRAPHICAL  ANECDOTES  OF  THE  BISHOPS   OF  LICHFIELD  AND  COVENTRY. 


The  preceding  chapters  comprise  notices  of  those  bishops  of  Lichfield, 
who  are  more  immediately  connected  with  the  structure  of  the  cathedral. 
Several  of  the  prelates  who  have  thus  been  mentioned,  were  among  the 
most  conspicuous  characters  of  their  times ;  while  the  names  of  others, 
to  whose  pastoral  care  this  diocess  has  successively  devolved,  though  little 
distinguished  in  its  local  and  particular  history,  are  associated  with  remi- 
niscences of  historical,  literary,  and  moral  interest.  To  preserve  and  dis- 
seminate a  few  anecdotes  of  these  is  the  object  of  the  present  chapter. 

The  devotion  and  sanctity  of  Ceadda,  and  the  superstition  of  his  votaries 
have  had  their  full  share  of  notice,  and  leave  nothing  material  to  be  related 
of  the  other  Saxon  bishops.  With  respect  to  their  successors,  under  the 
Norman  dynasty,  having  noticed  the  rapacity  of  De  Lymesey  arid  the 
munificence  of  De  Clinton,  we  proceed  to  a  signal  instance  of  the  tyranny 
and  avarice  of  Richard  I.  in  his  conduct  to  Bishop  Hugh  de  Nonant. 
This  prelate  had  the  misfortune  to  be  brother  to  Robert  de  Nonant,  who 
was  implicated  in  the  measures  of  John,  Earl  of  Morton  (afterwards  king) 
for  prolonging  the  imprisonment  of  Richard.  When  the  latter  obtained 
his  freedom,  he  immured  Robert  de  Nonant  for  life,  in  the  castle  of  Dover, 
and  after  depriving  Hugh  of  his  bishopric,  banished  him  from  England. 
The  prelate  was  afterwards  allowed  to  purchase  restitution  to  his  dignity, 
at  the  price  of  five  thousand  marks;  but  could  never  regain  the  royal 
favour1.      It  is  obvious  that  blame  must  attach  to  the  monarch  in  this 

1  Anglia  Sacra,  pars  i.  p.  436. 


56 


LICHFIELD  CATHEDRAL. 


transaction.  If  the  bishop  was  a  traitor,  he  was  unfit  for  the  ecclesiastical 
dignity;  and  the  money  obtained  from  him  was  an  infamous  extortion.  If 
he  was  innocent,  the  king's  conduct  was  wholly  inexcusable.  The  death 
of  the  bishop,  as  related  by  Giraldus,  affords  a  remarkable  instance  of  the 
spurious  piety  of  the  age,  which  consisted  almost  entirely  in  watching, 
fasting,  corporeal  discipline,  and  other  outward  austerities.  Some  authors 
affirm  that  this  bishop  repented  deeply  of  his  former  severity  towards  the 
monks;  but  Giraldus  says  nothing  on  the  subject;  and  it  is  probably  a 
fabrication. 

Alexander  de  Stavenby,  or  Savensby,  was  more  fortunate  under  si- 
milar suspicions  in  the  reign  of  Henry  III.  Being  suspected  as  an  accom- 
plice in  the  ambitious  schemes  of  the  Earl  Marshall,  he  solemnly  passed 
sentence  of  excommunication  against  all  persons  who  entertained  any  trea- 
sonable designs ;  and  this  proceeding  served  materially  to  ingratiate  him 
with  the  king2. 

Walter  de  Langton  has  already  been  noticed  as  one  of  the  chief  be- 
nefactors to  Lichfield  Cathedral.  In  the  reign  of  Edward  I.,  he  was  High- 
Treasurer  of  England ;  and  enjoyed  the  esteem  and  confidence  of  that 
monarch.  But  the  dissolute  heir  apparent  (afterwards  Edward  II.)  became 
his  inveterate  enemy.  The  worthy  bishop  had  endeavoured  to  restrain  the 
boundless  prodigality  of  that  prince,  and  had  censured  the  profligacy  of  his 
manners:  these  were  offences  which  the  degenerate  prince  was  incapable  of 
forgetting,  and  he  employed  the  basest  means  to  obtain  revenge.  A  false 
accusation  was  preferred  against  the  bishop,  through  which  he  not  only 
lost  the  king's  favour,  and  the  office  of  treasurer,  but  was  put  to  immense 
expense  in  defending  himself  at  the  court  of  Rome,  where  charges  against 
rich  bishops  were  eagerly  encouraged*.  The  cause  was  referred  to  the 
Archbishop  of  Canterbury,  by  whom  Langton  was  acquitted.  He  re- 
gained the  king's  favour,  and  was  reinstated  in  his  offices.     In  his  conduct 


2  Godwin,  de  Praesulibus  Angliae,  p.  316. 

3  They  knew  him  to  be  a  particularly  fat  Ox  :  Noverant  ipsum  prae  multis  bovem  valde  pin- 
guem.     Matt.  Westm. 


BISHOPS  LANGTON,  STRETTON,  AND  SCROPE.  57 

towards  the  prince,  he  persevered  fearlessly  and  inflexibly;  and  particu- 
larly reprehended  his  equivocal  connexion  with  Piers  Gaveston.  On  the 
death  of  Edward  I.,  who  evinced  his  esteem  for  Langton  by  appointing 
him  his  executor,  the  infamous  Gaveston  was  recalled  from  exile,  and  he 
soon  obtained  from  the  new  king  an  opportunity  of  indulging  his  resent- 
ment against  the  bishop.  The  latter  was  imprisoned,  deprived  of  his 
offices  and  goods,  and  compelled  to  answer  fabricated  charges,  impeaching 
both  his  ecclesiastical  and  civil  administration,  and  supported  by  suborned 
witnesses.  Although  he  was  never  convicted  on  any  of  these  prosecutions, 
he  did  not  obtain  his  freedom  for  several  years.  Yet.  after  his  restoration 
to  liberty  and  his  bishopric,  when  the  nobility  and  clergy  of  the  realm 
combined  against  the  favourite  Gaveston,  and  demanded  his  punishment, 
the  Bishop  of  Lichfield  alone  refused  to  join  in  their  declarations.  This 
instance  of  liberality  and  loyalty  overcame  the  animosity  of  Edward.  He 
restored  the  bishop  to  the  office  of  treasurer,  which  he  enjoyed  in  tran- 
quillity to  the  time  of  his  death. 

Robert  Stretton,  chaplain  to  Edward  the  Black  Prince,  was,  through 
the  interest  of  his  royal  patron,  consecrated  bishop  of  this  see  in  1360. 
This  man  was  so  grossly  illiterate,  that  another  person  was  obliged  to  read 
his  profession  of  obedience,  because  he  himself  could  not  read4. 

Bishop  Scrope's  name  is  distinguished  in  English  history  on  account  of 
the  share  he  took  in  the  unfortunate  insurrection  against  Henry  IV.  This 
event  happened  after  his  translation  to  York.  He  was  beheaded  in  1405  ; 
and  from  the  justice  of  the  cause  for  which  he  suffered,  his  fortitude,  and 
piety,  he  was  long  revered  as  a  martyr.  From  his  time  to  that  of  Bishop 
Rowland  Lee,  nothing  particularly  interesting  appears  relative  to  the 
Bishops  of  Lichfield.  The  latter  prelate  solemnized  the  marriage  of  King 
Henry  VIII.  with  Ann  Boleyn,  in  the  nunnery  of  Sopewell,  near  St. 
Alban's.  He  was  appointed  to  this  see  in  1534,  and  soon  afterwards  became 
President  of  Wales,  which  principality  was,  during  his  administration,  in- 
corporated with  England.     The  establishment  of  the  see  of  Chester,  and 

*  Godwin,  de  Praesul.  Angl.  p.  320. 


58  LICHFIELD  CATHEDRAL. 

consequent  reduction  of  the  limits  of  this  diocess,  which  happened  in  this 
bishop's  time,  have  already  been  noticed.  During  the  establishment  of 
the  reformed  religion,  he  had  the  mortification  to  see  his  noble  Cathedral 
of  Coventry  entirely  destroyed,  notwithstanding  his  earnest  remonstrances. 

Bishop  Sampson,  his  successor,  was  compelled  by  King  Henry  VIII.  to 
alienate  many  manors  belonging  to  this  see,  in  exchange  for  impropriations 
of  inadequate  value.  He  was  confined  for  some  time  in  the  Tower  of 
London,  on  a  charge  of  affording  pecuniary  assistance  to  some  persons 
who  had  been  imprisoned  for  questioning  the  king's  supremacy. 

The  succeeding  prelate,  Ralph  Bayne,  was  one  of  the  furious  partizans 
who  excited  and  directed  the  sanguinary  zeal  of  Queen  Mary.  Two 
women  are  named  by  Fuller  as  among  the  numerous  victims  of  his  cruelty. 
On  the  accession  of  Elizabeth,  he  refused  to  administer  the  sacrament  to 
her,  by  which  refusal,  according  to  act  of  Parliament,  he  was  ipso  facto 
deprived  of  his  episcopacy.  He  died  soon  afterwards  of  the  stone,  at 
Islington,  and  was  succeeded  by  Thomas  Bentham.  On  the  accession 
of  Mary  this  prelate  was  ejected  from  his  fellowship  at  Magdalen  Col- 
lege, on  account  of  his  adherence  to  the  reformed  church;  and  retiring 
to  Zurich  and  afterwards  to  Basil,  became  an  eminent  preacher  among  the 
English  exiles.  He  returned  when  the  Protestant  interest  again  triumphed, 
and  was  promoted  by  Queen  Elizabeth  to  this  see. 

George  Abbot,  elected  in  1G09,  continued  but  one  year  in  this  see, 
whence  he  was  translated  to  London;  and  almost  immediately  afterwards 
to  Canterbury.  He  was  a  man  of  mild  temper  and  moderation,  and  has 
therefore  been  represented  by  the  court  writers  as  wholly  unfit  for  support- 
ing the  dignity  and  security  of  the  established  church  in  those  turbulent 
times  of  sectarian  faction5. 

Richard  Neile,  or  Neyle,  Bishop  of  Rochester,  succeeded  Bishop 
Abbot  in  this  see.  He  was  high  in  favour  with  James  I.  in  whose  Armi- 
nian  principles  he  participated.  He  became  particularly  severe  against 
the  rigid  Calvinists,  and,  while  bishop  of  this  see,  condemned  one  of  them 

5  Le  Neve's  Account  of  Protestant  Bishops,  vol.  i.  p.  89. 


BISHOPS  MORTON,  FREWEN,  AND  HACKET.  59 

to  the  flames.  On  the  13th  of  June,  1629,  the  Commons  voted  "  that  Dr. 
Neile  (then)  Bishop  of  Winchester,  and  Dr.  Laud,  Bishop  of  Bath  and 
Wells,  be  named  to  be  those  near  and  about  the  king  who  are  suspected 
to  be  Arminians  ;  and  that  they  are  justly  suspected  to  be  unsound  in  their 
opinions  that  way."  Soon  afterwards  Bishop  Neile  was  accused  by  Oliver 
Cromwell  of  countenancing  some  popish  divines.  But,  notwithstanding 
these  accusations,  he  was  afterwards  elevated  to  the  dignity  of  Archbishop 
of  York6. 

Thomas  Morton,  Bishop  of  Chester,  was  translated  to  this  see  in  1618. 
In  the  reign  of  Elizabeth,  he  was  chaplain  to  Lord  Huntingdon,  Lord 
President  of  the  North,  and  in  that  capacity  became  celebrated  for  his 
zeal  and  acuteness  in  disputation  with  the  Popish  recusants.  He  presided 
over  this  diocess  till  the  year  1632,  when  he  was  translated  to  the  bishopric 
of  Durham.  The  famous  impostor,  commonly  called  "  the  boy  of  Bilson," 
was  detected,  in  1644,  by  the  keen  penetration  of  this  prelate,  after  baffling 
the  investigations  of  many  eminent  persons. 

Accepted  Frewen  was  next  consecrated  to  this  see,  but  on  account  of 
the  civil  commotions  and  revolution  which  ensued,  lived  in  retirement  with 
Charles  II.  till  the  restoration  of  monarchy  and  episcopacy. 

The  name  of  the  succeeding  bishop,  John  Hacket,  is  justly  famous  in 
the  history  of  Lichfield,  as  the  great  restorer  of  the  cathedral.  He  was 
born  in  1592,  and  educated  at  Westminster  school,  whence  he  went  to 
Trinity  College,  Cambridge.  He  was  patronized  by  the  Lord  Keeper, 
Williams,  afterwards  Archbishop  of  York,  whose  life  he  wrote  at  great 
length,  from  a  grateful  wish  to  vindicate  the  memory  of  that  distinguished 
man  from  party  aspersions.  Hacket  was,  in  1640,  appointed  one  of  the  sub- 
committee for  settliug  the  peace  of  the  church,  and  spoke  eloquently  on 
that  occasion  at  the  bar  of  the  House  of  Commons.  When  the  use  of  the 
liturgy  was  prohibited  under  severe  penalties,  Hacket  continued  to  read  it 
in  his  church  of  St.  Andrew,  Holborn.  A  Serjeant,  with  a  file  of  men, 
was  sent  to  arrest  him  during  service,  and  ordered  him  to  desist  on  pain 

6  Le  Neve's  Protestant  Bishops,  p.  136.     See  "  History,  &c.  of  Winchester  Cathedral." 

H 


60  LICHFIELD  CATHEDRAL. 

of  instant  death.  "  Soldier,"  said  Hacket,  "  I  am  doing  my  duty,  do  you 
do  yours :"  and  intrepidly  continued  the  service,  unmolested  by  the 
soldiers,  who  were  overawed  by  his  firmness.  When  a  bishopric  was  first 
offered  to  him,  he  declined  it,  saying  "  he  had  rather  future  times  should 
ask  why  Dr.  Hacket  had  not  a  bishopric,  than  why  he  had  one."  Soon 
after  his  elevation  to  the  see  of  Lichfield,  he  received  a  visit  from  Christo- 
pher Corayns,  rector  of  Norbury,  in  Staffordshire.  This  gentleman  was 
noted  for  a  profane  expression,  which  he  frequently  used  before  the  Restora- 
tion, viz.  that  hell  was  paved  with  bishops'  skulls;  Dr.  Hacket  thus  good 
humouredly  addressed  him,  "  I  hear  you  have  often  said  that  hell  is  paved 
with  bishops'  skulls,  I  desire  you  to  tread  lightly  upon  mine  when  you 
come  there'!"  He  is  thus  described  by  Lord  Lyttleton,  in  his  Persian 
Letters:  "  In  the  first  place  he  resides  constantly  on  his  diocess,  and  has 
done  so  for  many  years;  he  asks  nothing  of  the  court  for  himself  and 
family ;  he  hoards  up  no  wealth  for  his  relations,  but  lays  out  the  revenues 
of  his  see  in  a  decent  hospitality,  and  a  charity  void  of  ostentation.  At 
his  first  entrance  into  the  world  he  distinguished  himself  by  a  zeal  for  the 
liberty  of  his  country,  and  had  a  considerable  share  in  bringing  on  the 
revolution  that  preserved  it.  His  principles  were  never  altered  by  his  pre- 
ferment ;  he  never  prostituted  his  pen,  nor  debased  his  character,  by  party 
disputes  or  blind  compliance.  Though  he  is  warmly  serious  in  the  belief 
of  his  religion,  he  is  moderate  to  all  who  differ  from  him ;  he  knows  no 
distinction  of  party,  but  extends  his  good  offices  alike  to  Whig  and  Tory ;  a 
friend  to  virtue  under  any  denomination;  an  enemy  to  vice  under  any 
colours.  His  health  and  old  age  are  the  effects  of  a  temperate  life  and 
quiet  conscience :  though  he  is  now  some  years  above  fourscore,  nobody 
ever  thought  he  lived  too  long,  unless  it  was  out  of  impatience  to  succeed 
him8." 

Thomas  Wood  and  William  Lloyd  were,  after  the  decease  of  Bishop 

'  This  anecdote,  it  is  believed,  has  never  before  been  printed.  It  is  taken  from  Loxdale's 
Staffordshire  Collections,  in  the  possession  of  Wm,  Hamper,  Esq.  of  Birmingham  ;  to  whom  the 
author  is  indebted  for  this  extract,  and  for  many  other  literary  favours. 

8  Vol.  i.  p.  309. 


BISHOPS  FROM  1688  TO  1774.  61 

Hacket,  successively  appointed  to  this  see;  the  latter  was  one  of  the  seven 
bishops  who  opposed  the  reading  of  the  paper  called  "  the  declaration 
for  liberty  of  conscience,"  for  which  they  were  committed  to  the  Tower  by 
James  II.  but  triumphantly  delivered  by  the  verdict  of  a  jury. 

Bishop  John  Hough  is  memorable  for  his  intrepid  resistance  to  the 
tyranny  and  bigotry  of  James  II.  The  presidentship  of  Magdalen  College, 
Oxford,  being  vacant,  the  king  issued  an  illegal  mandate,  requiring  the 
fellows  to  elect  Anthony  Farmer.  They  determined  to  resist  this  arbitrary 
encroachment,  and  after  proper  remonstrances,  proceeded  legally  and 
regularly  to  choose  Mr.  Hough.  He  was,  however,  forcibly  ejected  by 
the  king's  commissioners,  and  nearly  all  the  fellows  of  the  college  were 
expelled  in  consequence  of  their  refusal  to  submit  to  these  despotic  pro- 
ceedings. But  in  the  following  year,  1688,  the  abject  tyrant,  sensible  of 
his  impending  fall,  and  meanly  anxious  to  preserve  his  crown,  restored  Dr. 
Hough  and  the  fellows  who  had  been  deprived.  Soon  after  the  Revolution 
he  was  nominated  Bishop  of  Oxford,  and  in  1699  translated  hither9. 

Edward  Chandler  was  nominated  to  this  see  in  1717.  He  was  a 
prelate  of  great  erudition,  and  distinguished  himself  as  a  learned  and  able 
defender  of  Christianity  in  the  controversy  with  Collins,  the  champion  of 
the  Freethinkers.  His  successor,  Richard  Smallbrore,  was  also  distin- 
guished as  a  controversial  writer.  Besides  his  works  against  Dodwell  and 
Whiston,  he  published  a  "  Vindication  of  our  Saviour's  Miracles,  in 
Answer  to  the  Objections  of  Mr.  Woolston,"  London,  1729,  8vo.  He  died 
in  1749,  and  was  succeeded  by  Frederick  Cornwallis,  brother  of  the 
first  Earl  Cornwallis.  In  1768,  this  prelate  being  advanced  to  the  see  of 
Canterbury,  John  Egerton,  Bishop  of  Bangor,  was  translated  to  this  see, 
whence  he  was  appointed,  in  1771,  to  the  diocess  of  Durham.  He  was 
succeeded  by  the  Honourable  Brownlow  North,  brother  of  the  late  Lord 
North,  afterwards  Earl  of  Guildford.  In  1774,  this  prelate  was  translated 
to  Worcester,  and  afterwards  advanced  to  Winchester. 


9  His  life  has  been  published,  with  many  valuable  letters  and  documents,  by  John  Wilmot, 
Esq.  F.  R.  S.  and  F.  S.  A.   4to.  1812. 


62  LICHFIELD  CATHEDRAL. 

Richard  Hurd,  the  late  bishop  of  this  diocess,  was  an  eminent  literary 
character.  He  received  the  rudiments  of  his  education  at  Brewood 
grammar  school,  and  completed  it  at  Emanuel  College,  Cambridge.  Soon 
after- his  ordination  he  successively  produced  several  learned  critical 
works.  His  commentary  on  the  "  Ars  Poetica"  of  Horace,  in  which  he 
introduced  some  compliments  to  Mr.  Warburton,  procured  him  the  friend- 
ship of  that  author,  which  continued  during  their  lives,  and  materially 
affected  Mr.  Hurd's  opinions,  as  well  as  his  style  of  controversial  writing, 
which  became  truly  Warburtonian  in  its  asperity.  In  1756  he  was  entitled 
to  the  rectory  of  Thurcaston,  as  senior  fellow  of  Emauuel  College.  At 
this  living  he  long  resided,  and  there  continued  his  literary  labours.  In  1762, 
the  Lord  Chancellor  Northington  gave  him  the  sinecure  rectory  of  Folkton, 
near  Bridlington,  Yorkshire;  an  d  a  few  years  afterwards  he  became 
preacher  of  Lincolu's  Inn  and  Archdeacon  of  Gloucester.  In  1775, 
through  the  recommendation  of  Lord  Mansfield,  he  was  promoted  to  this 
bishopric.  In  the  following  year  he  was  appointed  preceptor  to  their 
Royal  Highnesses  the  Prince  of  Wales  and  the  Duke  of  York;  and,  in  1781, 
he  was  translated  to  the  see  of  Worcester.  On  the  death  of  Dr.  Corn- 
wallis,  in  1783,  the  Archbishopric  of  Canterbury  was  offered  to  Dr.  Hurd, 
which  he  declined,  on  account  of  the  political  distractions  of  the  times. 
He  died  on  the  28th  of  May,  1808,  in  his  89th  year.  In  1810  his  works 
were  published  in  8  volumes  8vo.  They  consist  of  criticism,  moral  and 
political  dialogues,  sermons,  and  controversial  tracts11. 

The  present  Bishop  of  Lichfield  and  Coventry,  the  Honourable  James 
Cornwallis,  LL.D.  third  son  of  Earl  Cornwallis,  was  educated  at  Eton, 
and  became  fellow  of  Merton  College,  Oxford.  He  was  chaplain  to  Marquis 
Townsend,  when  Lord  Lieutenant  of  Ireland  ;  Prebendary  of  Westmin- 
ster ;  Rector  of  Wrotham,  in  Kent;  and  of  Newington,  in  Oxfordshire.  In 
1775  he  was  made  Dean  of  Canterbury ;  and  succeeded  to  the  deanery  of 
Windsor  in  1791,  which,  in  1794,  he  exchanged  for  that  of  Durham. 

"  Life  of  Bishop  Hurd,  prefixed  to  his  works.  "  Letters  from  an  Eminent  Prelate  to  one  of 
his  Friends,"  i.  e.  Bishop  Warburton  to  Bishop  Hurd.  8vo.  1809. 


THE  DATES  AND  STYLES, 

Of  the  different  parts  of  the  cathedral,  though  not  ascertained  by  records 
or  historical  evidence,  may  be  inferred  from  what  has  been  adduced  in 
the  course  of  the  preceding  pages,  and  by  comparing  their  distinguishing 
features  with  corresponding  styles  in  other  buildings.  Bishop  de  Clinton 
is  generally  represented  to  be  the  founder  and  even  builder  of  the  greater 
part  of  the  present  church,  but  we  are  not  justified  in  attributing  any 
of  the  architectural  members  to  him,  or  to  his  prelacy.  The  oldest 
parts  are  the  lower  portions  of  the  transepts,  with  three  divisions  in  the 
ailes  of  the  choir,  the  vestry  (formerly  the  sacristy)  on  the  south  side,  and 
the  vestibule  and  chapter  house  on  the  north  side.  Though  these  were 
probably  commenced  by  De  Clinton,  they  certainly  were  not  far  advanced 
before  the  beginning  of  the  thirteenth  century  ;  as  the  arches,  columns, 
and  ornaments  correspond  in  forms,  &c.  with  many  parts  of  churches 
built  about  that  time.  We  shall  not  be  likely  to  err  in  assigning  them  to 
the  prelacies  of  Bishops  Nonant  and  Stavenby,  i.  e.  from  1188  to  1224. 
Soon  afterwards  the  choir  and  nave  were  progressively  raised,  and  most 
likely  by  Bishop  Pateshulle,  about  1235,  as  we  have  seen  that  a  licence 
was  granted  by  King  Henry  III.  for  the  conveyance  of  stone.  We  have 
very  satisfactory  evidence  that  the  Lady  Chapel  was  raised  by  Bishop 
Langton,  about  1300.  The  central  and  western  towers  and  spires  were 
erected  very  nearly  at  the  same  time.  An  alteration  appears  to  have  been 
next  made  by  inserting  a  new  and  enlarged  tier  of  clerestory  windows  into 
the  choir,  most  probably  in  the  early  part  of  the  reign  of  Edward  III. 

Library. — Immediately  over  the  chapter  house  is  an  apartment  corres- 
ponding in  form  and  style  with  the  chapter  house,  and  appropriated  to  the 
library.  It  contains  ten  bookcases,  decorated  with  the  arms  of  the  munifi- 
cent donors  of  their  valuable  contents.  Among  the  most  antient  and 
curious  volumes  in  this  collection  are  the  MSS.  called  "  Textus  S.  Ceddce," 
or  St.  Chad's  Gospels,  a  large  4to.  volume  of  vellum.  This  curious 
manuscript,  which  tradition  attributes  to  the  pen  of  St.  Gildas,  is  supposed 
to  have  been  written  before  720.     It  appears  to  have  once  belonged  to  the 


64  LICHFIELD  CATHEDRAL. 

church  of  Llandaff,  and  to  have  been  afterwards  used  by  the  Saxons  for 
administering  oaths  and  confirming  donations.  It  is  ornamented  with 
several  grotesque  illuminations,  and  the  initial  letters  of  each  gospel  are 
decorated  in  a  style  particularly  fanciful  and  curious. 

Here  is  also  a  fine  folio  copy,  on  vellum,  of  "  Chaucer's  Canterbury 
Tales,"  in  good  preservation :  the  initial  letters  are  coloured  and  gilt,  and 
those  at  the  beginning  of  each  tale  are  highly  ornamented.  The  Plough- 
man's Tale,  which  Mr.  Tyrrwhit  pronounced  to  be  spurious,  does  not 
appear  in  this  volume. 

A  copy  of  the  "  Valor,  or  Taxatio,  of  Pope  Nicholas  IV."  is  here  in 
a  perfect  state,  with  the  exception  of  a  few  leaves  at  the  end.  This  taxa- 
tion was  made  in  1291,  for  carrying  into  effect  a  grant  to  King  Edward  1. 
of  the  tenth  of  all  ecclesiastical  revenues,  towards  defraying  the  charges  of 
prosecuting  the  holy  war.  The  present  copy  contains  several  entries 
which  do  not  appear  in  that  published  by  Parliament. 

A  fine  Koran,  taken  from  the  Turks  at  Buda,  and  presented  to  this 
cathedral  by  the  Rev.  Ben.  Marshall. 

"  Dives  and  Pauper,"  a  treatise  on  the  decalogue,  in  MS.  It  was 
printed  in  folio  by  Pynson  in  1483,  and  again  by  Wynkyn  de  Worde  in 
1496'. 

"  Orders  generally  to  be  observed  of  the  whole  household  of  the  prince 
his  highness  :"  being  a  large  folio  volume,  engrossed  on  vellum,  and  marked 
at  every  head  with  the  sign  manual  of  King  Charles  I.  This  was  undoubt- 
edly the  official  book  of  the  chamberlain  of  the  prince's  household. 

A  MS.  presentation  copy,  to  the  Earl  of  Hertford,  of  the  comedy  of 
"  The  English  Moore,  or  the  Mock  Marriage,"  by  Richard  Brome. 

A  volume  of  MSS.  superscribed  "  Cantaria  Sancti  Blasii ;  Ordinatio 
Majistri  Thomse  Hey  wood,  decani  Eccles.  Lich.  de  et  super  Cantaria  Jesu 
et  Saucta  Anne  in  parte  boreali  eccles.  Lich.  et  de  pensione  Capellani 
ibidem  perpetuo  celebraturi  et  aliis  articulis,"  &c.  The  volume  also  con- 
tains copies  of  several  deeds,  &c.  bearing  the  dates  from  1471  to  1474. 

'  Brit.  Biblio.  iv.  1*29,  and  Dibdin's  Typog.  Ant.  ii.  67  and  401.  There  is  also  an  imperfect 
copy  in  the  Harleian  Collection,  No.  149. 


a  «Df)ronoIostcaI  3Ltet  of  tf)e  asters:  of  £tcf)ffeltr,  &*♦ 


CONTEMPORARY  KINGS  OF  ENGLAND,  AND  POPES. 


Do. 


31 
32 


OF  THE  MERCIANS. 

Diuma  or  Duima 

Cellach  or  Ceollach 

Truinhere. 

Jaiuniann 


OF  LICHFIELD. 

Ceadda,  Ceadd,  or  Chad . 

Winfrid 

Sexwlf  or  Sexulf. 

Hedda 

Aldwin,  or  Wor 

Wicta 

Hemele 

Cuthfrith,  or  Cuthred 

Bertbur 

Higebert 

Aldnlf  (Archbishop)  

Herewin 


Athelwald 

Hunberht 

Kyneberth,  or  Cinebeit. 


Tunfrith 

Mile 

Elgar,  or  Alfgar 

Kyiisy 

Winsy 

jElfeah  or  JElfege  .. 

Godwin ... 

Leofgar 

Brithmar 

Wlsius,  or  Wulsig  . 

Leofwin 


Peter 

[*See  removed  to  Chester.] 
Robert  de  Liniesey 


Consecrated  or  Installed. 


Died  or- Translated 


^ttglo--Sbaxon  UgnastB. 


From  . 


C56 
658 
659 
662 


609 
672 
.  674 
691 
721 
737 
752 
765 
768 
785 
786 
812 


,.  818 
..  857 

,.  867 

..  890 
..  920 
..  944 
..  960 
..  974 
..  992 
.1007 
.1020 
1027 
.1038 

.1054 


To . 


658 

Resigned 659 

662 

667 


672 

Deprived 674 

691 

721 

737 

752 

765 

768 

785 

786 

812 

817 


.  857 
.  867 

.  890 

.  920 
.  944 
.  900 
.  974 
.  992 
.1007 
.1020 
.1027 
.1038 
.1054 

.1066 


Lichfield . 


iSorman;  Bgnastn. 


1067 

1088 


.1085 
.1107 


Chester  .. 
Coventry  , 


Kings. 


OF  MERCIA. 

Oswy 

Oswy  

Wulfhere  

Wulfhere  


Wulfhere  . 

Wulfhere 

Wulfhere  , 

Ethelred... 

Ethelbald.. 

Ethelbald.. 

Ethelbald.. 

Offa 

Offa 

Offa 

Offa 

Kenulph  ... 


OF  ENGLAND. 

Egbert 

Ethelwulph 

( Ethelbald,  Ethelbert, 

lEthelred 

Alfred ', 

Edward  the  Elder 

Edmund 

Edgar 

Edgar 

Ethelred 

Ethelred 

Canute 

Canute 

Harold 

5  Edward  Confessor. 

jHarold 


William  I.  . 
William  II. 


Popes. 


Eugenius  I. 
Eugenius  I. 
Vitalian. 
Vitalian. 


Vitalian. 
Adeodatus. 
Adeodatus. 
Sergius. 
Gregory  II. 
Gregory  III. 
Stephen  III. 
Paul  I. 
Stephen  IV. 
Adrian. 
Adrian. 
Leo  HI. 


Paschal. 
Benedict  III. 

Adrian  II. 

Stephen  IV. 
JohnX. 
Stephen  IX. 
John  XII. 
Domnus  II. 
Gregory  V. 
John  XVIII. 
Benedict  VIII. 
John  XIX. 
Bededict  IX. 

Leo  IX. 


Alexander  II. 
Urban  II. 


66 


CHRONOLOGICAL  LIST  OF  BISHOPS,  ETC. 


30 
37 
38 
39 
40 
41 
42 

43 

41 
45 
46 
47 

48 

4 'J 
50 


57 
59 


60 

til 
62 
63 
61 
65 


66 
67 
68 
69 

70 


BISHOPS. 


Consecrated  or  Installed. 


OF  COVENTRY  AND 
LICHFIELD. 

Robert  Peche 

Roger  de  Clinton  

Walter  Dnrdent 


Richard  Peche 

Gerard  LaPucelle,  orPuella 

Hngh  de  Nonant 

GeofTry  de  Muschamp 

William  de  Cornhull 

Alexander  de  Stavenby.... 
Hngh  de  Pateshnlle  

Roger  de  Wesehani 

Roger  de  Meyland  

Walter  de  Langton 

Roger  de  Norburg 

Robert  Stretton 

Walter  Skirlaw1 


Richard  Scrope 
John  Brughill... 


John  Catricke,  or  Ketericb 

William  Heyworth 

William  Bothe 

Nicolas  Cloose 

Reginald  Bolars 

John  liaise 


William  Smith 
John  Arnndell  .. 
GeofTry  Blythe. 


Roland  Lee 

Richard  Sampson. 

Ralph  Bane 

Thomas  Bentbam. 
William  Overton.. 
George  Abbot 


Richard  Neill  

John  Overall 

Thomas  Morton.... 
Robert  Wright .... 
Accepted  Frewen  . 


From  . 


March  13,  1121 
...Dec.  22,  1129 
...  Oct.  22,  1149 


Died  or  Translated 


To 

Aug.  22,  1127 

16Cal.  May,  1148 

Dec.  7,  1161 


Coventry 
Antioch  . 
Coventry 


&axon  line  l&rstoretf. 


...  Sept.  25, 
2  Cal.  Feb. 

Jane  21, 

Jan  25, 

...  April  14, 
July  1, 

Jan.  1, 

...March  10, 

Dec.  22, 

....  Jnne27, 
...  Sept.  27, 


1162 
1183 
1188 
1198 
1215 
1224 
1240 

1245 

1258 
1296 
1322 
1360 


,  Jan.  II,  1386 


Aug.  19,  1386 

LandalT Sept.  1398 


Oct.  6,  1182 

Jan.  13,  1184 

April  27,  1198 

Oct.  6,  1208 

Sept.  14,  1223 

Dec.  26,  1238 

Dec.  8,  1241 

Resigned,  Dec.  4,1256  ) 
Died. ..May  20,  1257  \ 

Dec.  16,  1295 

Nov.  16,  1321 

Dec.  1359 

March  28,1385 


Durham Aug.  18,  1386 


York July  6,  1398  York 

May,  1411  Liohfield  . 


Stafford 

Coventry 

Caen  in  Normandy 

Licblield 

Lichlield , 

Lichfield 

Lichfield 

Lichfield 


Lichfield . 
Lichfield  . 
Lichfield . 
Lichfield  . 

Durham  .. 


lantastrian  linr. 


St.  David's Mav,  1115 

Nov.  28,  1120 

July  10,  1447 

Aug.  30,  1152 

Hereford Feb.  7,  1453 

Nov.  25,  1459 


Exeter Nov.  20,  1419 

April  10,  1446 

York June  21,  1452 

Oct.  1452 

1459 

Sept.  30,  1490 


Southwell 
Lichfield. 
Lichfield  . 
Lichfield. 


Stnion  of  3?orK  ani  Unntastrian  Jfnmilies. 


April,  1492 

...  Nov.  6,1196 
.  Sept.  20,  1503 


Lincoln 1495 

Exeter June  29,  1502 

1533 


Lincoln  .. 
London  ... 
Lichfield. 


April  19,  1534 

Chichester,  March  12,1542 

Nov.  18,  1554 

March  24,  1559 

Sept.  18,  1580 

Dec.  3,  1609 


Information. 

Jan.  24,  1544 

Sept.  25,  1554 

Deprived 1559 

Feb.  21,  1578 

April,  1609 

London 1609 


Shrewsbury 

London  .... 
Eccleshall  . 
Eccleshall . 
Guildford... 


Stnion  of  ffinglisf)  nnfc  gbtottfj  ©rofons. 


Rochester Sept.  1610 

April  3,  1614 

Chester March  6,  1618 

Bristol Nov.  28,  1632 

April,  1644 


Lincoln  Sept.  1613 

Norwich  ...  Sept.  30,  1618 

Durham July  2,  1632 

1642 

York Oct.  11,1660 


York  

Norwich 

Eastern  Mauduit. 


York 


Kings. 


Henry  I. 
Henry  I. 

Stephen . 


Henry  II.  .. 
Henry  II.... 
Henry  II.  .. 
Richard  I. .. 

John 

Henry  III.  . 
Henry  III.., 

Henry  HI.. 

Henry  III. . 
Edward  I. .. 
Edward  II. . 
Edward  III. 

Richard  II. 

Richard  II. 
Richard  II. 


Henry  V.  . 
Henry  V.  . 
Henry  VI. 
Henry  VI. 
Henry  VI. 
Henry  VI. 


Henry  VII 
Henry  VII. 
HeDry  VII. 


Henry  VIII 
Henry  VIII 

Mary 

Elizabeth  ... 
Elizabeth  ... 
James  I 


James  I... 
James  I.  .. 
James  I. .. 
Charles  I. 
Charles  I. 


Popes. 


Calixtus  II. 
Honorius  II. 
Eugenius  III. 


Alexander  III. 
Lucius  III. 
Clement  III. 
Innocent  III. 
Innocent  III. 
Honorius  III. 
Gregory  IX. 

Innocent  IV. 

Alexander  IV. 
Boniface  VIII. 
John  XXII. 
Innocent  VI. 

5  Urban  VI. 

I  Clement  VII. 

j  Urban  VI. 

(  Clement  VII. 
Benedict  XIII. 


Benedict  XIII. 
Martin  V. 
Nicholas  V. 
Nioholas  V. 
Nicholas  V. 
Pius  II. 


Alexander  VI. 
Alexander  VI. 
Pius  HI. 


Clement  VII. 


1  A  Memoir  of  this  prelate,  by  J.  Crosse,  Esq.  is  given  in  the  Architectural  Antiquities,  vol.iv.  p.  128. 


CHRONOLOGICAL  LIST  OF  BISHOPS,  ETC. 


67 


71 

72 
73 
74 
75 
76 
77 
78 
79 
80 
SI 


BISHOPS. 


OF  LICHFIELD  AND 
COVENTRY. 

John  Hacket 

Thomas  Wood 

William  Lloyd 

John  Hough 

Edward  Chandler 

Richard  Smallbroke 

Hon.  F.  Corn  will  lis  

John  Egerton 

Hon.  Brownlow  North 

Richard  Hard 

Hon.  J.  Cornwallis 


Consecrated  or  Installed. 


Died  or  Translated 


From  , 


Dec.  22,  '. 

July  2, 

St.  Asaph Oct.  20, 

Oxford Ang.  5,  '. 

Nov.  17, 

St.  David's  ...  Feb.  20,  : 


1661 
1671 
1692 
1699 
1717 
1730 
1749 

Bangor Nov.  22,  1768 

1771 

1774 

1781 


To  

Oct.  28,  1670 

...April  18, 1692 

Worcester 1699 

Worcester 1717 

Durham 1730 

Dec.  22,  1749 

Canterbury 1768 

Durham July  8,  1771 

Winchester 1774 

Worcester 1781 


Lichfield  

Ufford 

Hadbury  

Worcester  

Farnham  Royal 

St.  James's 

Hartlebury 


Kings. 


Charles  II. 
Charles  II. 
William  and  Mary. 
William  and  Mary. 
George  I. 
George  II. 
George  II. 
George  III. 
George  III. 
George  III. 
George  III. 


tftnonoloQiral  atet  of  tbt  ntan&  of  Uttfjfieau 


William  

Richard  de  Dalam  . 

William  II 

Richard  

Bertram 


7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 
14 

15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 


DEANS. 


Ralph  Nevill 

William  de  Mancestre... 
Ralph  de  Sempringham 

John  de  Derby 

Stephen  Segrave 

Roger  de  Covenis 

John  Casey 


Richard  Fitz-Ralph  

Simon  de  Borisley 

John  de  Bokingham 

Anthony  Rous 

Laurence  de  Ibbestoke.. 

Francis  St.  Sabine 

William  de  Fackington . 

Thomas  de  Stretton 

Robert  Wolvedon 

John  de  Verney 

Thomas  Hey  wood 

John  Yotton 


Installed. 


1140 
1165 
1173 
1190 
1193 

1214 


1222 

1254 

1260 

.Dec.  1320 
1325 

1328 


April  20,  1337 
6  Id.  Jan.  1347 

1361 

1363 

Feb.  23,  1368 

1369 

1381 

May  15,  1390 
Sept.  23, 1426 
..Dec.  2,  1432 

Aug.  1457 

Feb.  23,  1493 


Died,  or  removed. 


(Bishop  of  Chi- 

(      Chester,  Nov.  1222 

Feb.  7,  1253 

March  23,  1260 

Oct.  12,  1319 

Archbp.  of  Armagh,  1324 

1328 

(  Called  Episcopus 

I   Marciliensis 1334 

Archbp.  of  Armagh,  1347 


Bishop  of  Lincoln,  1363 


April  30,  1390 

1425 

Nov.  1432 

1457 

.  Oct.  25,  1492 
.  Ang.  2,  1512 


DEANS. 


Ralph  Collingwood  . 

James  Denton 

Richard  Sampson1  . 
Richard  Williams  .. 
John  Rambridge  .... 
Lawrence  Nowell2.. 

George  Boleyn 

James  Montagu 

William  Tooker 

Walter  Curie 

Augustine  Lindsell . 
John  Warner 

Samuel  Fell 


Griffith  Higgs3 

William  Paul 

Thomas  Wood 

Matthew  Smalhvood 

Lancelot  Addison4 

William  Binckes r... 

Jonathan  Rimberley 

William  Walmesley 

Nicholas  Penny  

John  Addenbrook 

Baptist  Proby 

J.  C.  Woodhonse 


Sept.  26, 
..  Jan.  7, 
June  20, 
Nov.  23, 
April  2, 
April  29, 
Nov.  22, 
July  16, 
Feb.  21, 
Mar.  24, 
Oct.  15, 


April  8, 
Feb. 


..  July  3, 
June  19, 
..July  7, 
..May  7, 
..Dec.  1, 
Feb.  15, 
Mar.  25, 
Feb.  13, 


1512 
1522 
1533 
1536 
1554 
1559 
1576 
1603 
1604 
1620 
1628 
1633 

1637 

1638 
1660 
1663 
1671 
1683 
1703 
1713 
1720 
1730 
1745 
1776 
1807 


Died,  or  removed. 


Nov.  22,  1521 

Feb.  23,  1532 

Bp.  of  Chichester,  1536 

Deprived 1553 

Deprived 1558 

Oct.  1576 

Jan.  1602 

Bp.  of  Winchester,  1616 

March,  1620 

Bp.  of  Rochester..  1627 

Bp.  of  Peterboro',  1632 

Bp.  of  Rochester ..  1637 

5  Dean  of  Cbrist- 

i   chnrch,  Oxford  1638 

Dec.  16,  1659 

Bishop  of  Oxford,  1663 
Bp.ofLichfield,&cl671 

April  26,  1683 

April  20,  1703 

June  19,1712 

March  7, 1719 

Jan.  15,1745 

Feb.  25,  1776 

Jan.  16,1807 


'  Afterwards  Bishop  of  Lichfield,  Sec. 

3  "  A  liberal  contributor  to  Hie  ornaments  of  the  Cathedral."— Wood. 


•  Dean  Nowell's  MSS.  greatly  assisted  Somner  in  compiling  his  Saxon  Dictionary. 

*  Antbor  of  several  theological  works,  and  father  of  tbe  great  essayist. 


fUjs*  of  33oofe$,  350$w$>  an*  %$vint0, 

THAT  HAVE  BEEN  PUBLISHED  RELATING    TO 

LICHFIELD    CATHEDRAL; 

ALSO 

A  LIST  OF  ENGRAVED  PORTRAITS  OF  ITS  BISHOPS  AND  DEANS. 

THIS  LIST  IS  SUBJOINED  TO  GRATIFY  THE  BIBLIOGRAPHER,  THE  CRITICAL  ANTIQUARY,  AND  THE  ILLUSTRATOR;  AS 
WELL  AS  TO  SHOW,  AT  ONE  VIEW,  THE  SOURCES  WHENCE  THE  CONTENTS  OF  THE  PRECEDING  PAGES  HAVE 
BEEN  DERIVED,  AND  THE  FULL  TITLES  OF  THE  WORKS  REFERRED  TO  IN  THE  NOTES. 


SEE  AND  CHURCH. 

The  Ecclesiastical  History,  by  *  the  venerable  Bede,"  contains  the  earliest  authentic  information 
relative  to  the  establishment  of  the  Mercian  diocess,  and  the  see  of  Lichfield.  From  that  work 
the  author  of  the  "  Chronicon  Lichfeldcnsis  Ecclesia"  copied,  almost  verbatim,  his  account  of 
those  subjects.  This  chrouicle  is  published  in  "  Anglia  Sacra,"  vol.  i.  p.  423.  We  are  informed 
by  Warton,  in  the  preface  to  this  work,  that  he  collated  five  different  copies  of  the  Chronicon, 
which  vary  considerably,  and  are  all  replete  with  errors.  Of  these,  one  is  in  the  Cottonian  library; 
(Vespasian,  E.  xvi.  2.)  another  in  the  Harleian  library ;  (MS.  3839)  and  a  third  in  the  Bodleian 
library,  at  Oxford  ;  (MS.  n.  770,  8G5.)  a  fourth  was  formerly  in  the  possession  of  Dean  Addison  of 
Lichfield.     The  following  curious  memoranda  appear  in  the  Cottonian  MS.  (Vespas.  E.  xvi.  2.) 

"  Anno  Xi,  1684.  Quidam  Sprag  habuit  librum  fol.  bene  crassni  et  ccc  annoru  cui  titulus 
Chronicon  Leichfeldense ;  in  eo  multa  de  epis  Mercioru." — T.  Gale. 

"  This  booke  was  found  in  the  thatch  of  an  house  at  Clitun  Campuch,  in  the  demolishinge 
thereof.  And  was  brought  to  mee  by  Mr.  Darwin.  The  Cronicon  agrees  perfectly  wth  that 
« thin  ye  church  in  the  wall,  by  the  south  gate,  in  foldinge  leaves  of  timber,  wch  was  torn  in  pieces 
by  my  Lord  Brookes  his  soldiers. 

"  But  there  is  another  antiquity  called  Liber  Lichfieldensis,  wch  was  in  ye  custody  of  ye  Deane 
and  Chapter,  and  suffered  an  harde  fate,  for  there  having  bin  not  many  yearcs  since  a  sute  betwixt 
Mr.  Sprat  and  certain  prebendaries  touching  yc  repairs  of  y°  church  of  Stowe's  chaucel,  whereof 
they  were  Parsons  convicted.  And  y"  cause  was  appealed  after  judgment  given  below,  to  London, 
and  so  ye  whole  cause  transmitted  wth  that  record,  wch  was  ye  most  pregnant  evidence,  but  could 
never  bee  obteiued  back  agen.  But  I  was  shewed  another  copy  under  y'  title  in  Graye's  Ine 
library,  wch  they  tould  mee  Mr.  Seidell  bad  mutilated.  This  I  saw  some  20  yeares  agoe,  aut 
circiter." 

This  original  Chronicle  was  compiled  by  Thomas  de  Chesterfeld,  about  the  year  1350:  and  was 
continued  down  to  the  year  1559  by  William  Whitlock,  partly  from  the  works  of  other  authors, 
and  partly  from  his  personal  knowledge. 

"A  Survey  of  Staffordshire;  containing  the  Antiquities' of  that  County,"  &c.  By  Sampson 
Erdeswicke,  Esq.: — with  Observations  upon  the  Possessors  of  Monastery  Lands  in  Staffordshire, 
By  Sir  Simon  Degge,  Knt.  London;  8vo.  1717.  A  new  title  page  was  afterwards  printed  for 
W.  Mears,  1723. — This  edition  was  reprinted  on  thicker  and  lighter  coloured  paper.  A  new  and 
enlarged  edition  of  this  work  has  been  published  in  1820,  by  the  Rev.  T.  Harwood,  B.  D.  F.  S.  A. 
8vo.  price  £1.  Is. :  and  "  a  few  copies  on  large  paper,  price  £1.  lis.  Gd." 

Some  particulars  of  the  history  and  description  of  this  cathedral  are  given  in  "  Leland's  Itine- 
rary," Vol.  iv.  part  ii.  fol.  187.  b. 


LICHFIELD  CATHEDRAL: — LIST  OF  BOOKS,  ESSAYS,  ETC.  69 

"  The  Natural  History  of  Staffordshire.  By  Robert  Plott,  LL.  D.  Keeper  of  the  Ashmolean 
Museum,  and  Professor  of  Chemistry  in  the  University  of  Oxford."  Oxf.  1686,  folio.  This  work 
evinces  some  learning  and  acuteness  in  the  author,  but  also  displays  his  credulity  and  superstition. 

Elias  Ashmole  intended  to  write  "  The  History  and  Antiquities  of  Lichfield,"  his  native  city. 
His  collections  are  in  his  museum,  7470-84,  8093,  and  "  Historia  Ecclesia?  de  Lichfeld,"  Bib. 
Bodl.  3553. 

The  "  Monasticon  Anglicanum,"  contains  an  account  of  the  foundation  of  the  see  and  church, 
taken  from  the  Chronicle  of  Lichfield,  vol.  iii.  p.  216 ; — some  other  particulars  from  Leland's  Col- 
lectanea— description  of  the  close  and  two  monasteries,  p.  220,  &c. — depositions  of  the  prior  of 
Coventry  and  others  relating  to  the  election  of  bishops — several  statutes  and  ordinances  of  the 
bishops ;  charters,  and  deeds  relating  to  the  church  lands,  &c. 

"  Wilkins's  Concilia"  contain  the  Statutes  of  Bishops  Nonant,  vol.  i.  p.  496 ;  Stavenby,  ib.  p. 
640 ;  Langton,  ib.  p.  256 ;  and  the  submissions  of  the  bishops  of  Coventry  to  the  Church  of  Can- 
terbury, vol.  iii.  p.  504. 

"  Some  short  Account  of  the  Cathedral  Church  of  Lichfeld,"  8vo.  pp.  62.  London,  1723.  This 
little  work  was  first  published  separately  in  1717,  but  afterwards  in  1723,  in  a  volume  intituled 
"  The  Antiquities  of  the  Cathedral  Church  of  Worcester.  By  that  learned  Antiquary,  Thomas 
Abingdon,  Esq.  To  which  are  added,  The  Antiquities  of  the  Cathedral  Churches  of  Chichester 
and  Lichfeld."  It  contains  but  little  original  information,  and  is  evidently  compiled  from  the 
Monasticon,  and  Plot's  Survey  of  Staffordshire. 

In  Willis's  "  History  of  the  Mitred  Abbies,"  vol.  ii.  p.  359,  are  the  dimensions  of  this  church 
from  the  preceding  volume,  and  an  account  of  its  monuments. 

In  the  same  author's  "  Survey  of  Cathedrals,"  vol.  i.  p.  371,  is  an  account  of  this  church,  and 
the  persons  buried  therein ; — the  endowment  of  the  bishopric,  and  alienations  from  it ;  endowment 
of  the  dean  and  chapter;  an  account  of  the  bishops,  deaus,  &c.  Also  a  view  of  the  church,  from 
the  south,  engraved  by  J.  Harris. 

An  Account  of  the  Cathedral  and  City  of  Lichfield  constitutes  part  of  an  unfinished  History 
of  Staffordshire,  by  the  Rev.  Stebbing  Shaw,  under  the  following  title:  "  The  History  and  Anti- 
quities of  Staffordshire  ;  compiled  from  the  Manuscripts  of  Huntbach,  Loxdale,  Bishop  Lyttleton, 
and  other  Collections,  of  Dr.  Wilkes,  the  Rev.  T.  Feilde,  &c.  &c.  Including  Erdeswick's  Survey  of 
the  County,  and  the  approved  parts  of  Dr.  Plot's  Natural  History.  The  whole  brought  down  to  the 
present  Time;  interspersed  with  Pedigrees  and  Anecdotes  of  Families;  Observations  on  Agricul- 
ture, Commerce,  Mines,  and  Manufactories  ;  and  illustrated  with  a  very  full  and  correct  new  Map 
of  the  County,  Agri  Staffordiensis  Icon,  and  numerous  other  Plates.  By  the  Rev.  Stebbing  Shaw, 
B.  D.  F.  A.  S.  and  Fellow  of  Queen's  College,  Cambridge."    2  vols,  folio.     London,  1798. 

The  account  of  the  cathedral  occupies  one  hundred  and  nineteen  pages,  which  are  accompanied 
by  the  following  Prints : — 1.  West  Front  of  the  Cathedral,  with  Plan  of  North  Side,  said  to  be 
drawn  by  Mr.  Shaw,  and  engraved  by  R.  W.  Basire,  but  was  drawn  by  J.  Carter,  and  merely  re- 
duced by  Mr.  Shaw: — 2.  South-west  View  of  the  Cathedral,  engraved  by  Kidd,  and  originally 
published  by  J.  Jackson  ;  May,  1796,  with  letter  press  : — 3.  View  near  Lichfield,  with  large  Willow 
Tree,  at  the  top  of  p.  114.  E.  Stringer,  del.  1785 : — 4  and  5.  On  one  sheet,  being  the  South 
Prospect  and  Ground  Plan  of  the  Cathedral.  I.  Harris,  sc. : — 6.  Effigies  and  Arms  formerly  in  the 
Cathedral,  from  Dugdale's  Visitation  in  the  Herald's  College: — 7-  Altar  Tomb,  with  Canopy; 
Effigy  of  a  Bishop,  &c.  formerly  in  the  cathedral: — 8.  Monumental  Effigy  of  a  Bishop,  in  a  niche, 
with  Canopy  ;  an  Inscription,  and  three  other  Subjects,  etched,  in  a  rough  and  bad  style : — 9.  Mo- 
nument of  Dean  Heywood,  two  Effigies,  and  Canopy : — 10.  Monument  of  Bishop  Langton,  from 
Dugdale's  Visitation  ;  Effigy  on  Altar  Tomb  with  Canopies,  &c. :— 11.  A  large  folding-sheet  show- 
ing Eight  Monuments,  etched  by  the  Rev.  J.  Homfray,  in  a  very  rough,  slight,  careless  manner : 
— 12.  Monument,  with  Effigy  of  Bishop  Hacket,  engraved  by  Hollar  for  the  Bishops  "  Century 
of  Sermons  :"— 13.  Eight  Seals: — 14.  Gate-house  belonging  to  the  Choristers  House;  Portrait  of 
Richard  Greene ;  East  End  of  Cathedral  from  Stow  Pool.  R.  Greene,  del.  I.  Wood,  sc.  for  the 
Gentleman's  Magazine.  , 

The  work  is  a  strange  jumble  of  undigested,  unarranged,  and  indiscriminating  matter.  The  lan- 
guage is  often  puerile,  and  in  some  places  illiterate;  the  plates  very  badly  engraved,  and  ap- 
parently from  equally  bad  drawings. 

"  The  Gentleman's  Magazine"  vol.  lxxix.  contains  some  remarks  on  a  publication,  intituled, 
"  An  Historical  Survey  of  the  Ecclesiastical  Antiquities  of  France :  with  a  view  to  illustrate  the 
Rise  and  Progress  of  Gothic  Architecture  in  Europe."    By  the  late  Rev.  G.  D.  Whittington.     In 


70  LICHFIELD  CATHEDRAL: LIST  OF  BOOKS,  ESSAYS,  ETC. 

these  remarks,  Mr.  Carter  maintains,  contrary  to  the  opinion  advanced  by  Mr.  Whittington,  that 
the  pointed  style  of  architecture  originated  in  England.  In  the  course  of  these  observations 
Mr.  Carter  introduces  a  short  description  of  the  West  Front  of  Lichfield  Cathedral,  and  a  com- 
parison between  that  and  the  West  Front  of  the  Cathedral  of  Notre  Dame  at  Paris;  vol.  lxxix. 
part  ii.  p.  697.  But  he  met  with  an  able  opponent,  under  the  signature  of  "  Amateur,"  who  defends 
the  Survey,  in  several  letters,  one  of  which  in  vol.  lxxx.  part  i.  p.  525,  is  a  complete  refutation  of 
the  "  Architect's"  Remarks  on  Lichfield  Cathedral.  A  View  of  the  West  Front,  drawn  by  J.  Carter, 
and  engraved  by  Basire,  is  in  vol.  lxxx.  part  ii.  p.  403. 

"  History  of  the  City  and  Cathedral  of  Lichfield,  chiefly  compiled  from  ancient  Authors,  &c." 
By  John  Jackson,  Jun.  London ;  8vo.  1805,  pp.  276.  Embellished  (among  other  prints)  with  a 
South-west  View  of  the  Cathedral,  engraved  by  Kidd.  This  was  the  third  edition,  materially 
altered  and  enlarged,  of  a  work  originally  published  by  the  same  author,  at  the  age  of  eighteen, 
under  the  title  of  "  History  of  the  City  and  County  of  Lichfield,"  &c. 

"  The  History  and  Antiquities  of  the  Church  and  City  of  Lichfield :  containing  its  ancient  and 
present  State,  Civil  and  Ecclesiastical ;  collected  from  various  public  Records,  and  other  authentic 
Evidences."  By  the  Rev.  Thomas  Harwood,  F.  S.  A.  late  of  University  College,  Oxford.  Glou- 
cester: printed  for  Cadell  and  Davies,  London,  1806,  pp.  574,  4to.  Embellished  (among  other 
views)  with  a  South-west  View  of  the  Cathedral,  engraved  by  B.  Howlett,  from  a  drawing  by  T.  G. 
Worthington,  Esq.  This  work  contains  a  history  of  the  see  and  church,  with  a  description  of 
the  latter,  its  monuments,  and  epitaphs,  biography  of  the  bishops,  lists  of  the  deans,  chancellors, 
precentors,  archdeacons,  and  prebendaries. 

"  An  Illustration  of  the  Architecture  of  the  Cathedral  Church  of  Lichfield."  By  Charles 
Wild.  London,  1813,  folio.  This  volume  contains  a  short  history  and  description  of  the  Cathe- 
dral, illustrated  by  ten  aquatinta  prints  by  Dubourg,  from  drawings  by  Mr.  Wild.  Plate  1. 
Ground  Plan  of  the  Cathedral: — 2.  West  and  North  Entrances,  and  Arcade  of  Nave '. — 3.  South- 
east View  of  Cathedral:— 4,  Part  of  South  Side:— 5.  The  East  End:— 6.  The  West  Front:— 
7.  Part  of  the  Nave: — 8.  Nave,  and  part  of  Transept : — 9.  The  Choir: — 10.  Interior  of  the 
East  End. 

The  third  volume  of  Storer's  "  Graphic  and  Historical  Description  of  the  Cathedrals  of  Great 
Britain"  contains  the  "  History  and  Antiquities  of  the  Cathedral  Churches,  and  See.  of  Lichfield 
and  Coventry."  8vo.  Sherwood  and  Co.  1816.  This  work  is  illustrated  by  ten  plates,  eight  of 
which  are  engraved  by  J.  Storer,  from  his  own  drawings  ;  and  the  other  two  from  those  of  J.  Hard- 
wick  and  Capt.  Johu  Westmacott — viz.  I.  The  West  Door: — 2.  Ground  Plan: — 3.  South  Tran- 
sept, exterior: — 4.  Chapter-house,  interior: — 5.  Interior  of  Cathedral,  looking  North-west: — 
6.  North-east  View: — 7.  North-west  View: — 8.  View  of  Cathedral  from  North: — 9.  View  of 
the  Bishop's  Palace: — 10.  West  Front.  With  a  concise  history  and  description,  in  twelve  pages 
of  letter  press. 

ACCOUNTS  OF  BISHOPS. 

The  Chronicle  of  Lichfield  Cathedral,  already  referred  to,  as  printed  in  "  Anglia  Sacra,"  con- 
tains some  account  of  the  bishops  of  this  see,  from  Diuma  to  Bentham. 

A  fragment  of  the  life  of  Hugo  de  Nonant,  written  by  Giraldus  Cambrensis,  is  also  printed  in 
Warton's  Anglia  Sacra,  vol.  ii.  p.  351. 

"  The  Lives  and  Characters,  Deaths,  Burials  and  Epitaphs,  Works  of  Piety,  Charity,  and  other 
munificent  Benefactions,  of  all  the  Protestant  Bishops  of  the  Church  of  England,  since  the  Re- 
formation, as  settled  by  Queen  Elizabeth,  A.  D.  1559;  collected  from  their  several  Registers, 
Wills  in  the  Prerogative  Ofliccs,  authentic  Records,  and  other  valuable  MSS.  collections;  and 
compared  with  the  best  Accounts  hitherto  published  of  this  kind."  By  John  Le  Neve,  Gent, 
vol.  i.  8vo.  London,  1720,  pp.  288.  This  volume  (the  only  one  ever  published)  contains  the  lives 
of  George  Abbot  and  Richard  Neill,  Bishops  of  this  See,  who  afterwards  became  Archbishops. 

"  Memoirs  of  the  Life  of  Roger  de  Wesehnm."     By  Dr.  Pegge,  4to.  1761. 

"The  Life  of  Bishop  Morton,"  by  Baddiley  and  Naylor,  12mo.  1660,  and  byr.  Barwick,  4to. 
1669 — with  portrait  by  Faithorne. 

The  Life  of  Bishop  Hacket,  prefixed  to  his  Century  of  Sermons,  fol.  1675.  By  Dr.  Plume. 
This  volume  is  embellished  with  a  fine  portrait  by  Faithorne,  and  a  plate  of  the  monument  by 
Hollar. 

"  The  Life  of  the  Rev.  John  Hough,  D.D.  successively  Bishop  of  Oxford,  Lichfield  and  Co- 
ventry, and  Worcester;  formerly  President  of  St.  Mary  Magdalen  College,  Oxford,  in  the  Reign  of 


LICHFIELD  CATHEDRAL: — LIST  OF  PRINTS,  ETC.  71 

King  James  II.  Containing  many  of  his  Letters,  and  Biographical  Notices  of  several  Persons  with 
whom  he  was  connected."  By  John  Wilmot,  Esq.  F.  R.  S.  and  S.  A.  4to.  pp.  387.  London,  1812. 
This  work  contains  the  substance  of  a  scarce  memoir  which  was  printed  a  few  weeks  after  the 
bishop's  decease,  as  "  Some  Account"  of  his  life :  and  is  embellished  with  two  portraits  of  the 
bishop,  and  fac  similes  of  his  writing. 

Memoirs  of  Bishop  Hurd,  with  a  portrait,  are  prefixed  to  an  edition  of  his  works,  8  vols.  8vo. 
1811. 

VIEWS  AND  PRINTS  OF  THE  CHURCH  AND  OF  ITS  MONUMENTS. 

In  Fuller's  "  Church  History  of  Britain,"  fol.  1655,  are  two  views  of  the  cathedral,  supposed 
to  be  the  oldest  prints  extant : — viz.  View  of  the  West  Front,  having  all  its  niches  filled  with 
statues,  and  the  West  Window,  with  its  original  mullions  and  tracery.  S.  Kyrk,  pinx.  W.  Hollar, 
sc. — Elias  Ashmole  presented  this  plate.  A  similar  view  was  engraved  for  the  Monasticon,  most 
likely  by  Hollar,  though  without  his  name,  and  with  some  variation. 

A  South  View  of  the  Cathedral.     S.  Kyrk,  del.  R.  Vaughan,  sc. 

View  of  the  West  Front ;  engraved  by  King. 

View  of  the  North  Side ;  engraved  by  Harris. 

A  large  View  of  the  West  Front,  and  a  smaller  one  of  the  South  Side,  were  executed  by  the  late 
Francis  Perry,  who  afterwards  destroyed  the  plates.  These  are  poorly  and  inaccurately  drawn, 
and  etched  in  a  scratchy  style. 

East  View  of  the  Cathedral  and  Close,  from  Stow-pool,  near  St.  Chad's  Church,  1745.  Drawn 
by  R.  Greene;  engraved  by  J.  Wood. 

In  Carter's  "  Ancient  Sculpture  and  Painting"  is  a  View  of  the  West  Porch,  or  principal 
entrance;  drawn  and  etched  by  J.  Carter,  1782. 

In  Gough's  "  Sepulchral  Monuments,"  vol.  i.  part  ii.  p.  84,  are  engraved  effigies  of  Bishops 
Langtou  and  Pateshulle,  from  their  monuments  in  this  cathedral. 

View  of  the  West  Front ;  engraved  by  J.  Basire,  from  a  drawing  by  J.  Carter,  8vo.  for  the 
Gentleman's  Magazine,  vol.  lxxx.  part  ii. 

A  View  of  the  West  Front  of  the  Cathedral ;  engraved  by  J.  Roffe,  from  a  drawing  by  T.  Nash, 
appears  in  the  Beauties  of  England  and  Wales. 

In  No.  VI.  of  "  Etchings  of  the  Cathedral,  Collegiate,  and  Abbey  Churches  of  England  and 
Wales,"  4to.  1820,  is  a  View  of  the  Cathedral  from  North-west;  drawn  and  etched  by  J.  C. 
Buckler  ;  also  two  leaves  of  letter-press. 

ENGRAVED  PORTRAITS  OF  THE  BISHOPS  OF  LICHFIELD  AND 

COVENTRY. 

1.  George  Abbot:  in  Clarendon's  "  History,"  8vo.     M.  V.  Gucht,  sc. — in  Birch's  "Lives," 

large  fol.  J.  Houbraken,  sc. — in  the  title  page  to  his  "  Brief  Description  of  the  World,"  1635 ; 
r2mo.  W.  Marshall,  sc. — 4to.  1616,  S.  Pass,  sc. — a  copy  of  the  last  in  "  Boissard," 
Grainger  and  Bromley. 

2.  John  Overall  :  a  small  oval  in  Sparrow's  "  Rationale  of  the  Common  Prayer,"  1657,  12mo. 

Hollar,  sc. — prefixed  to  his  "  Convocation  Book,"  by  Sancroft,  1690.  R.  While,  sc. 
Grainger  and  Bromley. 

3.  Thomas  Morton,  prefixed  to  his  "Life,"  by  Barwick,  1660,  4to.  Faithorne,  sc. — a  Wooden 

Cut,  4to.     Grainger  and  Bromley. 

4.  John  Hacket,  prefixed  to  his  "  Sermons,"  fol.   Faithorne,  sc. — prefixed  to  his  "Christian 

Consolations,"  8vo.     Grainger  and  Bromley. 

5.  William  Lloyd:  fol.  D.  Loggan,  sc. — another,  fol.  J.  Sturt,  sc. — aetat.  86,  large  fol.  7*. 

Forster,  pinx.  Vertue,  sc. — aetat  87.  F.  Weidman,  pinx.  Verlue,  sc. — Bishop  of  St.  Asaph, 
oval. — In  the  prints  of  the  seven  bishops.     Bromley. 

6.  John  Hough:  retat.  91,  mez.  Dyer,  pinx.  Faber,  sc. — in  Wilmot's  "  Life"  of  him,  from  the 

same  picture.  James  Heath,  sc. — mez.  Riley,  pinx.  Williams,  sc. — mez.  Dyer,  pinx. — mez. 
prefixed  to  his  "  Life,"  by  Wilmot.  Kneller,  pinx.  Caroline  Watson,  sc.  Bromley  and  Wil- 
mot's "  Life  of  Bishop  Hough." 

7.  Edward  Chandler  :.  large  fol.  J.  V.  Bank,  pinx.  Vertue,  sc.     Bromley. 

8.  Richard  Smallbroke  :  large  fol.  T.  Murray,  pinx.  Vertue,  sc.    Bromley. 


72 


LICHFIELD  CATHEDRAL: LIST  OF  PRINTS. 


9.  Frederick  Cornwallis:  mez.  N.  Dance,  pinx.  E.  Fisher,  sc.     Bromley. 

10.  John  Egerton:  oval  profile,  in  Hutchinson's  "  Antiquities  of  Durham."  Anon.     Bromley. 

11.  Richard  Hurd:   4to.  Gainsborough,  pinx.  Hall,  sc.     A  small  profile,  from  a  model  by 

Isaac  Gosset ;  engraved  by  J.  Neagle,  1809,  prefixed  to  a  volume  of  letters,  from  Bishop 
Warburton  to  Bishop  Hurd. 

ENGRAVED  PORTRAITS  OF  DEANS  OF  LICHFIELD. 

1.  James  Mountagu,  or  Montagu,  (as  Bishop  of  Winchester) :  in  the  Heroologia,  8vo — A 
copy  in  Boissard. — Another,  4to. — See  "  History,  &c.  of  Winchester  Cathedral." 

•2.  Walter  Curle,  (as  Bishop  of  Winchester):  t.  Cecil,  sc.  h.  sh.  See  "  History,  &c.  of 
Winchester  Cathedral." 


Si5t  of  mints 

ILLUSTRATIVE  OF  LICHFIELD  CATHEDRAL. 


Plates. 

Subjects. 

Drawn  by 

Engraved  by 

Dedicated  to 

Described. 

I. 

Mackenzie 

35 

EXTERIORS. 

II. 

H.  Le  Keuv... 

5  Marquis  of  An-  ) 
I     glesey.              \ 

W.  R.  Boulton,  Esq. 

36 

III. 

Mackenzie 

J.  Le  Keux  ... 

37 

IV. 

Ditto,  Section  and  Elevation 

Potter 

H.  Le  Keux... 

Rev.  Dr.  Buckeridge 

38 

V. 

Mackenzie 

J.  Le  Keux.... 

Sir  Osw.  Mosley,  Bt. 

39 

VI. 

View  of  the  Cathedral  from  S.  E. 

INTERIORS. 

Mackenzie 

J.  Le  Keux.... 

Rev.  H.  Bailye  , 

39 

VII. 

Mackenzie 

J.  Le  Keux.... 

Rev.  J.  Madan,  M.  A. 

40 

VIII. 

f  Half  Elevation,  Half  Section, ) 
(      of  Transept,  Arc S 

Johnson.... 

J.  Le  Keux.... 

Rev.  H.  White...... 

41 

IX. 

Compartments  of  Nave  and  Choir 

Turrell 

41 

X. 

Cleghorn  

Radclyfie, 
Woolnoth 

SirEdw.Paget.K.B. 

C  G.  W.  Taylor, ) 
\       Esq.  M.P.      J 

J.  W.  Russell,  Esq. 

42 

XI. 

ia 

XII. 

Mackenzie 

43 

XIII. 

Arches,  &c.  in  Chapter  House 

$  Capital  in  Chapter  House,  and  ) 

Mackenzie 
Mackenzie 

Rev.  Archd.  Nares .. 

43 

XIV. 

J.  Le  Keux  ... 

44 

XV. 

Mackenzie 

J.  LeKeux.... 

R.  J.  Harper,  Esq. 

44 

XVI. 

Mackenzie 

tH.LeKiuxi 

Dean  of  Lichfield... 

44,  49 

•  The  general  Measurements  of  the  church  are  marked  on  Plates  I.  IV.  and  VII. 


INDEX. 


Abbot,  bp.  58,  66  ;  portraits  of,  71. 
Anglo-Saxons,  remarks  on,  9. 

B. 
Bayne,  bp.  58. 

Bishops  of  Lichfield,  &c.  55  ;  list  of,  65. 
Books,  list  of,  69. 
Brackets,  views  of  six,  PI.  XIV. 

C. 

Carter,  John,  a  visionary  antiquary,  26. 

Ceadda,  or  Chad,  saint  and  bishop,  13;  mi- 
racle attributed  to,  14, 15;  shrine  of,  28. 

Cathedral  Church,  despoiled  of  orna- 
ments, 22;  first  founded,  15,  24;  rebuilt 
by  Bp.  Clinton,  26 ;  licence  to  dig  stone  for, 
27 ;  lady  chapel  built,  28  ;  in  its  "  vertical 
height,"  28;  much  injured  in  the  civil  wars, 
29,  30;  repaired  under  Mr.  Wyatt,  32; 
situation  and  description  of,  33 ;  approaches 
to,  34  ;  exterior  and  interior,  35  ;  ground 
plan  of,  35;  west  front,  36,  37,  38,  39; 
north  transept,  door-way,  39 ;  south-east  view 
described,  39,  PI.  VI. ;  nave,  PI.  VII.  de- 
scribed, 40 ;  choir,  PI.  IX.  and  PI.  X.  de- 
scribed, 42. 

Chandler,  bp.  61,  67;  portrait,  71. 

Chantrey,  account  of  his  style  of  sculpture 
and  monument  by,  49,  50,  51. 

Chapter  house,  vestibule  to,  PI.  XII.  described, 
43;  arches  in,  PI.  XIII.  described,  43;  ca- 
pital of  centre  column,  PI.  XIV.  described, 
44;  date  of,  63. 

Clinton  de,  bp.  19,  65;  his  architecture,  26. 


Choir,  view  of,  PI.  X.  described,  42 ;  eleva- 
tion of  part,  PI.  IX. ;  date  of,  63. 

Christianity,  introduction  of,  into  Mercia  and 
to  Lichfield,  12,  24. 

Cornwallis,  bp.  61,  62,  67;  portrait,  72. 

Coventry,  see  of,  19;  and  Lichfield,  united 
title  of,  19 ;  bishops  of,  20  ;  and  Lichfield, 
disputes  between,  20,  21,  22;  monastic 
church  demolished,  22. 

Curie,  dean,  67,  72. 

D. 

Dates  of  building,  63. 
Diuma,  first  bp.  of  Mercia,  13. 
Deans,  list  of,  67. 

E. 

Egerton,  bp.  67 ;  portrait,  72. 


Frewen,  bp.  59,  66. 


F. 


G. 


Garrick,   Dr.  Johnson's  remark  on,  8;    bust 

of,  48. 
Glass,  stained,  32,  51. 

H. 

Hacket,  bp.  state  of  church  at  his  time,  30 ; 
monument  of,  47 ;  anecdotes  of,  59,  67 ; 
memoir,  70;  portrait,  71,  72. 

Hurd,  bp.  62,  66,  71. 

Heyworth,  bp.  28,  66. 

Hough,  bp.  life  of,  61,  66;  memoir  and  por- 
trait, 71. 


74 


INDEX. 


J. 

Johnson,  character  of,  7  ;  bust  of,  &c.  47. 


Lady  chapel  built,  28 ;  view  of,  PI.  XI.  de- 
scribed, 42. 

Langton,  bp.  benefactor  to  the  church,  27, 56 ; 
builder  of  lady  chapel,  28. 

Library  described,  63. 

Lichfield,  eminent  natives  and  inhabitants  of, 
and  associations  arising  therefrom,  7,  8 ; 
name  and  etymology  of,  10;  6rst  foundation 
of  a  church  at,  5;  see  of,  J  3,  15;  cathedral 
erected,  A.  D.  700,  17;  made  an  arch- 
bishopric, 18;  and  Coventry,  extent  of  dio- 
cess,  23 ;  two  monasteries  in,  and  antient 
state  of,  25. 

Lloyd,  bp.  61,  67;  portrait,  71. 

M. 

Miracle  attributed  to  St.  Chad,  14. 

Mercia,  introduction  of  Christianity  into,  11 ; 
church  founded  in,  13;  extent  of,  15  ;  divi- 
sion of  sees  in,  16. 

Montague,  Lady  M.  W.  monument  for  47 ; 
character  of  her  Letters,  47. 

Montagu,  dean,  67  ;  portrait,  72. 

Monuments,  remarks  on,  45 ;  fine  one,  by 
Chantrey,  44;  view  of,  PI.  XVI. 

Morton,  bp.  59,  66;  portrait,  71. 

N. 

Nave,  PI.  VII.  described,  40  ;    elevation,  PI. 

IX.  41  ;   date  of,  65. 
Neile,  bp.  38,  66. 
Newton,  Andrew,  charity  of,  and  monument, 

48. 


Nonant,  bp.  enemy  to  monks,  20,  56. 
North   transept,  door-way,  PI.  V.  described, 
39,41. 

O. 
Overall,  bp.  66;  portrait,  71. 

P. 

Peda  and  Panda,  government  and  wars  of,  12. 
Peterborough,  foundation  of  monastery,  14. 


R. 


Ross,  or  Rous,  MS.  of,  11. 


S. 


Sampson,  bp.  56,  66. 

Seward,  Rev.  Tho.  character  of,  48. 

Seward,  Miss,  character  of,  48. 

Scrope,  bp.  57,  66. 

Smallbroke,  bp.  61,  67 ;  portrait,  71. 

Spires  described,  37. 

Stavenby,  bp.  56,  67. 

Stretton,  bp.  57. 

Synod  at  Heorutford,  or  Retford,  15 ;  at  Hat- 
field, 16;  at  Cloveshoe,  18;  at  Calchyth, 
18. 

T. 

Theodore,  abp.  character  of,  16  note. 

W. 

Walmsley,  Dr.  Gilbert,  Johnson's  character 
of,  8. 

Windows,  painted,  32,  51,  52,  53. 

West  front  described,  35,  36,  37;  view  of, 
PI.  II. ;  centre  door-way,  PI.  III.  described, 
38 ;  section  of,  PI.  IV.  described,  38 ;  Car- 
ter's priut  of,  noticed,  38. 


FINIS. 


C.  WtmungliaiQ,  GoBcgs  liuuae,  Ctj^uick. 


f  A  TWEVITOHI  A  TT.     A  igTIIlQIM  fl'll'll  IF.S! 


Engraved. ~br  J.Le  Keux. 


MOHUMEHT   &N  THE  OTETM  fftll.   OF  THE  3LA3DY"  CHAPETL . 

Tu  the  REV?  HEHH.Y  LEE  "WA&NEH- ,  of    TTJmEK.TcW  <  ".OVIUDi  this  Plate  is  inscribed,  as  a.  tuki.111  of  friundahip  ~by 

THE  ATTTHOrt. 


Zffn&w ,  FuMi.rhivl  N.'v'J ,i;:,it> .  In/  Jlon.wm  X-  t' " rirt.rno.s'tcr How. 


THE 


HISTORY   AND   ANTIQUITIES 


THE     CATHEDRAL     CHURCH 


ftereforti: 

ILLUSTRATED  EY 

A  SERIES  OF  ENGRAVINGS 


VIEWS,     ELEVATIONS,    AND    PLANS    OF    THAT    EDIFICE. 


iSiograpjjical  gltucootcg  of  Imminent  persons  connected  foil!)  tljt  CFsstafilisjjment. 


BY  JOHN  BRITTON,  F.  S.  A. 

AND  MEMBER  OF  SEVERAL  OTHER  ENGLISH  AND  FOREIGN  LITERARY  SOCIETIES. 


'  t*"*^  EftJ 


IK.  11.  Bartlitt,  del. 


ONHMENTAL  NICHES  IN  S.  AILK  OF  CHOIR. 


S.   Willium*,  sc. 


Kontion : 

PUBLISHED  BY  LONGMAN,  REES,  ORME,  BROWN,  AND  GREEN,  PATERNOSTER  ROW  ;    THE  AUTHOR, 
BURTON  STREET  ;    AND  JOSEPH  TAYLOR,  59,  HIGH  HOLBORN. 

1831. 


c.  wHirrHOHAa.  CHBvncK. 


TO 

THE  HONOURABLE  AND  VERY  REVEREND 

EDWARD  GREY,  D.  D.  Dean  of  Hereford, 

AND  TO 

THE  REV.  HUGH  HANMER  MORGAN,  B.  D.  Chancellor  and  Canon  Residentiary, 

THE   REV.   THOMAS   HUNTINGFORD,   M.  A.    Precentor  and   Canon  Residentiary, 

THE  REV.  RICHARD  WALOND,  M.  A.,  Treasurer, 

THE  VENERABLE  J.  J.  CORBETT,  M.  A.,  Archdeacon  of  Salop, 

THE  VENERABLE  HENRY  WETHERELL,  B.  D.,  Archdeacon  of  Hereford, 

and 
THE  REV.  THOMAS  RUSSELL,  M.  A.,  THE  REV.  THOMAS  UNDERWOOD,  M.  A., 

THE  REV.  JOHN  CLUTTON,  D.  D.,  AND  THE  REV.  HENRY  C.  HOBART,  M.A., 

Canons  Residentiary, 

©fits  Volume 

ILLUSTRATIVE  OF  THE  HISTORY  AND  ARCHITECTURE  OF  THE  CATHEDRAL  OVER  WHICH  THEY  PRESIDE, 

IS,  WITH  PERMISSION,  RESPECTFULLY  INSCRIBED  BY 

Feb.  1831.  THE  AUTHOR. 


PREFACE. 

If  literature,  like  the  commerce,  trade,  and  manufactures  of  the 
country,  has  suffered  in  the  general  depression  of  the  times,  it  cannot 
excite  the  surprise  of  the  sound  politician;  for  he  is  aware  that 
every  thing  dependent  on  national  wealth  must  ebb  and  flow  with 
the  corresponding  fluctuations  of  the  country.  It  is,  however,  an 
admitted  fact,  that  the  higher  classes  of  literary  works  were  more 
encouraged,  and  better  appreciated,  when  the  nation  was  involved 
in  a  merciless  conflict  with  France  than  they  have  been  since.  It 
cannot  be  denied,  also,  that  during  the  last  twenty  years  literature, 
with  public  taste,  and  public  opinion,  have  undergone  a  palpable 
change.  The  reading  time,  and  reading  thoughts  of  men,  are  now 
almost  wholly  occupied  in  diurnal  politics,  cheap  and  attractive 
publications,  and  popular  novels  and  pamphlets.  These  emerge 
almost  daily  and  hourly  from  the  rapidly  multiplying  steam  presses 
of  the  time,  and  combined  with  engravings  on  steel,  which  produce 
almost  an  indefinite  number  of  impressions  of  prints,  and  with  the 
improved  execution  of  lithography,  have  cooperated  to  produce 
not  merely  a  reform,  but  a  real  revolution  in  literature.  Although 
in  this  great  change  the  "  Cathedral  Antiquities"  has  not 
been  surpassed  by  any  cheaper  rival  work,  nor  by  any  thing  com- 
peting with  it  in  all  the  different  departments  of  its  execution,  yet, 
as  its  sale  does  not  repay  the  expenses  appropriated  to  its  execution, 
it  is  not  reasonable  to  expect  that  either  author  or  publishers  will 
prosecute  such  a  publication  at  a  loss :  nor  can  they  reconcile 
themselves  to  the  mortifying  situation  of  continuing  the  work  at 
inferior  prices  and  reduced  quality. 

In  prosecuting  the  "  Cathedral  Antiquities,"  the  Author 
has  devoted  nearly  twenty  years  of  an  active,  anxious  life,  zealously 

b 


vi  PREFACE. 

devoted  to  the  subject ;  and  had  public  encouragement  kept  up 
rather  than  damped  his  energies,  he  would  ere  now  have  completed 
the  illustration  and  historical  display  of  all  the  English  Cathedrals. 

On  commencing  the  History  of  Hereford  Cathedral,  the  Author 
applied  to  the  late  Dean  for  permission  to  make  drawings,  and 
personally  to  examine  the  Church  under  his  care  and  custody ; 
soliciting  at  the  same  time  liberty  to  inspect  any  archives  that  would 
be  likely  to  elucidate  the  history,  and  thus  gratify  public  curiosity. 
He  further  intimated,  that  he  hoped  to  be  indulged  with  some  encou- 
ragement from  the  members  of  the  Cathedral,  as  he  had  hitherto 
struggled  with  inconveniences  and  losses  in  prosecuting  his  arduous 
and  expensive  publication.  Alarmed  at  this  intimation,  and  probably 
never  having  heard  of  the  "  Cathedral  Antiquities,"  or  its 
author,  the  timid  Dean  advised  the  antiquary  not  to  trouble  himself 
about  Hereford  Cathedral,  as  a  publication  on  it  might  be  likely  to 
involve  him  in  further  losses.  Thus  repressed,  and  certainly  not  a 
little  mortified,  the  Author  determined  to  leave  that  city,  and  seek  a 
more  courteous  and  kindly  reception  from  the  temporary  guardians 
of  another  Cathedral.  Some  gentlemen  of  the  city  and  county, 
attached  to  antiquarian  pursuits,  and  proud  of  their  provincial 
Minster,  not  only  urged  the  Author  to  prosecute  his  proposed  work, 
but  persuaded  their  respective  friends  to  patronize  it.  He  has 
complied  with  their  wishes ;  and  he  also  hopes  that  he  has  been 
fortunate  enough  to  gratify  their  expectations,  and  justify  their 
favourable  opinions.  For  the  local  patronage  he  has  received  he 
feels  obliged  and  is  grateful ;  and  cheerfully  acknowledges  that  the 
History  of  Hereford  Cathedral  has  experienced  more  support  from 
that  district  than  any  previous  volume  from  local  patronage.  A 
record  of  the  names  of  persons  who  have  thus  encouraged  the 
Author,  and  been  the  means  of  bringing  forward  the  present  volume, 
will  be  preserved  in  its  pages. 

That  the   Author  has    taken    some    pains    to    investigate    and 


PREFACE.  Vll 

elucidate  the  history  of  the  Cathedral,  will  appear  to  those  who 
will  examine  the  references  in  the  following;  sheets ;  and  that  he  has 
endeavoured  to  illustrate  and  exemplify  the  architectural  styles  and 
peculiarities  of  the  Church,  will  be  evident  to  all  persons  who  can 
appreciate  the  engravings  of  the  volume.  Having  been  engaged 
in  topographical  and  antiquarian  literature  for  more  than  thirty 
years,  and  read  and  analysed  the  published  works  of  every  English 
writer  on  the  Cathedrals,  and,  indeed,  on  all  other  antiquities,  the 
Author  now  ventures  to  express  his  opinions  on  some  occasions 
perhaps  rather  more  decidedly  and  plainly  than  is  customary  with 
churchmen  who  seek  preferment,  or  with  many  other  persons 
who  are  more  inclined  to  adopt  the  prejudices  and  dogmas  of 
sects  and  parties  than  think  for  themselves,  and  dare  express  their 
thoughts  in  unreserved  phraseology.  These  are  not  equivocating, 
temporizing  times :  and  an  author  is  not  deserving  that  honourable 
appellation  who  will  truckle  to  vice,  folly,  and  imbecility,  although 
it  may  be  decorated  with  a  crown,  mitre,  or  a  coronet. 

In  taking  leave  of  the  present  volume,  and  of  the  city  of  Hereford 
and  its  connexions,  the  author  most  cheerfully  tenders  his  best 
acknowledgments  and  thanks  to  the  following  gentlemen,  for  literary 
communications  and  personal  civilities: — The  Rev.  Henry  Lee 
Warner  :— The  Rev.  H.  H.  Morgan  :— The  Rev.  T.  Garbett  :— 
The  Rev.  A.  J.  Walker  :— Thos.  Bird,  Esq.  F.  S.  A. :— Richard 
Jones  Powell,  Esq.: — Dr.  Meyrick  :— Robert  Anderson, 
Esq. — The  Rev.  W.  J.  Rees  : — William  Hooper,  Esq.  ;— and 
Messrs.  Buckman,  R.  B.  Watkins,  and  Vale. 


SUBSCRIBERS 
TO  THE  HISTORY  OF  HEREFORD  CATHEDRAL, 

RESIDENT  IN  THE  VICINITY,  OR  CONNECTED  WITH  THE  COUNTY. 


The  Rev.  J.  Jones,  Hereford. 


FOLIO  PROOFS  AND  ETCHINGS. 

The  Rev.  Henry  Lee  "Warner. 
FOLIO  PROOFS. 


The  Very  Reverend  the  Dean  and  Chapter. 

The  Rev.  John  Clutton,  D.D.  Canon  Residentiary. 


The    Rev.   Thomas   Underwood,   M.  A.    Canon    Resi- 
dentiary. 


QUARTO  PROOFS  AND  ETCHINGS. 


The  Venerable  Archdeacon  Prosser. 

The  Rev.  H.  H.  Morgan,  B.  D.  Canon  Residentiary. 

B.  Biddulph,  Esq. 


Messrs.  Underwood  and  Evans. 
Mrs.  Davies,  Croft  Castle. 


LARGE  PAPER. 


The  Right  Reverend  the  Lord  Bishop  of  Hereford. 

Lord  Viscount  East  nor. 

Sir  John  Geers  Cotterell,  Bart. 

Lady  Coflin  Greenley. 

George  We  a  re  Braikenridge,  Esq.  F.  G.  S.  and  F.  S.  A. 

Thomas  Bird,  Esq.  Clerk  of  the  Peace  for  the  County. 

Joseph  Blissett,  Esq.  Letton. 

The  Rev.  Morgan  Cove,  D.C.L.  Chancellor  of  the  Church. 

The  Rev.  W.  Cooke,  M.  A.  Precentor. 

Thomas  Davies,  Esq.  Hereford. 

Edward  Evans,  Esq. 

Wi  C.  Has  ton,  Esq.  Moreton. 

The  Rev.  Henry  C.  Hohart,  31.  A.  Canon  Residentiary. 

The  Rev.  John  Hopton. 

The  Rev.  — Jones. 

Theophilus  Lane,  Esq.  Chapter  Clerk. 

J.  Bleek  Lye,  Esq.  M.  D. 


Captain  Manbv. 

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THE 

^tetorp  an&  antiquities 


OF 


HEREFORD    CATHEDRAL. 


LISHMENT  OF 

CATHEDRAL  OF  HEREFORD  J  WITH  NOTICES  OF  PUBLIC  EVENTS  CONNECTED  WITH 
THE  ESTABLISHMENT,  AND  BRIEF  ACCOUNTS  OF  THE  MOST  EMINENT  PRELATES 
WHO  HAVE  SUCCESSIVELY  PRESIDED  OVER  THE  DIOCESS. 

In  all  antiquarian  and  historical  narratives  it  is  very  desirable  to  trace  every 
fact,  or  presumed  fact,  to  its  source — to  ascertain  the  true  origin  and 
commencement  of  a  see,  a  state,  or  an  invention  which  by  time  and 
progressive  improvement  has  grown  to  importance  and  greatness ;  but, 
unfortunately,  our  curiosity  is  seldom  satisfied  on  these  points.  Antiquaries, 
perhaps,  more  than  any  other  class  of  writers,  are  destined  to  explore  the 
dark  and  obscure  labyrinths  of  legendary  story, — the  credulous  relations  of 
one  annalist,  and  the  misstatements  of  another  till  they  mistrust  the  accuracy 
and  fidelity  of  every  one.  An  endeavour  to  verify  the  date  of  the  first 
establishment  of  Christianity  in  this  part  of  Britain,  and  to  fix  the  foundation 
of  the  See  and  enthronement  of  the  first  prelate,  shew  how  extremely  difficult 
it  is  to  arrive  at  facts,  and  to  obtain  satisfactory  evidence.  It  is  not  sufficient 
that  a  cloistered  chronicler  of  the  tenth  century  states  on  his  parchment  roll, 
or  in  an  abbey  register,  that  a  certain  event  occurred  at  a  given  time  in  a 

B 


2  HEREFORD  CATHEDRAL. 

previous  century;  for  he  may  have  been  misinformed,  or  he  may  have 
credulously  and  unhesitatingly  have  repeated  what  had  been  related  by  a 
former  scribe.  The  monkish  annalists  of  the  olden  times  rarely,  if  ever, 
exercised  a  fastidious  spirit  of  inquiry,  or  manifested  much  discrimination  in 
their  writings.  William  of  Malmesbury  may  be  regarded  as  the  best  of  the 
class.  From  such  sources,  however,  it  is  almost  impracticable  to  obtain  a  firm 
unequivocal  foundation  for  the  history  of  any  antient  religious  establishment. 
Wanting  this,  we  must  supply  its  place  with  the  best  materials  which  can  be 
gleaned  from  old  writers,  or  from  the  learned  inferences  of  modern  authors. 
All  these  will  be  carefully  and  scrupulously  employed  on  the  present  occasion ; 
and  whilst  it  will  be  both  a  duty  and  pleasure  to  me  to  exercise  the  most 
diligent  exertion  to  obtain,  and  the  best  judgment  to  display  authorities, 
the  reader  will  doubtlessly  admit  only  such  evidence  as  satisfies  his  own 
mind. 

As  the  city  of  Hereford  has  nothing  indicative  of  Roman  occupancy, 
either  in  name  or  remains,  we  must  refer  its  origin,  or  at  least  its  historical 
distinction,  to  an  Anglo-Saxon  era.  Seated  in  that  part  of  England  which 
constituted  the  Mercian  kingdom,  we  find  the  annals  of  the  town  and  See 
intimately  blended  with  those  of  the  government,  the  wars,  and  the  institu- 
tions of  the  state.  In  the  "  History  of  Lichfield  Cathedral"  I  have  already 
had  occasion  to  notice  the  establishment  of  Christianity  in  the  Mercian 
province  early  in  the  seventh  century :  Archbishop  Usher,  however,  states 
that  there  was  a  See  at  Hereford  as  early  as  544,  when  an  archbishop  resided 
at  St.  David's.  In  601  a  Bishop  of  Hereford  is  said  to  have  been  one  of 
seven  English  prelates  who  attended  an  ecclesiastical  synod  at  Canterbury 
under  Augustin,  when  Pope  Gregory's  answers  to  that  archbishop's  questions 
were  discussed.  According  to  some  authors  the  Mercian  bishopric  was 
divided  into  five,  in  the  year  673,  by  Archbishop  Theodore's  canons. 
Johnson,  in  his  "  Collection  of  Ecclesiastical  Laws,"  admits  that  the  history 
of  the  church,  at  that  period,  "  is  very  dark."  King  Ethelred  having 
devastated  part  of  Kent,  drove  Bishop  Putta  from  his  seat  at  Rochester, 
who,  after  wandering  about  for  some  time  instructing  the  clergy  in  music, 
was  appointed  by  Theodore,  Archbishop  of  Canterbury,  to  a  new  See  at 


BISHOP  CUTHBERT,  AND  KING  ETHELBERT.  3 

Hereford.  Ralph  Higden  intimates  that  he  paid  more  attention  to  music 
than  to  his  new  office  :  and  we  seek  in  vain  to  find  any  memorable  act  or  event 
connected  with  his  life  or  prelacy.  We  find  the  names  of  Tirktell,  Tortere, 
and  Walstod  in  sequence  to  that  of  Putta,  and  learn  that  the  last  commenced 
a  magnificent "  cross  of  gold  and  silver,"  which  Ctjthbert,  the  next  prelate, 
finished,  and  caused  to  have  inscribed  upon  it  some  verses  commemorative  of 
his  predecessors.  "  The  character  of  Cuthbert,"  observes  Mr.  Buncombe, 
u  as  far  as  can  now  be  collected,  appears  to  have  been  that  of  a  man  of 
probity  and  worth.  He  reformed  many  errors  in  the  conduct  of  the  clergy, 
as  well  as  in  that  of  the  laity ;  and,  by  his  injunctions,  the  Lord's  prayer  and 
the  Apostles'  creed  were  read  to  the  people  in  the  English  language.  He 
also  obtained  from  the  Pope  a  dispensation  for  allowing  burials  within  towns 
and  cities,  a  practice  not  allowed  before  his  time,  which  was  much  abused 
afterwards,  and  which  might  well  have  been  omitted  always1."  In  741,  he 
was  translated  to  the  See  of  Canterbury,  which  he  held  until  his  death 2. 

Podda,  his  successor,  was  present  at  an  ecclesiastical  council  held  at 
Clovesho,  in  747 ;  K  Wulwardtjs  Herefordensis  Ep.  orientaliu  Anglorum " 
is  enumerated  as  one  of  those  bishops  who  became  suffragan  to  the  Arch- 
bishop of  Litchfield,  when  that  See  had  been  made  metropolitan  in  the  place 
of  Canterbury3.  Hereford,  as  well  as  the  whole  Mercian  kingdom,  was 
destined  to  experience  considerable  changes  about  this  time.  In  793, 
Ethelbert,  King  of  the  East  Angles,  visited  the  court  of  Offa,  the  Mercian 
King,  to  claim  the  hand  of  his  daughter  ^Elfrida  in  marriage.  The  Queen  of 
Offa,  however,  opposed  the  match,  and  insinuated  that  the  marriage  was 
only  sought  as  a  pretext  to  occupy  the  Mercian  throne.  Indignant  at  this, 
Offa  employed  an  assassin  to  murder  his  guest,  by  cutting  off  his  head, 
which  being  effected,  the  body  was  privately  buried  on  the  bank  of  the  river 
"  Lugg,"  near  Hereford.     According  to  the  Monkish  Annalist,  "  on  the  night 

1  History,  &c.  of  the  County  of  Hereford,  vol,  i.  p.  449. 

2  See  History,  &c.  of  Canterbury  Cathedral,  pp.  13  and  27. 

3  Matthew  of  Westminster,  edit.  1601,  p.  143.  This  measure  was  effected  by  the  influence 
of  Offa,  King  of  Mercia,  in  resentment  for  some  injury,  real  or  pretended,  which  he  had  sustained 
from  the  Archbishop  of  Canterbury. 


4  HEREFORD  CATHEDRAL. 

of  his  burial  a  column  of  light,  brighter  than  the  sun,  arose  towards  heaven  j* 
and  three  nights  afterwards  the  figure  (or  ghost)  of  King  Ethelbert  appeared 
to  Brithfrid,  a  nobleman,  and  commanded  him  to  convey  the  body  to  a  place 
called  '  Stratus  Waye,'  and  to  inter  it  near  the  monastery  there.  Guided  by 
another  column  of  light  Brithfrid,  having  placed  the  body  and  the  head  on  a 
carriage,  proceeded  on  his  journey.  The  head  fell  from  the  vehicle,  but 
having  been  discovered  by  a  "  blind  man,"  to  whom  it  miraculously  commu- 
nicated sight,  was  restored  by  him  to  the  careless  driver.  Arrived  at  his 
place  of  destination,  which,  according  to  the  Chronicler,  was  then  called  in 
English  u  Femlega,"  in  Latin  "  Saltus  Silicis,"  and  which  has  siuce  been 
termed  Hereford,  he  there  interred  the  body. 

Asser,  the  biographer  of  King  Alfred,  relates  that  the  miracles  worked 
at  the  tomb  of  the  martyred  monarch  were  so  numerous  and  incredible  that 
Ofia  was  induced  to  send  two  bishops  to  Hereford  to  ascertain  the  truth  of 
them.  These  messengers  having  had  an  opportunity  of  witnessing  the 
saiut's  interposition  in  favour  of  a  Welsh  nobleman  who  had  been  afflicted 
with  the  palsy,  reported  the  same  to  their  royal  master,  who,  as  an  expiation 
for  his  crime  of  incredulity,  conferred  on  the  Saint  a  tenth  of  all  his  posses- 
sions, "  many  of  which,"  adds  the  Chronicler,  "  the  church  of  Hereford  now 
holds4."  This  frivolous,  but  sinister  romance,  is  related  here  merely  as 
illustrative  of  the  superstition  of  the  times. 

After  the  death  of  Ofl'a,  and  of  his  son  Egfrid,  Milfred,  who  was  viceroy, 
according  to  the  same  authority,  expended  a  large  sum  of  money  in  building 
"  an  admirable  stone  church"  (ecclesiam  egregiam,  lapidea  structura)  at 
Hereford,  which  he  consecrated  and  dedicated  to  the  murdered  monarch, 
and  endowed  with  lands  and  enriched  with  ornaments. 

When  Milfred  re-founded  the  Church  of  Hereford,  he  is  reported  to  have 
appointed  a  Bishop,  but  the  name  of  that  person  is  not  given.  Acea  was 
present  at  the  council  of  Beaconsfield  in  800 5;  Cedda,  by  the  words  "  ego 
Cedda  Herefordensis  aspiravi,"  subscribed  as  witness  to  a  charter  granted 


*  Chronicon  Johannis  Brorupton,  in  Decern  script,  ap  Twisden,  ed.  lGo'2,  col.  750, 
5  Wilkin's  Concilia  Magnae  Britannia:,  vol.  i.  p.  1G2. 


BUILDING  AND  DESTRUCTION  OF  THE  CATHEDRAL.  5 

by  Whitlaf,  King  of  Mercia,  to  the  abbey  of  Croyland  in  833 6 ;  lie  died  in 
857,  and  was  succeeded  by  Albert.  Of  the  intervening  bishops  until  the 
commencement  of  the  eleventh  century  nothing  is  known  but  their  names, 
and  even  those  are  disputed.  William  of  Malmesbury,  who  with  trifling 
variations  has  been  followed  by  Leland  and  all  subsequent  writers,  thus 
enumerates  them:  — "  Esna,  Celmund,  Utel,  Wlfeard,  Benna,  Edulf, 
Cutulf,  Mucel,  Deorlaf,  Cunemund,  Edgar,  Tidhelm,  Wlfhelm,  Alfricus, 
Athulfus,  and 

Ethelstan7.  During  the  long  and  obstinate  contests  which  preceded  the 
establishment  of  the  Danish  dominion  in  England,  the  Church  of  St.  Ethel- 
bert,  in  common  with  the  other  religious  establishments  of  the  country, 
doubtless  suffered  from  the  ravages  of  war :  the  episcopal  lands  were 
desolated,  the  ecclesiastics  dispersed,  and  the  conventual  buildings,  with 
the  Church,  became  ruinous.  Ethelstan,  immediately  after  his  appointment 
to  the  bishopric,  is  reported  to  have  repaired,  or,  according  to  some 
authorities,  re-built  the  Cathedral  of  Hereford.  His  exertions  were,  however, 
of  no  avail,  for  during  the  continuance  of  hostilities  between  King  Edward 
the  Confessor,  and  Algar,  the  son  of  Leofric,  Duke  of  Mercia,  who  had  been 
unjustly  deprived  of  his  estates  and  banished  the  realm — the  canons  were 
slain  or  taken  prisoners,  the  sanctified  relics  of  the  martyred  Ethelbert  were 
destroyed,  and  the  Church  was  materially  injured  by  fire. 

The  writer  of  the  Saxon  Chronicle,  under  the  year  1055,  speaking  of 
the  ravages  and  enormities  perpetrated  by  Earl  Algar,  and  his  ally,  Griffin, 
King  of  Wales,  says  : — "  They  went  to  the  town  (of  Hereford)  and  burnt  it 
utterly,  and  the  large  minster  also,  which  the  worthy  Bishop  Athelstan  had 
caused  to  be  built,  that  they  plundered  and  bereft  of  relic  and  of  reef,  and 
of  all  things  whatever,  and  the  people  they  slew  and  led  some  away 8."  The 
Chronicle  of  Mailros,  under  the  same  year,  more  explicitly  states,  that  the 
Danes  "  burnt  the  city  of  Hereford,  and  the  Monastery  of  St.  Albert,  the 

6  Hist.  Ingulphi,  in  Gale's  Quindecim  Scriptores,  ed.  1691,  vol.  i.  p.  2. 

7  William  of  Malmesbury,  De  Gestis  Pontificium  Anglorum  in  Script,  post  Bedam,  ed.  1601, 
p.  285. 

8  Saxon  Chronicle,  Ingram's  ed.  p.  245. 


6  HEREFORD  CATHEDRAL. 

King  and  Martyr,  and  slew  the  canons  and  about  four  hundred  others  9." 
Simon  of  Durham  and  Roger  Hovedon  both  concur  in  stating  that  "  Earl 
Algar  and  his  partisans  entered  Hereford,  and  having  slain  seven  canons 
who  were  defending  the  entrance  of  the  principal  basilica  (principalis 
basilicas),  and  burnt  the  monastery  which  the  good  Bishop  Athelstan  had 
built,  with  all  the  ornaments  and  the  relics  of  St.  Ethelbert  and  other 
saints,  they  killed  and  took  captive  the  townsmen,  and  reduced  the  city  to 
ashes 10." 

Athelstan  did  not  long  survive  the  calamities  which  had  befallen  the 
establishment  over  which  he  presided,  but  died  February  10,  1055,  and 
was  interred  at  Hereford  "  in  the  Church  which  he  had  built  from  the 
foundations  (in  ecclesia  quam  ipse  construxerat  a  fu?idamentisn")  He  had 
for  thirteen  years  previously  been  afflicted  with  blindness,  and  the  duties  of 
his  office  had  been  fulfilled  by  the  Bishop  of  St.  David's.  To  Athelstan 
succeeded 

Leofgar,  "  Earl  Harold's  mass-priest,"  who  had  held  the  See  only  three 
months,  when,  to  check  an  hostile  incursion  of  the  Welsh,  he  exchanged  the 
mitre  and  the  crozier  for  the  helmet  and  the  sword,  and  led  his  retainers  to 
the  battle-field.  The  carual  weapons  appear,  indeed,  to  have  been  more 
familiar  to  him  than  the  spiritual  ones,  for,  accordiug  to  the  Saxon  Chronicler, 
"  he  wore  his  knapsack  in  his  priesthood,  and  when  he  was  made  a  bishop, 
relinquished  his  chrism  and  his  rood,  and  took  to  his  sword  and  spear 12." 
The  expedition  was,  however,  unsuccessful,  and  Leofgar,  with  many  of  his 
followers,  were  slain.  He  has  been  characterised  by  Matthew  of  West- 
minster, as  "  a  servant  of  God,  a  man  perfect  in  religion,  a  lover  of  churches, 
a  reliever  of  the  poor,  a  defender  of  widows  and  orphans,  and  the  possessor 
of  chastity." 

0  Quindecim  Scriptores,  ap.  Gale,  ed.  1691,  vol.  i.  p.  158. 

10  Simon  Dunelm  in  Decern  Script,  ed.  1652,  col.  188,  and  Roger  Hoveden  in  Script,  post 
Bedam,  ed.  1601,  p.  443. 

"  Roger  Hoveden,  in  Script,  post  Bed.  p.  444.  From  this  passage  it  may  be  inferred  that 
the  Church  of  St.  Ethelbert  had  not  been  wholly  destroyed  by  Earl  Algar:  but  that  the  wood 
work  and  combustible  parts  only  were  supposed  to  have  been  burnt. 

12  Saxon  Chronicle,  Ingram's  ed.  p.  246. 


BISHOPS  WALTER  AND  LOZING,  A.  D.  1069—1094.  7 

After  Leofgar's  death,  the  vacant  See  was  granted  in  trust  to  Aldred, 
Bishop  of  Worcester,  on  whose  promotion  to  the  archbishopric  of  York,  in 
1060,  it  was  conferred  by  King  Edward  the  Confessor  on 

Walter,  a  native  of  Lorraine,  and  chaplain  to  Queen  Egitha13.  Being  a 
foreigner,  he  was  favoured  by  the  new  Norman  monarch,  who  allowed  him  to 
retain  his  ecclesiastical  honours  and  emoluments,  when  many  other  prelates 
and  abbots  who  had  opposed  the  Normans  were  dispossessed  of  their 
respective  appointments,  and  their  places  supplied  by  either  dependants  or 
countrymen  of  the  Conqueror.  One  of  his  enemies  invented  a  ridiculous 
and  humiliating  story  against  the  bishop,  which  was  readily  believed  and 
circulated  by  those  clergy  who  had  been  superseded  by  foreigners.  This 
tale  having  reached  the  court,  excited  the  severe  reprehension  of  the  monarch, 
who  issued  an  injunction  of  punishment  against  any  person  who  should  be 
convicted  of  slandering  the  calumniated  bishop14. 

Robert  Lozing,  Robertus  Lotharingus,  or  Robert  op  Lorraine,  next 
succeeded,  and  was  consecrated  in  1079.  As  a  poet,  a  mathematician,  and 
an  architect  he  was  superior  to  most  of  the  churchmen  of  the  age  in  which  he 
lived  :  but  was  so  superstitious,  that  when  requested  by  Remigius,  Bishop 
of  Lincoln,  to  attend  at  the  dedication  of  the  church  in  that  city,  he  consulted 
the  stars,  and  fancying  them  unpropitious,  declined  the  journey.  Intimate 
with  Wulstan,  Bishop  of  Worcester,  it  is  related  in  the  silly  Monkish 
Annals,  that  during  the  last  illness  of  that  prelate,  Lozing  being  at  court,  a 
vision  of  his  friend  appeared  to  him  in  a  dream,  and  said,  "  If  you  wish  to 
see  me  before  I  die,  hasten  to  Worcester."  Obtaining  leave  from  the  king, 
he  travelled  night  and  day  till  he  reached  Cricklade,  where,  overcome  by 
fatigue,  he  retired  to  rest.  The  vision  again  appeared,  and  said,  "  Thou 
hast  done  what  fervent  love  could  dictate,  but  art  too  late.  I  am  now  dead, 
and  thou  wilt  not  long  survive  me :  but  lest  thou  should'st  consider  this  as  a 
fantastic  dream,  know,  that  after  my  body  has  been  committed  to  the  earth, 
a  gift  shall  be  given  thee,  which  thou  shalt  recognise  as  having  belonged  to 


13  Hist.  Ingulphi  in  Quindecim  Script,  ap.  Gale,  ed.  1691,  vol.  i.  p.  67. 

14  William  of  Malmesbury,  in  Script,  post  Bedam,  ed.  1601,  p.  286. 


8  HEREFORD  CATHEDRAL. 

nie."  On  the  following  morning  Bishop  Lozing  proceeded  to  Worcester, 
and  having  performed  the  obsequies  of  his  deceased  friend,  was  preparing  to 
return  home,  when  the  prior  said  to  him,  "  Receive  as  a  testimony  of  our 
departed  lord's  love  this  lamb  skin  cap  which  he  long  wore."  These  words 
caused  "  his  blood  to  run  cold,"  for  he  remembered  the  prediction  that  he 
had  not  long  to  live :  and  the  same  annalist  relates  that  Wulstan  died  in 
January,  1094,  and  Robert  did  not  survive  the  following  June.  Bishop 
Lozing  is  celebrated  as  having  commenced  the  re-building  of  the  Church  of 
Hereford,  which  had  remained  in  ruins  since  the  time  of  Earl  Algar.  He  is 
said  to  have  adopted  as  a  model  the  church  of  Aken,  now  called  Aix-la- 
Chapelle,  in  Germany  ,5,  which  is  supposed  to  have  been  erected  by  Charle- 
magne. 

Gerard,  the  nephew  of  Walkelin,  Bishop  of  Winchester,  and  chancellor 
both  to  William  the  Conqueror  and  William  Rufus,  succeeded  to  the 
Bishopric  of  Hereford  ;  but  being  promoted  in  the  following  year  to  the 
archiepiscopal  see  of  York ,6,  King  Henry  I.  appointed  Roger  Lardarius, 
who,  as  his  name  implies,  was  a  servant  of  the  royal  household.  This 
person  died  at  London,  before  he  had  received  the  rites  of  consecration, 
which,  according  to  William  of  Malmesbury,  he  was  so  anxious  to  enjoy, 
that  on  his  death-bed  he  sent  to  the  Archbishop  of  Canterbury  to  attend  him 
tor  that  purpose ".  After  Roger's  decease,  the  King,  in  defiance  of  the 
ecclesiastical  canons,  which  forbade  churchmen  to  receive  investiture  from 
lay  hands,  preferred  to  the  bishopric,  in  1102, 

Raynelm,  or  Raynald,  the  Queen's  chancellor18.  The  Pope,  however, 
refused  to  confirm  the  appointment,  and  Anselm,  Archbishop  of  Canterbury, 
having  in  the  following  year  explained  to  the  King,  in  a  general  council  held 
in  St.  Paul's  Church,  London,  the  relative  privileges  of  the  clergy  and  the 
laity,  Reynald,  notwithstanding  the  opposition  made  by  his  royal  master, 
surrendered  his  bishopric  IQ.     Henry,  exasperated  at  his  ready  compliance 

15  William  of  Malmesbury  in  Scriptores  post  Bedam,  ed.  1601,  p.  286. 

16  Eadmeri  Hist,  sui  Saeculi,  ed.  1622,  p.  35.  62. 

17  William  of  Malmesbury,  ut  supra. 

18  Matthew  Paris,  per  Watts  ed.  1640,  p.  58.  19  Ibid,  p.  59. 


BISHOPS  CLIVE,  CAPELLA,  AND  BETUN,  A.  D.  1115 — 1148.  9 

with  the  will  of  the  archbishop,  banished  him  from  court,  and  it  was  not  until 
1107,  when  it  had  been  decided  that  those  prelates  who  had  been  instituted 
by  the  King  should  retain  their  sees,  that  he  was  confirmed  in  his  office.  He 
performed  the  duties  of  his  station  with  great  credit,  but  it  is  related  that  he 
was  addicted  to  intemperance,  and  dying  of  the  gout  in  111520,  he  was 
interred  in  his  Cathedral.  In  an  obituary  of  the  Canons  of  Hereford, 
Reynelm  is  commemorated  in  these  words :  u  5  Kal.  Oct.  obitus  Renelmi 
episcopi,  fundatoris  ecclesioe  Sancti  Ethelberti21."  From  this  passage  it  has 
been  inferred  that  Reynelm  completed  the  new  Church  which  had  been 
commenced  by  his  predecessor. 

Geoffry  de  Clive,  or  de  Clyve,  the  succeeding  Bishop,  was  distinguished 
for  his  temperance  and  the  simplicity  of  his  dress;  he  was  partial  to 
agricultural  pursuits,  by  which  he  increased  the  episcopal  revenues.  He 
died  in  February,  1119,  having  presided  over  the  See  only  four  years.  The 
short  lives  of  the  two  last  prelates  gave  rise  to  a  proverb,  "  That  no  Bishop 
of  Hereford  lives  long 22." 

Richard  de  Capella,  the  u  clerk  of  the  seal,"  succeeded  to  the  vacant 
See,  January  6,  1121 23,  but  held  it  only  six  years,  when  he  died  at  Ledbury, 
and  was  interred  in  his  own  Church.  This  prelate  contributed  much  towards 
building  the  Wye-Bridge  at  Hereford.  He  had  a  dispute  with  the  contem- 
porary Bishop  of  Landaff,  respecting  the  boundaries  of  their  respective 
diocesses,  which  was  referred  to  Pope  Honorius  II.,  and  by  his  holiness 
transferred  to  the  Archbishop  of  Canterbury. 

Robert  de  Betun,  a  native  of  Flanders,  who  had  previously  been  Prior 
of  Lanthony,  was  consecrated,  according  to  Godwin,  at  Oxford,  in  1131. 
From  an  account  of  his  life,  written  by  William  de  Wycumb,  his  successor 
in  the  priory,  the  following  particulars  are  derived.  His  parents  were  of 
superior  rank,  and  he  received  his  early  education  from  Gunfrid  his  brother, 

20  Will.  Malmesb.  in  Script,  post.  Bedam,  ed.  1601,  p.  287,  Matth.  of  Westminster,  and  Ralph 
de  Diceot. 

21  Hist,  and  Antiq.  of  the  Cathedral  Church  of  Hereford,  8ro.  Lond.  1713,  App.  p.  27. 

22  Will.  Malmesb.  in  Script,  post.  Bed.  p.  289. 

23  Annales  Winton.  in  Wharton's  Anglia  Sacra,  vol.i.  p.  298. 

C 


10  HEREFORD  CATHEDRAL. 

a  teacher  of  celebrity.  When  very  young  he  was  distinguished  for  great 
attention  to  his  studies  :  and  delighted  so  much  in  prayer,  fasting,  and  other 
religious  exercises  that  he  obtained  the  appellation  of  "  our  father."  Deter- 
mined to  lead  a  monastic  life,  he  became  a  canon  in  the  Priory  of  Lanthony, 
and  obtained  celebrity  for  his  theological  acquirements,  and  for  his  strict 
adherence  to  the  rules  of  his  order.  On  the  death  of  Hugh  de  Lacy,  Earl  of 
Hereford,  he  was  appoiuted  to  superintend  the  building  of  a  religious  house 
at  Weobley,  where  that  nobleman  was  buried.  According  to  his  biographer, 
he  exerted  himself  so  much,  by  working  as  a  common  labourer,  that  his 
health  was  injured,  and  he  was  recalled  to  the  Priory  he  had  previously  left, 
where  he  was  soon  afterwards  made  superior.  In  this  new  situation  he  soon 
became  pre-eminent  for  all  the  cardinal  virtues.  By  his  endeavours,  the 
number  of  canons  was  increased,  religious  duties  were  more  strictly  attended 
to,  the  good  rewarded,  the  evil  exhorted  and  reproved,  insomuch  that  his 
fame  spread  over  the  whole  kingdom.  The  See  of  Hereford  being  vacant, 
Betun  was  recommended  to  the  King  by  the  Earl  of  Gloucester,  as  a  fit 
person  to  enjoy  the  episcopal  dignity,  and  the  bishopric  was  consequently 
offered  to  him,  which,  after  much  hesitation,  he  accepted24. 

Of  his  activity  in  the  prompt  discharge  of  the  duties  of  office,  his 
perhaps  too  partial  biographer  gives  an  animated  and  elaborate  account, 
which  he  concludes  with  some  general  observations  on  his  character  and 
disposition ;  whence  it  is  inferred  that  he  possessed  almost  every  virtue 
belonging  to  man.  As  an  instance  of  his  humanity  and  disregard  of  per- 
sonal safety,  it  is  said  that  when  journeying  with  one  of  his  canons,  the 
latter,  more  intent  upon  psalm  singing  than  the  management  of  his  horse,  fell 
over  a  bridge  into  the  river  beneath.  The  bishop,  perceiving  the  accident, 
unhesitatingly  leaped  into  the  water,  and  having  rescued  the  canon  from  his 
perilous  situation,  received  the  applauses  of  all,  whilst  the  unfortunate  priest 
was  derided  as  an  effeminate  knight,  who  could  not  make  a  day's  journey 

24  Vita  Roberti  Betun  Ep.  Heref.  in  Wharton's  Anglia  Sacra,  vol.  ii.  p.  297,  et  seq.  There 
is  a  manuscript  Life  of  Betun  in  the  library  of  the  episcopal  palace  at  Lambeth;  another  was  in 
the  library  of  Holm-Lacy;  and  Thomas  Bird,  Esq.  of  Hereford,  has  either  a  copy  of  it  or  another 
memoir. 


BISHOPS  BETUN  AND  G.  FOLIOT,  A.  D.  1148—1163.  H 

without  refreshing  himself  with  a  bath.  Another  instance  of  his  humanity, 
no  less  creditable  to  him,  is  related.  Travelling  in  an  unfrequented  part 
of  the  country,  he  heard  a  child  crying,  and  soon  found  its  mother,  appa- 
rently sleeping,  by  the  road  side.  On  examination,  however,  the  woman 
pi-oved  to  be  dead,  when  the  humane  prelate  not  only  conveyed  the  body  on 
his  own  horse  to  a  place  of  interment,  but  performed  the  funeral  rites,  and 
made  ample  provision  for  the  support  of  the  orphan. 

Notwithstanding  the  suavity  of  Bishop  Betun's  disposition,  the  inferior 
officers  of  his  church  rebelled  against  his  authority,  and  he  was  necessitated 
to  appeal  to  the  court  of  Rome  for  protection.  He  had  scarcely  obtained  the 
papal  sentence  in  his  favour  when  he  was  assailed  by  troubles  from  another 
quarter.  During  the  contentions  between  Stephen  and  the  Empress  Maud  for 
the  throne,  the  country  was  almost  devastated  by  the  warlike  adherents  of 
the  contending  parties.  The  city  and  diocess  of  Hereford  were  involved  in 
the  general  calamity  attendant  upon  civil  war.  The  episcopal  lands  were  laid 
waste,  and  many  of  the  buildings  demolished,  the  clergy  were  dispersed, 
the  Cathedral  was  deserted,  and  the  Bishop  himself  compelled  to  seek  safety 
in  disguise  and  flight.  Peace,  however,  was  once  more  restored;  Betun 
returned  to  his  See,  recalled  his  scattered  flock,  cleaned  and  repaired  the 
Cathedral,  and  caused  divine  service  to  be  again  celebrated  within  its  walls. 

From  the  following  passage  in  Madox's  History  of  the  Exchequer, 
vol.  i.  p.  306,  it  may  be  inferred  that  in  or  shortly  before  the  fifth  of  King 
Stephen  (1139-40),  the  bishopric  of  Hereford  was  vested  in  the  crown: — 
"  Gaufridus  Cancellarius  r.  c.  de  iiij'\  &  xijs.  &  yjd.  de  veteri  firma  Episcopatus 
de  Hereford." — Mag.  Rot.  in  Scac.  5  Steph.  r.  14.  b.  This  strongly  corrobo- 
rates the  statement  of  Betun's  biographer. 

Our  prelate  was  soon  afterwards  summoned  by  Pope  Eugenius  to  a 
general  council  held  at  Rheims,  in  which  city  he  died  on  the  tenth  kalends 
of  May,  1 148.  His  remains  were  brought  to  England,  and  interred  in  the 
Church  of  which  he  had  been  so  distinguished  a  member. 

Of  Gilbert  Foliot,  Abbot  of  Gloucester,  who  was  preferred  to  the  See 
of  Hereford  in  1149,  and  translated  to  that  of  London  fourteen  years  after- 


12  HEREFORD  CATHEDRAL. 

wards,  a  memoir  has  been  given  in  the  author's  "  History  of  Gloucester 
Cathedral25." 

Robert  de  Meltjn,  called  Robertas  Dunelmensis,  Prior  of  Lanthony, 
next  succeeded,  and  was  consecrated  at  Canterbury  on  the  22d  of  December, 
116326.  He  died  on  the  4th  kalends  of  March,  1167,  and  was  interred  in  the 
south  aile  of  the  Cathedral,  where  an  inscription  records  his  name.  He  is 
designated  by  the  author  of  the  annals  of  St.  David's,  "  Episcopus  Anglorum 
sapientissimus27."  In  consequence  of  the  disputes  between  the  King  and  the 
clergy,  which  preceded  and  followed  the  murder  of  Archbishop  Becket,  the 
See  of  Hereford  remained  vacant  six  years,  during  which  time  its  possessions 
were  let  to  farm,  and  the  profits  thence  arising  paid  into  the  exchequer28. 
When,  however,  the  King  had  submitted  to  the  papal  authority,  in  1173, 

Robert  Foliot,  Archdeacon  of  Oxford,  a  personal  friend  and  fellow 
student  of  Archbishop  Becket,  was  appointed  bishop,  and  was  consecrated 
on  the  6th  of  October,  in  the  following  year29.  Foliot  was  one  of  the  four 
English  bishops  who,  in  1179,  attended  the  Lateran  council  for  the  purpose 
of  making  oath  that  they  would  not  do,  or  cause  to  be  done,  any  thing  to 


25  He  was  annually  commemorated  by  the  Canons  of  Hereford  on  the  13th  kalend  of 
February,  as  one  "  qui  multa  bona  coutulit  Herefordensi  capitulo."  Hist,  and  Antiq.  of  the 
Cath.  of  Hereford,  App.  p.  G. 

26  Chron.  Gervas.  Dorobern,  col.  1385.  Gilbert  Foliot  wrote  a  Commentary  on  the  Can- 
ticles, which  was  published  by  Junius,  4to.  London,  1638.  There  are  seven  letters  of  his  among 
those  of  Thomas  a  Becket,  whose  principal  adversary  he  was.  Bale  has  given  a  list  of  his 
writings. 

27  Wharton's  Anglia  Sacra,  vol.  ii.  p.  049.  Robert  de  Melun's  System  of  Divinity,  in 
manuscript,  is  preserved  in  the  library  of  St.  Victor,  at  Paris,  and  is  often  cited  by  Father 
Northood,  in  his  notes  upon  Cardinal  Pullus.     Vide  Dupin's  Twelfth  Century. 

28  Thus  in  Madox's  History  of  the  Exchequer,  vol.  i.  p.  306,  note.  "Johannes  Cumin  f .  c.  de 
C.  &  xv".  de  veteri  firma  Episcopatus  de  Herefordia:  Et  idem  de  nova  firma  de  ccc1.  &  xj".  & 
iiij1'.  f  Mag.  Rot.  16  Hen.  II.  Rol.  4.  And  again,  p.  642.  "  Johannis  Cumin  debet  xxx".  de 
scutagio  Militum  Episcopatus  in  exercitum  Hybernia  de  his  quos  Episcopus  non  recognoscit 
reddendos  ;  quia  Episcopatus  tunc  erat  in  manu  regis."     Mag.  Rot.  20  Hen.  II.  r.  9.  b. 

29  Math.  Paris,  by  Watts,  ed.  1640,  p.  1173.     See  also  Roger  Hovedon. 


BISHOPS  R.  FOLIOT,  VERE,  DE  BRUSE,  AND  H.  FOLIOT,  A.  D.  1173—1234.  13 

the  injury  of  the  King  or  the  realm  of  England30.  He  dedicated  the  Abbey 
Church  of  Wigmore,  which  had  been  founded  by  Roger  Mortimer,  and  in 
the  words  of  Leland,  "  Diversa  jocalia  dedit  eidem  ecclesias  die  dedicationis 
ejusdem31."  He  presided  over  the  See  with  great  credit  for  thirteen  years, 
and  dying  in  118632,  was  buried  in  the  south  aile  of  the  presbytery  of  his 
Cathedral,  where  a  monument  to  his  memory  still  remains.  He  was  annually 
commemorated  on  the  7th  ides  of  May,  and  is  stated  in  the  obituary  of 
Hereford  Cathedral  to  have  given  to  that  church  u  multa  bona  in  terris  et 
libris,  vasis  et  ornamentis33." 

William  de  Vere,  a  member  of  the  illustrious  house  of  Clare,  succeeded 
to  the  vacant  See,  October  6,  1186.  He  received,  and  magnificently  enter- 
tained at  his  palace,  Baldwin  Archbishop  of  Canterbury,  the  Lord  Justice  of 
England,  and  other  distinguished  persons.  According  to  Godwin,  this 
prelate  was  noted  for  the  number  of  buildings  he  erected.  Dying  in 
December,  1199,  he  was  succeeded  by 

Egidius,  or  Giles  de  Bruse,  or  Braoes,  a  son  of  William,  Lord  Breck- 
nock, who  was  consecrated  on  the  24th  of  September,  1200.  Living  in  the 
turbulent  times  of  the  baronial  wars,  he  was  compelled  to  leave  his  See,  the 
temporalities  of  which  were  seized  by  the  crown.  This  prelate  is  considered 
to  have  built  the  great  central  tower ;  and  an  effigy  in  the  south  aile,  with 
the  model  of  a  church  in  one  hand,  is  said  to  commemorate  him  and  the 
event.  On  returning  to  take  possession  of  his  See,  he  died  at  Gloucester, 
on  the  17th  of  November,  1215,  and  was  interred  in  his  own  Cathedral. 

Hugh  de  Mapenore,  his  successor,  and  who  was  then  dean  of  the  church, 
was  consecrated  at  Gloucester,  December  6,  1216,  but  did  not  preside  in  it 
much  more  than  two  years,  when 

Hugh  Foliot,  Archdeacon  of  Salop,  was  advanced  to  the  See,  in  Avhich 
he  was  consecrated  November  1,  1219.  Connected  with  the  town  of 
Ledbury,  he  founded  and  endowed  an  hospital  there,  and  also  founded  two 

30  Holinshed's  Chronicle,  vol.  ii.  p.  178.  31  Itinerary,  vol.  viii.  fo.  78. 

32  Wharton's  Anglia  Sacra,  vol.  i.  p.  477.        33  Hist,  and  Antiq.  of  Heref.  Cath.  App.  p.  12. 


14  HEREFORD  CATHEDRAL. 

chantries  in  the  chapel  of  St.  Catherine's  on  the  south  side  of  the  Cathedral34. 
According  to  Hill's  MSS.,  he  granted  forty  days  indulgence  for  seven  years 
to  all  persons  who  contributed  towards  the  building  of  St.  Paul's  Cathedral, 
in  London.     He  died  July  26,  1234,  when 

Ralph  de  Maydenstan,  or  Maidstone,  his  birth-place,  was  named  and 
consecrated  bishop.  Besides  purchasing  for  himself  and  his  successors  in 
the  See,  a  house  in  London,  for  one  hundred  and  fifty  pounds,  he  conferred 
on  the  canons  of  the  Cathedral  the  church  of  Sellick,  in  Herefordshire,  and 
on  the  See  the  advowson  of  the  church  of  St.  Mary  Monthalt.  Forsaking  his 
prelacy  in  1239,  he  became  a  Franciscan  friar  at  Oxford,  and  thence  moved 
to  and  joined  the  monks  of  St.  Peter's  at  Gloucester,  where  he  died,  and 
was  interred  without  any  memorial. 

Peter  de  Aqlablanca,  or  Egel  blaunche,  was  appointed  to  this  See  in 
opposition  to  a  canon  of  Litchfield,  a  man  of  influence  and  high  connexions, 
who  was  preferred  by  the  clergy.  The  monarch,  however,  either  from 
partiality  to  foreigners,  or  from  other  motives,  gave  the  preference  to  Aqua- 
blanca,  a  native  of  Savoy,  who  is  described  as  being  of  low  origin.  He  proved 
himself  a  turbulent,  ambitious,  and  mercenary  man;  and  hence  his  acts  and 
character  are  variously  related  by  different  monastic  chroniclers.  Having 
free  access  to  the  king,  it  is  related  that  he  advised  the  monarch  to  give  all 
the  church  preferments  to  foreigners,  and  thus  excited  the  hostility  of  the 
English  clergy.  According  to  Matthew  Paris  our  prelate  assumed  the  cross 
in  1250,  and  under  the  banner  of  the  King  of  France  went  to  the  Holy 
Land.  In  1258  he  returned  to  England  from  the  court  of  Rome,  with  letters 
from  the  Pope,  which  are  described  as  having  been  forged  by  the  bishop, 
commanding  all  religious  houses  to  grant  a  tenth  of  their  possessions  towards 
carrying  on  the  crusade35.  The  Chronicle  of  Dunstaple  states  that  he 
"  maliciously  forged  letters,  as  from  the  Pope,  to  demand  money  from  the 
clergy36."    The  character  of  Aquablanca  is  brought  out  in  consequence  of  the 

M  Leland's  Itinerary,  vol.  viii.  p.  37.  "  Gale's  Scriptores,  vol.  i.  p.  348. 

36  See  Heame's  edition,  vol.  i.  p.  359. 


BISHOP  AQTJABLANCHA,  A.  D.  1239—1208.  15 

King's  wishes  to  promote  him  to  the  See  of  Lichfield,  in  opposition  to  the 
canons  of  that  church.  He  is  then  described  "  as  manifestly  an  improper 
person,  being  a  foreigner,  ignorant  of  the  English  language,  of  bad  character, 
and  considered  an  enemy  to  the  realm37."  In  1263  he,  with  other  foreign 
monks  and  prelates,  was  expelled  from  England ;  but  in  the  following  year 
he  must  have  returned,  as  King  Henry  III.  then  reprimanded  him  in  a 
letter,  stating  "  that  coming  to  Hereford  to  take  order  for  the  disposing  of 
the  garrisons  in  the  marches  of  Wales,  he  found  in  the  church  of  Hereford 
neither  bishop,  dean,  vicar,  or  other  officer  to  discharge  the  spiritual 
functions ;  and  that  the  church  and  ecclesiastical  establishment  was  in  a  state 
of  ruin  and  decay.  Wherefore,  he  commanded  the  Bishop,  all  excuses  set 
aside,  forthwith  to  repair  to  his  church;  and  that  if  he  did  not  do  so,  he 
willed  him  to  know  for  a  certainty,  that  he  would  take  into  his  hands  all  the 
temporal  goods  belonging  to  the  barony  of  the  same,  which  his  progenitors 
gave  and  bestowed  for  spiritual  exercise  therein,  with  a  godly  devotion38." 
It  appears  that  this  remonstrance,  or  royal  command,  made  the  Bishop  return 
to  his  See  ;  for  Simon  de  Montford,  Earl  of  Leicester,  with  his  followers, 
afterwards  seized  the  prelate  in  his  church,  and  took  from  him  all  his  wealth, 
imprisoned  him  in  the  castle  of  "  Ordelay,"  and  divided  the  treasure  amongst 
themselves.  Though  branded  with  general  reproach,  and  apparently  in 
hostility  with  his  flock  and  the  clergy,  it  appears  that  he  bequeathed  one 
hundred  and  ninety-two  bushels  of  corn  to  be  distributed  yearly  amongst  the 
members  of  the  church,  and  two  hundred  bushels  of  wheat,  to  the  poor  of  the 
diocess.  He  purchased  the  manor  of  "  Homme  Lacy,"  or  Holme  Lacy,  and 
added  it  to  the  revenues  of  the  Church ;  and  was  also  much  engaged  in 
defending  the  liberties  and  privileges  of  the  Bishop,  and  those  of  the  Dean 
and  Chapter  against  certain  encroachments  attempted  to  be  made  by  the 
citizens.  He  founded  a  monastery  at  Aquabella,  or  Aqua-Blancha,  in  Savoy, 
the  place  of  his  birth  ;  and  to  that  monastery  his  heart  was  conveyed  and 
enshrined.     There  is  not,  however,  any  mention  of  this  event  in  the  inscrip- 

'7  Math.  Paris,  per  Watts,  p.  881.  3S  Wilkins's  Concil.  Mag.  Brit.  vol.  i.  p.  701. 


16  -  HEREFORD  CATHEDRAL. 

tion  on  his  tomb  at  that  town39.  He  died  on  the  27th  of  November,  1268, 
but  his  obit  was  annually  celebrated  on  the  5th  kalend  of  that  month.  He 
was  succeeded  by 

John  Breton,  or  de  Breton,  LL.  D.,  who  was  a  lawyer  as  well  as  a 
priest,  and  who  has  been  generally  noted  in  the  legal  annals,  as  author  of 
"that  excellent  French  manual  of  our  laws,  which  bears  the  name  of  Briton40." 
It  is  entitled  "  De  Juribus  Anglicanis,"  and  was  written  by  command  of  the 
King.  According  to  Fuller,  in  his  "  Worthies  of  England,"  the  "  tenor 
runneth  in  the  King's  name,  as  if  it  had  been  penned  by  himself."  Sir 
Edward  Coke  describes  him  as  a  "  man  of  great  and  profound  judgment  in 
the  common  laws,  an  excellent  ornament  to  his  profession,  and  a  satisfaction 
and  solace  to  himself."  Bishop  Nicholson  suggests  doubts  respecting  the 
authorship  of  the  book,  and,  after  examining  different  testimonies  and  autho- 
rities, says,  "  If  I  may  be  allowed  to  differ  from  all,  I  should  think  that  the 
true  writer  of  this  abstract  was  that  same  John  Breton  whom  we  find  one  of 
the  King's  justices  (together  with  Ralph  and  Roger  de  Hengham)  in  the  first 
year  of  Edward  the  Second 41."  It  appears  that  our  Bishop  died  in  the  third 
year  of  the  reign  of  Edward  the  First,  and  that  the  treatise  in  question 
contains  reference  to  a  statute  passed  in  the  thirteenth  year  of  that  reign42. 
Although  the  time  of  his  death  is  stated  by  Godwin  and  others,  May  12, 
1275,  no  one  has  specified  the  place  of  his  interment.  His  successor  was 
a  man  of  high  repute  during  life,  and  obtained  distinguished  canonical 
honours  after  death. 

Thomas  Cantilupe,  or  de  Cantilupe,  was  archdeacon  of  Stafford, 
and  successively  occupied  the  distinguished  offices  of  Chancellor  of  the 
University  of  Oxford,  and  of  the  kingdom.  He  was  son  of  William,  Lord 
Cantelupe,  and  Millicent,  Countess  of  Evreux.  According  to  some  writers 
he  was  a  uative  of  Lancashire;  but  Fuller  states  that  Lord  Cantelupe's 

33  See  Archaeologia,  vol.  xviii.  p.  189,  in  which  there  is  an  account  of  the  tomb  by  the 
Rev.  T.  Kerrich. 

40  Nicholson's  Historical  Library,  fol.  ed.  1736,  p.  230.  41  Ibid. 

"  See  Kelham's  edition  of  "  Britton,"  with  Notes,  References,  and  Records,  8vo.  1762. 


BISHOP  CANTELUPE. — A.  D.  1275—1282.  17 

K  habitations  were  Abergavenny  Castle,  in  Monmouth,  and  Harringworth, 
in  Northamptonshire." 

To  write  an  account  of  the  life  of  a  saint,  in  the  present  day,  with  any 
thing  like  discrimination,  or  with  a  hope  of  furnishing  an  impartial  and 
rational  narrative,  would  be  as  vain  as  the  attempt  to  fix  the  longitude,  or 
assert  the  discovery  of  the  philosopher's  stone.  Suffice  it  to  remark,  that  a 
good  sized  volume  has  been  published  under  the  title  of  "  The  Life  and 
Gests  (or  Virtues)  of  Sir  Thomas  Cantelupe43,"  but  it  is  so  truly  hyperbolical, 
credulous,  and  full  of  romance,  that  scarcely  any  part  of  it  can  be  credited, 
and  hardly  two  pages,  out  of  about  three  hundred,  have  the  character  of 
real  biography.  From  childhood  to  death  Cantelupe  is  represented  as  all 
saintedness  and  perfection,  wholly  devoted  to  God,  or  rather  to  Catholic 
ceremonies ;  and  yet  the  silly,  purblind  author  pretends  that  he  fulfilled  all 
his  worldly  and  professional  duties  in  the  varied  offices  of  Chancellor  of 
the  University  of  Oxford,  Chancellor  of  England,  and  Bishop  of  Hereford. 
He  also  describes  the  court,  in  which  Lord  Cantelupe  and  his  family  were 
domesticated,  as  replete  with  folly,  immorality,  and  vice.  "  Infamy,"  he 
says,  "  is  no  where  more  in  credit,  nor  vice  so  canonized :  it  is  a  school 
of  ^Egyptian  hieroglyphics,  where  beasts  and  monsters  are  supposed  to 
signify  heroique  vertues,"  (p.  38).  Of  a  man  who  "  suck'd  in  sanctity  with 
his  milk,"  and  whose  "  childhood  was  a  meer  prologue,  or  dum  show,  before 
a  trajedy  of  miseries,"  (p.  33),  although  his  whole  life  was  exempt  from 
every  misery,  according  to  the  same  author,  there  are  few  events  to  record, 
and  few  traits  of  character  to  comment  on.  The  book  referred  to,  said  to 
be  made  up  from  evidences  in  the  Pope's  library,  collected  at  the  time  and 
for  the  purpose  of  his  canonization,  is  very  meagre  in  biographical  materials. 
It  states  that  he  was  educated  at  home,  sent  to  Oxford  to  study  Latin  and 
canon  law, — to  Paris  for  philosophy — returned  to  Oxford,  where  he  was 
made  Chancellor ;  and,  "  always  advancing  from  good  to  better,"  was 
created  High  Chancellor   of  England  under  Henry  the  Third,    and  was 

43  In  the  old  authors  Gest  is  used  to  denote  action,  or  event.  Warton,  in  "  History  of 
English  Poetry,"'  derives  it  from  the  popular  books  entitled  "  Gesta  Romanorum,"  containing 
narratives  of  adventures.     See  Nares's  '*  Glossary." 


18  HEREFORD  CATHEDRAL. 

entrusted  with  the  government  of  the  kingdom  during  the  absence  of  that 
monarch.  Though  nothing  is  inferred  from  those  civil  and  honorary 
promotions  by  the  credulous  author,  it  must  be  clear  that  Cantelupe  had 
some  knowledge  of  business,  of  politics,  of  the  intrigues  of  a  vicious  court, 
to  deserve  and  obtain  those  honours  and  their  consequent  profits.  He  also 
contrived  to  secure  a  few  clerical  appointments,  which  must  have  enhanced 
his  income  and  labours :  he  was  Canon  and  Chantor  of  York,  Archdeacon 
and  Canon  of  Lichfield  and  Coventry,  Canon  of  London  and  Hereford,  also 
Archdeacon  of  Stafford.  His  last  advancement  and  honour  was  to  the  See 
of  Hereford,  "  where  all  voyced  him  their  Bishop;"  and  where,  says  the 
same  romancer,,  at  the  age  of  fifty-six,  he  was  "  set  up  as  a  light  in 
the  candlestick  of  the  See,"  on  the  8th  of  September,  1275.  Here  he 
appears  to  have  ruled  only  about  seven  years,  and  not  always  in  peace 
with  the  laity  and  clergy.  Travelling  to  or  from  Rome,  to  obtain  the 
co-operation  of  the  Pope  against  Gilbert  Clare,  Earl  of  Gloucester,  or 
John  Peckham,  Archbishop  of  Canterbury,  or  both,  for  with  both  he  was 
embroiled  in  disputes,  he  was  seized  with  illness  at  Civita  Vecchia,  in 
Italy,  and  died  there  on  the  25th  of  August,  1282.  His  body,  separated 
into  three  parts,  as  customary  at  that  time  with  saints,  was  destined  to 
honour  and  profit  three  separate  places  :  the  flesh  was  deposited  in  a 
church  near  the  city  of  Florence,  the  heart  inurned  at  Ashridge,  in  Buck- 
inghamshire, England,  and  the  bones  conveyed  to  and  deposited  in  the 
Lady  Chapel  belonging  to  Hereford  Cathedral.  Over  these  a  tomb  was 
erected :  but  his  successor,  who  had  been  his  secretary,  finding  the  people 
prone  to  believe  in  miracles,  and  that  such  craft  would  tend  to  promote  the 
fame  of  his  Cathedral,  had  a  great  many  performed  at  the  tomb  of  the  saint. 
According  to  Camden,  Cantelupe's  fame  soon  eclipsed  that  of  St.  Ethelbert, 
himself;  for,  as  Fuller  quaintly  but  truly  remarks,  "  Superstition  is  always 
fondest  of  the  youngest  saint."  To  keep  up,  or  rather  enhance  this  fame, 
the  clergy  of  the  Cathedral,  most  likely  at  the  jnstigation  of  their  Bishop, 
had  the  relics  of  the  saint  removed  from  the  Lady  Chapel,  and  enshrined  in 
a  new  and  splendid  tomb,  in  the  north  transept,  on  the  Gth  of  April,  1287. 
To  give  eclat  to  this  translation,  and  consequently  attract  more  devotees,  it 


BISHOP  CANTELUPE. A.  D.  1275—1282.  19 

is  related  that  Edward  II.  came  from  Calais  on  purpose  to  attend  the 
ceremony.  According  to  the  unqualified  assertions  of  the  Catholic  writers, 
not  only  visiters  from  all  parts  paid  their  devotions  and  oblations  at  the 
sainted  shrine,  but  miracles  without  number  were  there  performed.  Healing 
the  sick,  restoring  sight  to  the  blind,  and  reanimating  the  dead  were  among 
these.  Matthew  of  Westminster  roundly  asserts  that  these  miracles  amounted 
to  the  number  of  one  hundred  and  sixty-three  ;  and  the  English  Martyrology 
augments  the  number  to  four  hundred  and  twenty-five.  In  the  "  Life  and 
Gests,"  the  number  is  said  to  be  "  in  a  manner  infinite,"  and  that  forty 
persons,  one  of  whom  was  a  public  incendiary,  and  hanged  as  a  just 
punishment  for  his  infamy,  were  restored  to  life,  through  the  instrumentality 
of  the  Hereford  dead  saint.  It  cannot  but  excite  the  pity  and  contempt  of 
every  rational  person  to  peruse  such  impudent  fabrications  and  falsehoods. 
These,  however,  are  not  merely  repeated  by  old  monastic  chroniclers,  but 
Alban  Butler,  and  other  modern  authors  who  have  written  on  such  subjects, 
reiterate  the  same  impious  nonsense.  Butler  says  that  "  Cantelupe  subdued 
his  flesh  with  severe  fasting,  watching,  and  a  rough  hair  shirt,  which  he 
wore  till  his  death,  notwithstanding  the  colics  and  other  violent  pains  and 
sicknesses  with  which  he  was  afflicted  many  years,  for  the  exercise  of  his 
patience 44."  The  rodomontade  of  these  writers  not  only  excites  our  mistrust, 
but  their  contradictory  statements  respecting  the  time  and  place  of  his  death, 
shew  that  none  of  them  are  to  be  credited.  On  the  3d  of  July,  1307,  about 
twenty-five  years  after  his  decease,  a  commission  was  appointed,  to  continue 
for  four  months,  to  make  inquiries  respecting  his  life  and  character,  for  the 
purpose  of  canonization,  and  in  which  Richard  Swinford,  his  successor, 
acted  as  solicitor.  It  is  said  that  Cantelupe  was  the  last  Englishman  who 
was  canonized.  From  his  time  the  Bishops  of  Hereford  adopted  his  arms 
for  their  See,  viz.  Gu.  three  leopards'  heads  jessant  with  a  fleur-de-lis 
issuing  from  the  mouth,  or.  His  monument,  or  shrine,  will  be  described  in 
a  subsequent  page. 

Richard  Swinford,  the  successor  of  Cantelupe,  was  noted  for  his  pulpit 

44  Lives  of  the  Fathers,  &c.  vol.  x.  p.  47,  edit.  1815. 


20  HEREFORD  CATHEDRAL. 

eloquence,  and  resided  long  enough  in  the  See  to  wituess  the  effects  of  his 
master's  miracles  and  canonization.  By  a  document  which  Dr.  Prattinton 
discovered  among  the  evidences  of  Sir  Thomas  Winnington,  Bart,  of 
Stanford  Court,  in  Worcestershire,  it  appears  that  Swiuford's  chaplain, 
John  de  Kemes,  kept  a  journal,  or  register,  of  all  the  domestic  affairs  of  the 
Bishop,  from  1289  to  1290,  and  probably  for  other  years.  This  document 
is  a  roll  of  several  skins  of  parchment,  one  side  of  each  contains  the  daily 
expenses  attending  the  Bishop's  table,  specifying  the  remnants  left,  the 
costs  of  the  stable,  and  an  itinerary.  The  other  side  notices  the  summer 
and  winter  clothes,  furs,  spices,  sugar,  &c. ;  also  expenses  at  the  court 
of  Rome,  education  of  boys  at  Oxford,  money  laid  out  in  Kent,  where 
the  Bishop  built  a  chapel.  He  was  at  Sugwas,  one  of  his  seats,  from  the 
30th  of  September,  1289,  to  the  21st  of  October,  when  he  removed  to 
Rosebury,  another  seat.  In  December  he  proceeded  to  Ledbury,  thence 
to  Newent,  Hyneham,  Prestbury,  another  seat,  where  he  kept  his  Christmas, 
aud  where  it  appears  that  a  sumptuous  entertainment  was  provided,  for  one 
day.  The  following  articles  are  specified;  viz.  a  boar,  ten  oxen,  eight 
porkers,  sixty  fowl,  thirteen  fat  deer,  and  nine  hundred  eggs.  He  after- 
wards proceeded  to  Loudon,  where  clothes,  furs,  &c.  were  purchased. 
The  Bishop's  travelling  suite  consisted  of  a  company  with  from  thirty  to 
fifty  horses  He  appears  to  have  remained  in  London  only  six  days, 
and  slept  the  first  night,  on  returning,  at  Kensington.  Swinford  presided 
thirty-four  years  over  his  diocess,  and  died  the  15th  of  March,  1316. 
He  was  buried  in  the  Cathedral,  but  his  tomb,  or  effigy,  has  been 
destroyed. 

Adam  de  Orlton  was  consecrated  at  Avignon,  in  France,  September  12, 
1316,  and  whilst  on  an  embassy  to  Rome,  hearing  of  the  death  of  the  Bishop 
of  Worcester,  obtained  the  Pope's  bull  of  advancement  to  that  See  in 
September,  1327.  The  chapter  and  the  English  king  had  previously  elected 
and  confirmed  Wulstan  de  Braunsford  in  the  See,  but  the  Pope's  influence 
preponderated,  and  Orlton  was  firmly  seated  at  Worcester  in  1329,  where 
he  presided  six  years,  when  he  was  advanced  by  the  pontiff  to  the  richer 
See  of  Winchester.     This  favouritism  provoked  the  jealousy  of  the  English 


BISHOPS  ORLTON,  CARLTON,  AND  TRELLICK. A.  D.  1316— 1361.  21 

monarch  (Edward  III.),  who  indicted  Orlton  in  the  ecclesiastical  court : — 
First,  for  imprisoning  the  King's  chancellor,  in  1326;  secondly,  for  a 
treasonable  sermon  preached  at  Oxford,  accusing  the  king  of  tyranny,  and 
inciting  his  subjects  to  depose  and  imprison  him;  and  thirdly,  for  his 
endeavours  to  induce  the  Queen  to  desert  her  royal  spouse.  The  parliament 
also  accused  him  of  lending  the  Mortimers'  money  to  oppose  the  King.  For 
these  offences  he  was  placed  at  the  bar  for  trial,  when  the  Archbishops 
of  Canterbury,  York,  and  Dublin  took  him  away,  and  insisted  that,  as 
a  prelate,  he  was  not  amenable  to  a  civil  tribunal.  Milner,  in  his 
"  History  of  Winchester,"  vol.  ii.  p.  233,  &c.  calls  him  "  an  artful  and 
unprincipled  churchman,  who  had  been  one  of  the  most  active  agents  of 
the  barons  in  their  first  war  against  the  King,  and  for  which  he  was  tried 
and  found  guilty."  He  was  deprived  of  all  his  property  and  banished. 
Returning,  he  obtained  the  patronage  of  the  higher  ruling  powers,  and 
was  favoured  by  Edward  III.  He  died  during  his  prelacy  in  Winchester, 
in  which  Cathedral  he  was  buried,  in  1345.  See  History,  &c.  of  Win- 
chester Cathedral. 

Thomas  Carlton,  LL.  D.  the  successor  of  Orlton,  was  progressively 
appointed  Treasurer  of  England,  and  Chancellor  and  Chief  Justice  of 
Ireland,  also  custos,  or  guardian  of  that  kingdom.  He  appears  to  have 
resided  in  Ireland  from  1337  to  1340,  and  consequently  left  his  See  during 
that  time.  Dying  in  1340,  he  was  interred  in  his  Cathedral,  where  a  statue, 
&c.  was  raised  to  his  memory.     The  next  prelate, 

John  Trellick,  D.  D.  was  an  enemy  to  the  plays  or  pageants  which 
were  frequently  performed  in  churches,  and  also  to  matrimony.  To 
prevent  the  first  taking  place  within  his  diocess,  he  denounced  all  offenders 
with  the  "pain  of  cursing  and  excommunication;"  and  excommunicated  one 
William  Anthony,  of  Birmingham,  for  marrying  a  woman  of  Herefordshire. 
In  advanced  age  he  became  too  infirm  to  perform  his  official  duties,  and 
employed  Thomas  Trellick,  Dean  of  Exeter,  to  officiate  for  him.  He 
died  in  1361,  and  was  interred  on  the  north  side  of  the  altar  of  his 
Cathedral,  where  a  grave  stone  marks  the  spot.  An  engraved  brass 
effigy  with   an  inscription  were   removed,  and  the  grave   was  opened   in 


22  HEREFORD  CATHEDRAL. 

1813,  when  part  of  a  crozier,  and  a  seal  of  a  pope's  bull  were  found,  and 
are  preserved  in  a  glass  case  in  the  Cathedral 45. 

Lewis  Charlton,  or  Caer-leon,  as  called  by  Bale,  was  chancellor  of 
Oxford  in  1357,  and  was  distinguished  as  a  theologian,  mathematician,  and 
also  for  possessing  some  knowledge  of  medicine.  Advanced  to  this  See  in 
1361,  he  presided  here  till  1369,  when  he  bequeathed  several  articles, 
and  forty  pounds  in  money,  to  his  Cathedral,  in  which  his  remains  were 
interred :  he  also  left  some  books  and  vestments  to  other  churches.  Accord- 
ing to  Bale  he  wrote  several  works. 

William  Courteney,  one  of  the  rich  and  influential  family  of  that  name 
of  Devonshire,  after  receiving  several  appointments  of  honour  and  profit  in 
the  Cathedrals  of  Exeter,  Wells,  and  York,  was  advanced  to  the  See  of 
Hereford  in  1369,  and  soon  afterwards  promoted  to  the  archiepiscopal 
chair  of  Canterbury.     (See  History,  &c.  of  Canterbury  Cathedral). 

John  Gilbert  was  translated  from  Bangor  in  1375,  and  sent  on  an 
embassy  to  France  in  1385.  He  was  made  treasurer  of  England,  and  in 
July,  1389,  removed  to  the  See  of  St.  David's,  in  Wales. 

John  Trevenant,  or  Trefuant,  who  ruled  the  diocess  from  1389  to 
1404,  was  deputed  by  King  Henry  IV.  on  an  embassy  to  Rome,  and  was 
joined  with  John,  Earl  of  Arundel,  in  a  commission  to  investigate  and 
govern  the  affairs  of  Scotland. 

Robert  Mascall,  a  confessor  to  King  Henry  IV.  was  employed  by  that 
monarch  in  embassies  to  various  foreign  courts,  and  published  an  account  of 
those  embassies.  Being  one  of  the  Carmelite,  or  White  Friars,  he  contributed 
towards  rebuilding  the  church  belonging  to  that  order  in  London,  and  in 
which  his  remains  were  interred  in  December,  1415. 

Edmund  Lucy,  D.D.  was  advanced  from  the  deanery  to  the  See  in  1417, 
but  three  years  afterwards  was  translated  to  Exeter46,  when 

Thomas  Polton,  then  Dean  of  York,  was  appointed  to,  and  presided 

"  See  "  Gough's  Sepulchral  Monuments,"  vol.  i.  pi.  40  and  p.  Ill,  for  a  view  of  the  tomb 
stone ;  also  "  Ancient  Reliques,"  vol.  i.  by  Storer,  for  an  engraving  and  a  short  account  of 
these  reliques. 

46  See  History,  &c.  of  Exeter  Cathedral  for  an  account  of  him. 


BISHOPS  POLTON,  SPOFFORD,  BEAUCHAMP,  ETC. — A.  D.  1420—1474.  23 

over  this  diocess  only  fifteen  months,  when  he  was  advanced  to  Chichester, 
and  thence  translated  to  Worcester. 

Thomas  Spofford  was  promoted  from  the  abbacy  of  St.  Mary,  York,  to 
this  See,  November,  1421,  and  governed  it  twenty-six  years.  He  appears 
to  have  made  great  alterations  in  the  palace  at  Sugwas.  In  1448  he  with- 
drew from  his  charge,  and  returned  to  St.  Mary's,  at  York,  where  he  died. 
The  record  of  his  abdication  is  printed  in  Rymer's  Fcedera,  vol.  x.  p.  215 : 
in  Wilkins's  "  Concilia,"  vol.  iii.  p.  538,  is  a  writ  of  pardon  for  abdicating 
in  favour  of  his  successor,  who  was  to  allow  him  one  hundred  pounds 
yearly  out  of  the  revenues.  The  Pope  testified  by  his  bull  that  Spofford 
had  expended  on  the  buildings  of  his  Cathedral  upwards  of  two  thousand 
eight  hundred  marks. 

Richard  Beauchamp  was  consecrated  in  February,  1448,  and  after 
presiding  here  two  years  and  three  months,  was  translated  to  Salisbury. 
Having  noticed  this  prelate  in  my  History  of  Salisbury  Cathedral  (p.  36), 
it  need  only  be  observed  here  that  he  was  employed  by  King  Edward  III. 
in  superintending  the  building  of  St.  George's  Chapel  at  Windsor,  where, 
and  at  Salisbury,  he  left  specimens  of  his  architectural  works. 

Richard  or  Reynald  Butler,  or  Bolers,  an  Abbot  of  St.  Peter's  at 
Gloucester,  succeeded  Beauchamp,  but  his  presidency  was  also  very  short, 
being  appointed  in  1450,  and  translated  to  Litchfield  and  Coventry,  April, 
1453.  Godwin  says,  "Howbeit  it  seemeth  that  he  lyeth  buried  in  the  Church 
of  Hereford  before  the  high  altar,  under  a  marble  inlaid  with  brass 47. 

John  Stanbury,  who  succeeded  Butler,  was  a  most  distinguished 
Carmelite  Friar  at  Oxford,  and  was  appointed  by  Henry  VI.  to  be  the 
first  provost  of  the  New  College  at  Eton.  The  same  monarch  promoted 
him  to  the  See  of  Norwich,  in  which  he  was  superseded  by  a  favourite  of 
the  Duke  of  Suffolk,  but  was  by  the  same  royal  favour  fixed  in  the  chair 
of  Bangor,  where  he  remained  five  years.  He  was  then  translated  to 
Hereford,  where  he  presided  twenty-one  years,  servilely  devoted  to  the 
Pope   and   all  the  papal  decrees;    he  was   also   equally  attached   to   the 

. 47  Catalogue  of  Bishops,  edit.  1615.  p.  450. 


24  HEREFORD  CATHEDRAL. 

monarch  who  had  so  greatly  befriended  him.  In  the  service  and  retinue  of 
the  king  he  was  taken  prisoner  with  his  patron  at  the  noted  battle  of 
Northampton  in  1460,  and  confined  in  the  prison  of  Warwick  Castle48,  for 
some  time.  According  to  Godwin49,  and  Prince50,  he  left  behind  him 
u  several  works  of  merit,"  a  list  of  which  is  given  in  Leland's  Itinerary. 
After  release  from  prison  he  retired  to  the  Carmelite  Friary  of  Ludlow, 
where  he  died  May  31,  1474.  It  is  presumed  that  during  his  life  and 
residence  at  Hereford  he  built  a  handsome  Chantry  Chapel,  against  the 
north  side  of  the  Cathedral,  in  which  his  remains  were  interred.  Godwin 
gives  a  copy  of  some  u  barbarous  verses," — which  were  inscribed  on  his 
tomb, — and  Gough,  in  "  Sepulchral  Monuments,"  vol.  ii.  part  iii.  p.  240, 
has  copied,  and  also  given  some  account  of  the  chapel,  with  a  view  of  its 
interior  and  details.  In  the  Bishop's  will,  proved  Oct.  20,  1474,  is  a 
bequest  of  "  one  cross  of  silver  gilt  to  my  baptismal  Church  of  More-Stowe," 
in  Devonshire. 

Thomas  Millyng,  or  Myling,  D.  D.  of  Oxford,  and  Abbot  of  West- 
minster, was  promoted  to  this  See  through  the  personal  favour  of  King 
Edward  IV.  one  of  whose  privy  counsellors  he  was.  Dying  at  Westminster 
in  1492,  he  was  interred  in  the  Chapel  of  St.  John  Baptist,  in  the  Abbey 
Church,  where  a  stone  coffin  remains,  which  is  supposed  to  have  contained 
his  body51. 

Edmund  Aldley,  the  next  prelate,  was  advanced  from  Rochester  to  this 
See  in  December,  1492,  and  after  presiding  here  about  ten  years,  was 
promoted  to  Salisbury  in  1502.  In  most  of  the  accounts  of  Hereford 
Cathedral  it  is  stated  that  this  bishop  "  was  a  great  benefactor  to  the  Lady's 
Chapel ;"  but  it  is  not  likely  that  he  expended  any  money  upon  that  edifice, 
excepting,  indeed,  taking  away  part  of  the  wall  on  the  south  side,  and 
building  a  chantry  chapel  for  his  own  remains.     Being,  however,  removed 


48  Gough  says,  ,;  Windsor  Castle."  49  Catalogue  of  Bishops,  p.  460. 

50  Worthies  of  Devon,  edit.  1810,  p.  719,  in  which  are  several  particulars  respecting  the 
Bishop. 

51  See  Brayley's  Account  of  the  Monument  and  of  the  Bishop  in  Neale's  Illustrations  of 
Westminster  Abbey,  vol.  ii.  p.  185. 


BISHOPS  AUDLEY,  CASTELLO,  MAYO,  AND  BOOTH. A.  D.  1492—1535.  25 

to  Salisbury,  he  raised  a  new  and  very  elegant  chantry  chapel  for  himself 
in  the  choir  of  that  Cathedral,  and  therein  it  is  presumed  that  his  mortal 
remains  were  interred  after  death,  1525 52. 

Adrian,  or  Hadrian  de  Castello,  a  native  of  Cornetto  in  Italy,'  is 
described  by  Godwin  as  a  person  of  u  very  base  parentage,"  but  he  was 
made  a  cardinal  by  the  Pope,  and  by  King  Henry  VII.  was  advanced  to  the 
See  of  Hereford  in  1502,  as  a  reward  for  his  fidelity  and  good  conduct. 
Amassing  considerable  riches  he  excited  the  envy  and  avaricious  cupidity  of 
Caesar  Borgio,  that  monster  of  iniquity,  who  endeavoured  to  poison  him,  but 
who,  with  his  own  father,  Pope  Alexander  VI.,  partook  of  the  fatal  draught 
which  they  had  prepared  for  Castello,  and  became  victims  of  their  own  wily 
scheme.  In  my  History,  &c.  of  Wells  Cathedral,  p.  51,  are  many  particulars 
of  Castello,  and  the  reader  also  is  referred  to  Godwin's  "  Catalogue  of 
Bishops,"  p.  380,  and  to  "  Biographia  Britannica."  This  prelate  and  cardinal 
continued  at  Hereford  only  two  years,  when  he  was  succeeded  by 

Richard  Mayo,  or  Mayew,  who  was  almoner  to  Henry  VII.,  president 
of  Magdalen  College,  Oxford,  and  chancellor  of  that  university.  He 
presided  here  eleven  years,  and  previous  to  his  death,  April  18,  1516, 
bequeathed  his  mitre  and  pastoral  staff  to  his  successors,  five  hundred  marks 
for  the  use  of  the  church,  and  ordered  a  handsome  monument  to  be  raised 
over  his  grave,  on  the  south  side  of  the  high  altar.  His  will,  dated 
March  24,  1515,  is  in  the  prerogative  office  of  Canterbury. 

Charles  Booth,  the  next  prelate,  who  was  chancellor  of  the  Welsh 
Marshes,  has  secured  to  his  name  and  government  of  the  diocess  much 
honour,  by  "  bestowing  great  cost  in  repairing  his  house  at  London,"  and  by 
erecting  the  fine  supplemental  porch  on  the  north  side  of  the  Cathedral. 
He  had  many  ecclesiastical  appointments,  as  specified  in  the  Bishops' 
Register.  By  his  will  he  directed  that  his  body  should  be  buried  in  the 
episcopal  habit,  and  that  six  pounds  six  shillings  and  eight  pence  should  be 
distributed  at  his  funeral.  His  books  were  left  to  the  Cathedral  library, 
and  a  large  piece  of  arras  tapestry.     Dying  in  1535,  his  corpse  was  interred 

52  For  Accounts  of  Bishop  Audley  and  his  exquisite  Chapel,  see  my  History,  &c.  of  Salisbury 
Cathedral;  also  Dodsworth's  Account  of  the  same  Cathedral. 

E 


26  HEREFORD  CATHEDRAL. 

within  the  north  aile  of  the  nave,  where  a  monument  was  raised  to  his 
memory. 

Edward  Foxe,  an  eminent  statesman,  provost  of  King's  College,  Cam- 
bridge, almoner  to  King  Henry  VIII.,  and  an  active  partisan  with  the 
vicar-general,  Cromwell,  against  the  Catholics,  was  advanced  to  this  See  by 
the  king  in  1535.  He  was  author  of  "  Annotations  on  the  Mantuan  Poet ;" 
an  Oratiou,  in  the  story  of  Thomas  Lord  Cromwell,  published  in  Fox's 
Acts  and  Monuments ;  also  "  Be  vera  Differentia  Regia?  Potestatis  et 
Ecclesiasticae,"  See.  1534  and  1538,  which  was  translated  into  English  by 
Henry,  Lord  Stafford.  Dying  in  London,  May  8,  1538,  his  remains  were 
interred  in  the  Church  of  St.  Mary  Monthalt,  Fish  Street  Hill,  in  that  city. 

Edmund  Bonner  was  bishop  of  this  See  only  seven  months,  as  Godwin 
states,  when  he  was  translated  to  London,  where  he  became  notorious  for 
his  "  butcheries,"  as  the  same  author  properly  designates  his  cruelties,  and 
died  in  the  Marshalsea  Prison,  a  proper  home  for  such  a  Nero. 

John  Skipp,  D.  D.  sat  here  twelve  years,  and  witnessed  a  reform  in  the 
Church,  of  the  mummeries  or  interludes  which  had  occasionally  been  acted 
within  the  walls  of  these  sacred  buildings,  in  ridicule  of  the  old  catholic 
superstitions.  Attending  the  parliament  in  London  in  1553,  he  died,  and 
was  buried  in  the  Church  of  St.  Mary  Monthalt. 

John  Harley  was  one  of  the  victims  of  that  cruel,  heartless  woman, 
Queen  Mary,  who  compelled  him  to  abdicate  his  See  for  marrying,  and 
avoiding  mass.  Whatever  stigma  may  attach  to  such  acts,  in  the  estimation 
of  bigotry,  the  man  devoted  to  literature  and  moral  worth  will  think  highly 
of  this  bishop  from  the  testimony  of  Leland,  who  knew  him,  and  praises  him 
for  "  his  great  virtue  and  learning,  especially  in  the  classical  authors  and 
poets,  for  his  fine  vein  in  poetry,"  &c."  He  was  consecrated  May  26,  1553, 
but  deprived  in  the  following  year,  and  wandered  about  u  from  place  to 
place  in  an  obscure  condition  "." 

Robert  Purfey,  or  Warton,  S.  T.  P.  was  advanced  from  the  bishopric 
of  St.  Asaph  in  April,  1554,  to  which  he  had  been  promoted  from  the  abbacy 

"  Wood's  Athens  Oson.  vol.  ii.  col.  769,  edit.  1815.  H  Ibid. 


BISHOPS  PURFEY  AND  SCORY. — A.  D.  1554—1584.  27 

of  Bermondsey  in.  Southwark.  His  memory  has  been  traduced  by  Godwin, 
for  having  alienated  the  revenues  of  the  See,  but  Browne  Willis  vindicates 
him  against  the  charge,  asserting,  "  it  is  clear  that  he  did  not  impair  that 
bishopric  in  the  least  penny ;  but  lived  there  in  his  diocess  in  great  hospi- 
tality and  credit,  and  contributed  liberally  to  the  building  of  the  fine  Church 
of  Mould,  in  Flintshire,  and,  as  I  presume,  finished  Gresford  and  Wrexham 
Churches55."  By  will  he  gave  to  the  Cathedral  his  mitre  of  silver,  set  with 
stones,  a  crozier  of  silver,  and  a  parcel  of  plate,  with  other  ecclesiastical 
riches.  He  died  September  22,  1557,  and  was  buried  in  the  south  transept 
of  his  Cathedral,  in  which  there  is  a  monumental  effigy  to  his  memory. 

John  Scory  was  translated  from  Rochester  to  Chichester,  and  thence  to 
Hereford,  and  was  one  of  those  prelates  who  suffered  from  the  intolerant 
and  cruel  persecutions  of  the  "  bloody  Mary."  Both  at  Chichester  and  this 
See  he  appears  to  have  incurred  the  displeasure  of  his  brethren,  and  the 
reproach  of  the  church.  By  "pulling  down  houses,  selling  lead,  and  by  other 
loose  endes,  &c.  he  heaped  together  great  mass  of  wealth."  Anthony  Wood 
tells  us  that  the  money  thus  accumulated  was  foolishly  squandered  away  by 
his  favoured  son,  Sylvanus  Scory,  K  a  very  handsome  and  witty  man,  and  of 
the  best  education  both  at  home  and  beyond  the  seas  that  that  age  could 
afford.  His  father  loved  him  so  dearly  that  he  fleeced  the  Church  of  Here- 
ford, to  leave  him  an  estate ;  but  Sylvanus,  allowing  himself  the  liberty  of 
enjoying  all  the  pleasures  of  this  world,  reduced  it  to  nothing,  so  that  his 
son  Edm.  lived  by  hanging  on  gentlemen  and  by  his  shifts50."  Bishop 
Scory  wrote  and  published  some  works  adapted  to  the  times,  but  such  as 
could  not  be  read  now.  Sir  Robert  Naunton,  in  "Fragmenta  Regalia," 
reprobates  his  practice  of  swearing  and  using  obscene  language ;  and 
Sir  John  Harington,  in  "  Nugse  Antiquse,"  describes  him  as  having  amassed 
*  some  legions,  or  rather  chiliads  (thousands)  of  angels."  "  Whilst  Bishop 
Scory  presided  over  this  See  the  Diocese  suffered  an  almost  total  revolution 
under  the  specious  pretext  of  an  exchange  with  the  Queen,  to  which,  in 
reality,  he  was  obliged  to  accede.  He  alienated  the  Manors  of  Ledbury, 
Bishops-Upton,  Ross,   Bishops-Castle,   Venhampton,  and   Prestbury,   and 

55  Survey  of  Cathedrals,  vol.  i.  p.  521.  56  Athenae  Oxon.  vol.  ii.  col.  770,  edit.  1815. 


28  HEREFORD  CATHEDRAL. 

almost  all  the  ancient  demesnes  belonging  to  the  Cathedral r'7."  Though  thus 
accused,  and  proved  guilty  of  many  crimes.,  Scory,  like  too  many  other 
rogues  and  tyrants,  had  his  panegyrists  and  poetical  encomiasts.  In  the 
possession  of  the  present  venerable  and  learned  Bishop  of  this  See  is  a 
copy  of  verses,  by  a  contemporary  of  Scory,  relating  in  doggerel  rhyme  his 
advancement  in  the  church,  up  to  Hereford, 

"  Wheare  he  hathe  by  enemyes  often  and  by  false  slanderous  tongues 
Had  troubles  greate  without  desert  to  his  continental  wronges.'' 

He  died  at  the  Palace  of  Whitbourn  in  1584,  and  was  interred  in  the  church 
of  that  place.  As  a  sort  of  posthumous  atonement  for  living  extortions,  he 
bequeathed  two  hundred  bushels  of  corn  to  the  poor  of  Hereford,  and  two 
hundred  pounds  as  a  stock  to  be  lent  to  young  tradesmen  of  Hereford,  and 
a  like  sum  to  those  of  Leominster. 

Herbert  Westfaling,  D.  D.,  of  German  parentage,  was  educated  at 
Christ  Church,  Oxford.  As  a  proof  of  his  fortitude  and  christian  faith, 
it  is  related  by  Sir  John  Harington,  that  whilst  preaching  in  the  Cathedral, 
a  mass  of  frozen  snow  falling  from  the  tower  upon  the  roof  of  the  church, 
so  frightened  the  congregation  that  they  hastily  endeavoured  to  escape;  but 
the  preacher  remained  serene  and  fearless  in  his  pulpit,  and  calmly  exhorted 
them  to  sit  still  and  fear  no  harm.  Queen  Elizabeth  named  him  a  com- 
missioner, with  three  other  Oxonians,  to  destroy  or  deface  all  the  "  copes, 
vestments,  albs,  missals,  books,  crosses,  and  other  such  idolatrous  monu- 
ments of  superstition  in  Christ  Church."  Such  silly  and  contemptible 
orders,  almost  as  absurd  and  disgusting  as  the  ceremony  of  worshiping 
relics,  at  once  excite  our  pity  and  indignation.  Westfaling  is  described  by 
Willis,  as  humane,  charitable,  and  of  very  singular  gravity.  The  revenues 
of  the  church  he  devoted  to  works  of  piety  and  hospitality,  and  left  his 
paternal  property  to  his  family.  He  was  buried  in  the  north-east  transept 
of  the  Cathedral  in  March,  1601. 

Robert  Bennett,  D.  D.  of  Trinity  College,  Cambridge,  was  made  Dean 
of  Windsor,  and  Bishop  of  this  See  by  Queen  Elizabeth.  He  presided  here 
from  1603  to  1617,  and  appears  to  have  been  involved  in  contention    if 

57  Dugdale's  "  Monasticon  Anglic,"  edit.  1831,  vol.  vi.  pt.  iii.  p.  1211. 


BISHOP  BENNETT. A.  D.  1603—1617.  29 

not  litigation,  with  the  Mayor  and  Aldermen  of  Hereford,  respecting  certain 
rights  and  privileges  of  the  See.  In  a  letter,  dated  May  23,  1607,  he 
accuses  them  of  having  "committed  many  prejudices  to  my  liberties,  and 
many  violences  to  my  tenants ;  you  enter  into  my  liberties,  make  attachments, 
do  executions,  summon  my  tenants  to  your  court,  implead  there  at  your 
pleasure,  cast  them  into  prison,  and  lay  irons  upon  them,  and  that  for  petty 
and  small  matters.  You  have  also  imprisoned  my  bailiff,  wherein  I  must  tell 
you  that  you  have  forgotten  the  lawes  of  the  realm,  trangressed  your  charter, 
and  violated  my  privileges,  which  are  more  ancient  than  your  city?  He 
proceeds  to  accuse  them  of  refusing  to  pay  their  fees, — of  denying  his  bailiff 
the  custody  and  keys  of  the  bishop's  gates, — of  putting  a  watch  to  oppose  his 
watch, — of  denying  the  "bells  to  be  rung  as  customary  time  out  of  mind," — 
of  forcing  every  poor  man  to  become  a  "  sword-man." — "I  know  your  charter 
and  every  branch  of  it ;  and  you  have  given  me  occasion  to  look  into  my 
own  records.  And  be  assured  that  if  there  be  strength  in  law,  I  will  bring 
you  back  again  within  the  compass  of  your  own  rights."  He  then  demands 
full  control  and  authority  for  his  bailiff  at  the  fair,  with  the  keys  of  the 
gates,  &c.  These  are  strong  charges,  and  imperious  demands;  and  not 
much  calculated  to  sooth  the  ruffled  passions  of  man.  Accordingly  the 
mayor  and  aldermen  reply,  but  with  some  equivocation,  flattery,  and  denial 
of  the  charges,  intimating  that  some  artful  and  false  person  must  have 
misrepresented  facts,  and  expressing  an  earnest  desire  to  preserve  peace  and 
good-will,  instead  of  having  K  the  fire  of  dissension  cast  among  us  by  your 
Lordship.  We  know  nothing  done  not  justifiable  by  our  charter, — for  the 
delivery  of  the  keys  of  our  city  or  bearing  the  watch;  we  humbly  pray  a 
favourable  construction  of  an  absolute  refusal."  Disputes  respecting  rights, 
tolls,  &c.  had  subsisted  before,  between  the  citizens  and  former  bishops. 
In  the  eighth  year  of  Henry  VIII.  the  mayor,  Mr.  Phillips,  "  demanded " 
the  customs  during  St.  Ethelbert's  fair  of  nine  days,  i.  e.  five  shillings  to 
the  king's  customer,  one  shilling  for  every  porter,  and  sixpence  for  every 
sergeant,  which  demand  the  bishop  refused.  The  mayor  and  citizens 
remonstrated, — attended  the  bishop's  audit,  and  claimed  their  legal  duties, 
but  desired  to  guard  against  any  "  grudge  and  anger  that  might  grow 
between  them."     These  disputes  led  to  an  investigation  of  the  respective 


30  HEREFORD  CATHEDRAL. 

rights  and  powers  of  the  bishop,  and  of  the  mayor,  &c.  ■  and  it  was  proved, 
that  at  the  Norman  Conquest,  the  bishop  was  not  lord  of  the  city,  but  that 
it  belonged  to  the  king  till  the  6th  of  July,  1189,  when  Richard  I.  sold  the 
lordship  for  forty  pounds  to  the  citizens,  or  rather  forty  pounds  a  year,  as 
that  sum  was  to  be  gathered  by  three  of  the  bailiffs,  one  of  which  was  the 
mayor,  one  the  King's  bailiff,  and  one  called  the  customer.  The  last  was  to 
collect  the  tolls  and  profits  at  the  gates,  fairs,  markets,  &c.  King  John 
granted  the  citizens  the  privilege  of  Guild  Merchants.  Bishop  Aquablanca 
summoned  them  to  answer  for  selling  merchandise,  i.  e.  wool,  hides,  &c. 
within  their  houses,  during  the  fair  of  the  said  Bishop.  The  citizens 
admitted  that  the  fair  and  all  its  profits  belonged  to  the  prelate,  and  that  his 
bailiff  ought  to  come  on  the  eve  of  the  fair  to  the  city  bailiff,  and  take  custody 
of  the  city.  The  citizens  afterwards  granted  the  King's  pillory  and  tumbrell, 
both  in  fair  time  and  out,  to  do  their  executions,  and  ordered  the  Bishop's 
pillory  to  be  taken  down.  The  tenants,  servants,  &c.  of  the  Bishop,  Dean,  &c. 
to  be  free  from  city  toll  and  all  exactions.  Other  agreements  and  stipulations 
were  entered  into  between  the  clergy  and  laity  of  the  city,  but  not  sufficiently 
binding  to  prevent  disputes :  for  in  a  letter  from  the  mayor  to  the  Bishop's 
bailiff  he  states  that  the  plea  of  the  latter  "  is  untrue,  and  slanderously 
devised  and  contrived  by  a  busy  man,  to  put  the  former  to  slander,  unjust 
vexation,  and  expense;  and  particularly  to  stir  discord  and  strife  between 
the  Bishop  and  the  citizens."  Sir  John  Harington  describes  Bennett, 
when  at  college,  as  an  active  man,  who  played  well  at  tennis,  and  could  toss 
an  argument  in  the  schools  even  better  than  a  ball  in  the  tennis  court.  This 
prelate  bequeathed  twenty  pounds  to  the  Cathedral;  twenty  pounds  to 
Trinity  College,  Cambridge ;  twenty  pounds  towards  finishing  the  schools 
at  Oxford ;  twenty  pounds  to  the  poor  of  Baldock,  in  Hertfordshire,  his 
birth-place,  &c.  He  died  the  26th  of  October,  1617,  and  was  buried  on  the 
north  side  of  the  high  altar,  where  a  handsome  marble  monument  is  standing 
to  his  memory. 

Francis  Godwin,  D.  D.  was  promoted  from  the  See  of  Landaff  to  that  of 
Hereford  in  1617.  He  is  distinguished  by  his  valuable  "  Catalogue  of  the 
Bishops  of  England,"  which  was  first  printed  in  Latin  in  1601.  In  his 
own  account  of  himself  under  Landaff  he  says  he  was  "  Subdean  of  Exeter, 


BISHOP  GODWIN. A.D.  1617—1633.  31 

son  of  Thomas  Godwin,  sometimes  Bishop  of  Bath  and  Wells,  born 
at  Hansington,  Northamptonshire ;  collected  and  writ  the  Catalogue  of 
Bishops  in  1600,  which  now  this  year,  1614,  he  hath  augmented."  An 
edition  in  English  was  printed  in  1605,  forming  a  small  quarto,  but  thick 
volume  of  seven  hundred  pages.  Another  edition,  in  Latin,  was  published 
in  1616 ;  and  an  enlarged  edition,  with  many  additions,  was  published  in  a 
large  folio  volume  by  William  Richardson,  1743.  This  was  printed  under 
the  title  of  u  De  Prsesulibus  Angliae  Commentarius,"  &c.  Bishop  Nicholson, 
in  his  valuable  "  Historical  Library,"  fol.  1736,  says  that  two  English 
editions  "  were  equally  full  of  the  author's  and  printer's  mistakes.  The 
faults  of  the  latter  edition  were  so  very  gross  that  they  put  him  upon  the 
speedy  dispatch  of  another  in  Latin,  the  style  of  which  is  neat  and  clear." 
Both  Nicholson,  and  Wharton  in  u  Anglia  Sacra,"  accuses  Godwin  of  quoting 
from  authors  without  acknowledgment — of  being  guilty  of  chronological 
mistakes — of  reliance  on  counterfeit  charters — an  uncertain  calculation  of 
years — and  giving  "  false  and  imperfect  catalogues  in  almost  every  diocess." 
Warton  indeed  assures  us  that  he  made  better  progress  in  eighteen  months 
than  Godwin  had  done  in  twenty  years.  Peter  Le  Neve,  Thomas  Baker, 
Fleetwood,  Gough,  &c.  made  many  additions  and  corrections  to  Godwin's  work, 
copies  of  most  of  whose  notes  are  inserted  in  the  Catalogue  in  my  possession. 
Godwin  was  also  author  of  some  other  works ;  among  which  may  be  named 
The  Life  and  Reign  of  Mary,  Queen  of  England,  published  in  Kennet's 
Collection,  vol.  ii. ;  The  Man  in  the  Moon,  or  a  Discourse  of  a  Voyage 
thither,  by  Domingo  Gonzales,  8vo.  1638,  several  times  reprinted;  Annales 
Rerum  Anglicarum  Henrico  VIII.  Edwardo  VI.  et  Maria  Regnantibus, 
fol.  1616,  and  4to.  1628.  This  was  translated  by  his  son,  Morgan  Godwin, 
and  published  in  fol.  1630  and  1676,  under  the  title  of  Annals  of  England. 
Browne  Willis  does  not  give  a  very  favourable  account  of  our  Bishop, 
saying  "  he  was  a  great  symonist,  nothing  is  reported  to  have  fell  in  his 
gift  but  what  he  sold  or  disposed  of  in  regard  to  some  son  or  daughter  • 
but  this  practice,  I  presume,  had  been  so  notorious  in  Queen  Elizabeth's 
time  that  it  occasioned  her  aversion  to  Bishops'  marriages,"  &c.  Besides 
the  revenues  of  the  See  he  secured  several  church  perferments.  Willis  states 
that  he  died  April,  1633,  and  was   buried  in  the  north  transept  of  this 


32  HEREFORD  CATHEDRAL. 

Cathedral,  where  an  effigy  of  a  Bishop  is  shewn  and  ascribed  to  him;  but 
Duncumb  says  that  he  was  interred  at  Whitbourn,  "  without  any  other 
memorial  than  his  arms,  with  this  enigmatical  inscription  underneath,  Win 
Godwin  all."  In  the  register  at  Whitbourn  is  an  entry  of  his  interment, 
"  Sepultus  fuit  vicessimo  nono  Aprilis,  1633." 

William  Juxon,  Dean  of  Worcester,  was  elected  to  Hereford,  but 
removed  to  London  before  consecration. 

Augustine  Lindsell,  S.  T.  P.  was  advanced  from  Peterborough  to  this 
See  io  1633,  but  resided  here  not  more  than  eleven  months,  when  he  died 
suddenly  in  his  library,  and  was  buried  in  his  Cathedral.  (See  History, 
&c.  of  Peterborough  Cathedral.) 

Matthew  Wren,  D.  D.  presided  here  about  one  year  only,  when  he  was 
translated  to  Norwich  in  1635,  and  afterwards  to  Ely,  where  he  died  in 
1667.     (See  Bentham's  History  of  Ely  Cathedral). 

Theophilus  Field,  D.  D.  succeeded  Wren,  being  advanced  from  the 
See  of  Saint  David's,  iu  December,  1635.  He  did  not  live  to  enjoy  this 
promotion  more  than  six  months,  when  he  paid  the  debt  of  nature,  and  was 
interred  against  the  east  wall  of  the  north  transept,  where  a  bust,  and  an 
inscription  commemorate  his  features  and  name. 

George  Coke,  S.  T.  P.  was  translated  from  Bristol  to  this  See  on  the 
death  of  Field.  He  presided  about  ten  years,  and  dying  in  1646,  was 
interred  in  the  south  aile,  near  the  vicar's  cloisters,  where  his  effigy,  with"  a 
long  inscription,  remains.  After  fourteen  years  vacancy,  in  consequence  of 
the  civil  wars,  the  See  was  occupied  by 

Nicholas  Monk,  S.  T.  P.  then  Provost  of  Eton  College,  who  was 
consecrated  January  14,  1660.  He  never  visited  his  diocess,  but  dying  in 
December,  1661,  was  buried  in  St.  Edmund's  Chapel,  Westminster  Abbey. 
(See  Brayley  and  Neale's  Westminster  Abbey,  vol.  ii.) 

Herbert  Croft,  S.  T.  P.  was  advanced  from  the  Deanery  to  the 
Bishopric  in  January,  1661-2.  Willis,  and  Wood  in  "  Athenae  Oxoniensis," 
give  a  most  pleasing  account  of  the  conduct  and  character  of  this  prelate ; 
and  praise  him  particularly  for  the  scrupulous  care  and  zeal  he  manifested  in 
selecting  prebendaries  from  the  clergy  who  resided  within  the  diocess. 
This  proved  highly  beneficial,  and  preserved  a  sympathy  and  local  interest 


BISHOPS  IRONSIDE,  HUMPHREYS,  BISSE,  AND  HOADLEY. — A.  D.  1691—1723.      33 

between  the  members  of  the  church  and  the  laity.  He  presided  till  May  18, 
1691,  when  dying,  he  was  interred  within  the  communion  rails,  where  a  plain 
slab  covers  his  grave. 

Gilbert  Ironside,  D.  D.  was  translated  from  Bristol  to  this  See  on  the 
death  of  Bishop  Croft,  and  died  in  London  in  1701,  where  he  was  buried 
in  the  Church  of  St.  Mary  le  Strand.  (See  History,  &c.  of  Bristol 
Cathedral.) 

Humphry  Humphreys,  D.  D.  a  Welshman,  was  translated  from  Bangor 
to  Hereford  in  1701,  where  he  presided  till  November  20,  1712.  In  the 
year  1704  he  appears  to  have  been  engaged  in  controversy  with  the  mayor 
and  corporation  respecting  the  jurisdiction  of  the  city  over  u  the  Cathedral 
Church,  the  church  yard,  palace,  and  college  of  vicars ;"  when  the  deputy 
steward  wrote  a  long  letter  to  the  Bishop,  endeavouring  to  shew  that  this 
jurisdiction  was  vested  in  the  city  from  the  time  of  the  foundation  of  the 
Bishopric.  He  died  in  1712,  and  was  buried  near  the  altar  of  the  Cathedral. 
A  short  memoir  is  given  of  this  prelate  in  the  Gentleman's  Magazine, 
December,  1826,  by  Dr.  Meyrick ;  and  a  notice  of  him  appears  in  Wood's 
Athen.  Oxon.  edit.  1820,  col.  895,  where  he  is  described  "  as  excellently 
versed  in  antiquities." 

Philip  Bisse,  D.  D.  was  a  liberal  but  not  a  very  tasteful  benefactor  to  the 
Cathedral,  having  erected  the  present  ponderous,  gloomy,  and  inappropriate 
altar  screen.  It  is  related  that  he  expended  nearly  three  thousand  pounds 
in  repairs  and  improvements  of  the  palace.  Dying  at  Hereford,  September  6, 
1721,  he  was  buried  near  the  altar  of  the  Cathedral,  where  a  massive  and 
ostentatious  monument  is  raised  to  his  memory. 

Benjamin  Hoadley,  D.  D.  who  succeeded  Bishop  Bisse,  and  presided 
here  from  1721  to  1723,  is  distinguished  in  the  literary,  polemical,  and 
political  annals  of  his  time  as  a  man  of  great  abilities  and  sound  principles. 
He  was  soon  promoted  to  Salisbury,  and  thence  advanced  to  Winchester, 
in  the  accounts  of  both  of  which  Cathedrals  I  have  had  occasion  to  record 
some  particulars  of  this  eminent  prelate.  In  consequence  of  espousing 
opinions  too  liberal  and  benevolent  for  the  age,  he  was  violently  and 
vindictively  opposed  by  those  who  could  not  bear  the  sunshine  of  true 


34  HEREFORD  CATHEDRAL. 

philosophy  and  good  sense.  According  to  his  own  language,  "  fury  seemed 
to  be  let  loose  upon  hiin."  An  account  of  his  life,  with  a  list  of  his  literary 
works,  is  inserted  in  the  supplement  to  the  "  Biographia  Britannica." 

Henry  Egerton,  D.  D.  fifth  son  of  the  third  Earl  of  Bridgewater,  was 
promoted  to  this  See  in  1724,  and  presided  over  it  twenty-two  years.  The 
only  memorable  event  connected  with  his  character  and  prelacy  was  the 
demolition  of  a  very  curious  antient  chapel  connected  with  the  palace,  which 
the  Bishop  and  some  of  the  chapter  pronounced  to  be  ruinous  and  useless. 
After  expending  above  fifty  pounds  in  taking  down  the  venerable  and 
interesting  building,  they  relinquished  for  a  time  their  silly  and  useless  task  : 
whereas  the  sum  of  about  twenty  pounds,  properly  employed,  would  have 
been  sufficient  to  uphold  and  preserve  it.  By  direction  of  the  Society  of 
Antiquaries  of  London,  a  plan,  and  an  elevation  of  the  front  of  it  were  drawn 
and  engraved,  but  not  sufficiently  well  executed  to  furnish  an  accurate  repre- 
sentation of  its  architectural  peculiarities.  In  Gough's  edition  of  Camden's 
Britannia,  vol.  ii.  the  same  prints  are  badly  copied.  In  an  account  from 
Hereford,  dated  September,  1737,  it  is  stated  that  "  they  are  pulling  down 
the  venerable  Gothic  chapel  belonging  to  the  Bishop's  palace,  in  order  to 
erect  a  more  polite  and  neat  pile  in  the  present  taste."  It  is  related  that  the 
entrance  door-way  was  semicircular,  with  at  least  ten  receding  mouldings, 
springing  from  as  many  columns,  on  each  side  ;  and  if  so,  it  must  have  sur- 
passed the  noble  south  porch  of  Malmesbury  Abbey  Church.  The  building 
was  nearly  square,  with  an  arched  roof,  sustained  on  two  pillars,  and  covered 
with  stone,  similar  to  some  early  buildings  in  Normandy. 

The  Hon.  and  Rev.  Lord  James  Beauclerk,  eighth  son  of  the  Duke  of 
St.  Alban's,  who  was  a  natural  son  of  Charles  II.  by  Eleanor  Gwynn,  was 
advanced  to  this  See  June  26,  1746,  and  presided  here  for  the  unusual 
space  of  forty-one  years.  He  is  described  as  resembling  his  grandfather  in 
person,  and  as  being  very  affable  in  manners ;  but  though  he  reigned  over 
his  provincial  diocess  so  long,  we  do  not  hear  of  any  great  or  good  works 
that  he  performed,  excepting  the  publication  of  a  letter  to  his  clergy.  Dying 
in  October,  1787,  iu  the  seventy-seventh  year  of  his  age,  he  was  interred  in 
the  Cathedral,  near  the  altar,  where  a  marble  slab  covers  his  grave. 


BISHOPS  HARLEY,  BUTLER,  CORNEWALL,  ETC. — A.  D.  1787—1831.  35 

The  Hon.  and  Rev.  John  Harley,  D.  D.  third  son  of  Edward  Harley, 
third  Earl  of  Oxford,  was  next  advanced  from  the  deanery  of  Windsor  to 
this  See,  and  died  in  six  weeks  after  his  consecration. 

John  Butler,  D.  D.  a  native  of  Hamburgh,  was  a  popular  preacher 
in  London,  an  able  political  writer,  and  an  effective  assistant  to  Lord 
North  and  his  administration,  in  vindicating  the  unwise  and  impolitic 
American  war.  He  was  consequently  soon  and  handsomely  rewarded  by 
church  preferments.  In  1777  he  was  promoted  to  the  See  of  Oxford, 
although  he  had  never  taken  a  degree  in  either  of  the  English  Universities. 
Hence  he  was  not  very  cordially  received  in  that  city ;  but  in  1788  he  was 
translated  to  Hereford,  where  he  presided  till  his  death,  in  1802.  During 
his  prelacy  he  built  the  present  Chapel  of  the  palace,  and  liberally  contributed 
towards  the  rebuilding  the  west  end  of  the  Cathedral  Church. 

Folliott  Herbert  Walker  Cornewall,  D.  D.  a  fellow  of  St.  John's 
College,  Cambridge,  and  Dean  of  Canterbury,  was  advanced  to  the  See 
of  Bristol  in  1797,  and  thence  translated  to  Hereford  in  1803,  where  he 
remained  only  five  years,  when  he  was  advanced  to  Worcester,  over  which 
diocess  his  lordship  continues  to  preside. 

John  Luxmore,  D.  D.  was  made  Dean  of  Gloucester  in  1800,  Bishop  of 
Bristol  in  1807,  and  thence  translated  to  Hereford  in  1808.  Here  his 
lordship  presided  till  1815,  when  he  was  removed  to  St.  Asaph.  During 
his  stay  here,  his  lordship  was  actively  and  honourably  employed  in  promoting 

the  establishment  of  national  schools  in  the  Diocess. 

ft 

George  Isaac  Huntingford,  D.  D.  the  present  much  respected  and 
venerable  Bishop  of  Hereford  was  translated  from  Gloucester  to  this  See  in 
1815.  He  was  made  warden  of  Winchester  College  in  1789,  and  by  the 
statutes  of  that  College  is  obliged  to  reside  there  the  greater  part  of  the 
year,  whereby  Hereford  is  deprived  of  the  advantage  of  the  good  prelate's 
long  continued  presence.  Bishop  Huntingford  is  author  of  several  classical 
and  religious  works,  of  a  learned  and  useful  character ;  a  list  of  which  is 
printed  in  Watts's  K  Bibliotheca  Britannica." 


36 


HEREFORD  CATHEDRAL. 


HISTORICAL  AND  DESCRIPTIVE  ACCOUNT  OF  THE  CATHEDRAL  CHURCH,  WITH 
REFERENCES  TO  THE  ACCOMPANYING  ENGRAVINGS. 

The  Cathedral  Church  of  Hereford  is  one  of  those  truly  interesting  edifices 
of  the  olden  times,  which  exhibits  in  its  present  features,  and  involves  in  its 
associations,  many  facts  and  considerations  of  deep  import  in  the  history  of 
Christian  Architecture,  and  in  the  annals  of  the  country.  If,  by  comparison, 
it  be  not  equal  to  the  metropolitan  churches  of  York  and  Canterbury,  or  the 
grand  minsters  of  Lincoln,  Durham,  or  Wells,  we  shall  find  that  it  presents 
some  architectural  parts  and  designs  very  different  to  any  thing  in  either  of 
those  justly  famed  buildings.  It  furnishes  some  links  in  the  history  of 
architecture ;  aud  contains  singularities  which  cannot  fail  to  arrest  the 
attention  and  excite  the  curiosity  of  the  antiquary.  In  the  fall  and  rebuilding 
of  the  western  end,  in  recent  times,  it  affords  subject  for  speculation  and 
comment  to  the  architectural  critic.  Browne  Willis  notices  it  as  containing 
more  monuments  to  Bishops,  Deans,  &c.  than  any  other  English  cathedral, 
some  of  which  are  certainly  peculiar  in  situation,  forms,  and  adornment. 

Whatever  may  have  been  the  primary  style,  design,  and  character  of  the 
building,  or  whether  it  was  ever  completed  in  one  style,  and  according  to 
one  design,  it  is  now  impossible  to  ascertain  and  exemplify.  At  present  it 
presents  a  variety  of  heterogeneous  and  discordant  parts ;  some  of  which 
are  old,  and  of  uncontaminated  Anglo-Norman  design  and  workmanship;  but 
it  will  not  be  easy  to  prove  any  part  to  be  truly  Saxonic.  It  contains  some 
specimens  of  the  lancet,  or  first  pointed  style,  another  part  of  almost  unique 
character  with  triangular  arches,  &c. ;  and  we  also  trace  the  second  and 
third  grades,  or  eras,  of  the  pointed  class  of  architecture.  In  the  monu- 
mental chapels  of  Bishops  Stanbury  and  Audley,  we  see  a  florid  character 
of  decoration,  as  also  in  another  specimen  of  elaborate  execution  in  the 


CATE^IIJHAI.  A^TItJ— ITIES  . 


MemutmI  In  ln*yai  bv  TiLClwk*  I*  CHacker.  1629. 

ISB     PIAIT.— PLA1IS  OK  ?- JITS  ,-  REyKREtfCK  fi  TO    MOaOTMKWTS.  ftc  . 

Lend?*.    RtbLsh&i  March  /./&%?  by  Lengmun  &'  if  foanwutar  R&*. 


Engr«7r^  by  K-Koofc. 


■ 


i 


DESCRIPTION  OF  THE  CHURCH.  37 

north  porch,  raised  by  Bishop  Booth.  The  organ  and  altar  screens,  with 
the  new  western  end,  and  other  additions  and  repairs  made  by  the  late 
Mr.  James  Wyatt,  are  so  many  sad  defects,  and  tasteless  members  of 
the  edifice,  which  cannot  fail  to  give  painful  sensations  to  the  critical 
architectural  antiquary.  Whilst  the  genuine  works  of  the  Catholic  builders 
manifest  consummate  science,  and  untrammeled  fancy,  most  of  the  modern 
works,  by  provincial  carpenters  and  masons,  or  professional  architects,  are 
inappropriate  and  discordant,  insipid  and  offensive.  Some  writers,  however, 
have  vindicated  and  praised  them ;  but  the  late  Mr.  John  Carter,  and 
Mr.  Gough,  in  the  Gentleman's  Magazine,  and  one  or  two  other  real  lovers 
of  art,  have  properly  and  severely  reprobated  them. 

Aided  by  the  series  of  engraved  plans,  elevations,  sections,  and  views  of 
the  building  which  accompany  these  pages,  I  hope  to  furnish  the  reader 
with  such  representations  of  its  better  parts  as  will  enable  him  to  understand 
and  appreciate  the  whole,  as  well  as  the  details.  The  modern  works  are  not 
otherwise  shewn  in  these  engravings  than  in  the  Ground  Plan,  Plate  i. 
which  marks  that  of  the  west  end  at  b,  and  the  organ  screen,  separating 
the  nave  from  the  choir.  By  this  plan,  the  arrangement,  extent,  and 
subdivisions  of  the  whole  edifice  are  indicated,  as  they  appear  on  the 
ground.  Walls,  pillars,  buttresses,  door-ways,  and  windows,  as  well  as  the 
open  or  covered  areas  between  the  walls,  are  thus  shewn.  The  darkest 
colour  is  intended  to  represent  the  oldest  part  of  the  edifice,  whilst  later  and 
subordinate  portions  are  marked  by  lighter  tints.  As  intimated  by  this  plan, 
the  whole  Church  consists  of  a  north  double  porch,  a  and  b;  a  nave,  e,  with 
its  two  ailes,  c  and  d;  a  south  transept,  f,  and  north,  g,  with  an  aile  to  the 
east,  j  ;  a  space  beneath  the  central  tower,  forming  part  of  the  choir,  h  ;  a 
north  aile,  k,  a  south  one,  m  ;  a  chancel,  or  altar  end,  at  l  ;  a  north  east 
transept  at  n,  consisting  of  two  ailes  of  equal  height  and  character,  and 
another  to  the  south,  at  p;  a  space  behind  the  altar,  forming  a  sort  of 
vestibule  to  the  Lady  Chapel,  at  o ;  whilst  q  and  r.  shew  the  extent  and 
form  of  the  Lady  Chapel ;  at  s  is  a  chantry,  or  monumental  chapel  for 
Bishop  Audley ;  t  is  an  entrance  porch,  covering  an  exterior  flight  of  steps 
to  the  crypt  beneath  the  Lady  Chapel,  a  plan  of  which  is  represented  at  u;  at 


38  HEREFORD  CATHEDRAL. 

v  and  w  are  very  old  parts  of  the  building  appropriated  to  the  modern  vestry, 
&c. ;  x  is  the  cloister,  commonly  called  the  Bishop's  cloister,  to  distinguish 
it  from  another,  at  i  and  j,  connected  with  the  vicar's  college,  k  and  1.  At  z 
is  the  site  of  the  western  walk  of  the  cloister,  which  was  taken  down  about 
1760,  and  a  large  pile  of  brick  building,  of  most  unsightly  and  unmeaning 
character,  raised  in  its  stead,  and  appropriated  to  the  Grammar  School,  and 
to  the  triennial  meeting  of  the  three  choirs  \  The  small  letters  in  the  Plan 
refer  to  subordinate  parts  of  the  Cathedral,  whilst  the  figures  point  out  the 
most  material  monuments,  and  which  will  be  noticed  in  subsequent  pages 
of  this  volume. — a,  original  western  entrance,  which  consisted  of  an  Anglo- 
Norman  semicircular  arched  door-way,  with  several  mouldings,  and  at  least 
four  columns  on  each  side.  There  were  two  small  lateral  door-ways  to 
the  ailes.  b,  modern  central  western  entrance,  with  two  small  door-ways  to 
the  ailes ;  c,  font ;  d,  vestibule  from  the  cloister  to  the  Chapter  House, 
which  has  been  taken  down,  excepting  the  lower  part  of  the  wall  at  e, 
marked  dark.  The  form  of  this  Chapter  House  is  indicated  by  dotted  lines, 
as  also  the  groining  of  its  roof,  which  was  supported  by  a  clustered  column  in 
the  centre;  f,  stair-case  in  a  circular  tower  at  the  eastern  angle  of  the  north 
transept ;  g,  entrance  to  Bishop  Stanbury's  chapel  ;  h,  open  area ;  i,  j,  k, 
and  1,  have  been  already  noticed ;  m,  stairs  to  a  room  over  the  inner  north 
porch}  u,  stairs  to  the  roof  of  the  north  transept,  tower,  &c. ;  o,  a  buttress, 
having  a  door-way  in  it,  the  lintel  of  which  has  an  inscription  and  shields  of 
arms  belonging  to  Bishop  Booth  ;  p,  stairs  in  the  angular  turretted  buttress  to 
a  room  over  Bishop  Booth's  porch  ;  q  q,  plan  of  one  of  the  mullions,  or  piers, 
with  several  shafts  attached,  between  two  windows  on  the  north  side  of  the 
Lady  Chapel,  an  elevation  of  which  is  given  in  Plate  viii.  ;  rrr,  plan  of  a 
clustered  column  in  the  north  transept,  also  profile  of  the  base  mouldings ; 
s  s,  plan  of  pier,  or  mull  ion,  between  the  windows  at  the  east  end  of  the 
Lady  Chapel,  with  the  detached  clustered  column.  See  the  elevation, 
section,  &.c.  of  the  same  in  Plate  viii.  d. — Such  are  the  divisions  and  parts 

1  In  the  "  History,  &c.  of  Worcester  Cathedral,"  will  be  found  a  short  account  of  the  origin 
and  intention  of  the  "  three  choirs,"  as  constituting  a  part  of  the  history  of  the  Cathedrals  of 
Gloucester,  Hereford,  and  Worcester. 


HISTORY,  DATES,  AND  STYLES  OF  THE  CHURCH.  39 

intimated  by  the  Plan,  excepting  the  small  figures,  which  are  placed  near 
the  monuments  of  persons  of  some  note  :  these  will  be  separately  referred  to 
after  a  few  remarks  are  made  respecting  the  ages,  &c.  of  different  portions 
of  the  building. 

The  history  of  an  antient  edifice,  consisting,  as  that  of  Hereford  does,  of 
several  parts,  and  those  of  distinct  and  distant  eras  of  execution,  and  more 
especially  where  contemporary  records  are  wanting,  can  never  be  clearly 
and  satisfactorily  elucidated.  Hence  persons  of  different  sentiments,  and  of 
varied  degrees  of  information,  will  be  likely  to  form  different  opinions,  and 
hence  also  theories  will  be  substituted  for  facts.  Many  minds,  indeed, 
delight  more  in  theory  than  in  genuine  history,  because  the  one  is  self- 
created,  and  the  other  springs  from  ratiocination  and  deep  investigation. 
When  we  reflect  on  the  very  imperfect  and  slight  information  that  has 
been  transmitted  to  us  respecting  the  extent  and  characteristic  features  of 
the  churches  that  have  successively  been  built,  or  altered,  at  Hereford,  it  is 
not  surprising  that  contradictory  inferences  have  been  drawn  by  those  who 
have  directed  their  attention  to  the  subject,  or  that  we  should  still  be  left  in 
doubt  and  darkness.  The  previous  pages  contain  some  notices  respecting 
the  first  planting  of  a  See  at  Hereford,  and  of  its  successive  Prelates,  with 
allusions  to  the  churches  that  were  built  as  the  head  of  the  diocess. 

The  dates  and  styles  of  the  different  parts  of  the  present  edifice  are 
proper  subjects  of  inquiry  for  the  architectural  antiquary,  as  they  constitute 
material  points  in  its  history;  but  deprived  of  documental  evidence,  he 
proceeds  without  proof,  and  can  never  arrive  at  demonstration.  Whilst 
one  writer  contends  that  a  large  part  of  it  is  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  age,  others 
will  not  allow  any  portion  to  be  anterior  to  the  Norman  conquest.  If  we 
cannot  settle  this  difference  of  opinion,  we  may  briefly  notice  the  eras  when 
new  works  are  said  to  have  been  commenced,  or  were  in  progress,  and  then 
endeavour  to  ascertain  whether  such  dates  are  likely  to  exemplify  the  parts 
of  the  building  to  which  they  respectively  refer.  Although  Bishop  Putta  is 
said  to  have  been  seated  here  as  early  as  a.  d.  676,  there  is  not  any  account 
of  a  Cathedral  having  been  raised  before  825,  when,  it  is  generally  agreed, 
that  Milfred,  a  Viceroy  to  Egbert,  King  of  Mercia,  constructed   a  "new 


40  HEREFORD  CATHEDRAL. 

building  for  that  express  purpose.  The  extent,  materials,  and  architectural 
character  of  that  Church  are  not  known  ;  though  one  of  the  old  chroniclers 
calls  it  "  lapidea  structural  (See  ante,  p.  4.)  It  appears,  however,  that  in 
less  than  two  centuries  afterwards  it  was  so  much  decayed,  or  dilapidated, 
that  Bishop  Athelstan,  who  was  promoted  to  the  See  in  1012,  commenced 
au  entirely  new  edifice  :  but  the  style  and  nature  of  that  are  not  more 
defined  by  the  chroniclers  than  those  of  the  former  Church.  Very  shortly 
afterwards  the  Welsh,  under  Algar,  Earl  of  Chester,  and  Griffin,  King  or 
Prince  of  Wales,  besieged  the  city  of  Hereford,  "  burnt  it  utterly,  and  the 
large  Minster  also,  which  the  worthy  Bishop  Athelstan  had  caused  to  be 
built."  This  is  the  account  of  the  Saxon  Chronicle  (see  ante,  p.  5) ;  and 
the  Chronicles  of  Mailros,  of  Simon  of  Durham,  and  of  Roger  Hovedon 
concur,  with  trifling  variations,  in  the  same  statement.  As  the  corpse  of 
Athelstan  was  interred,  in  February,  1055,  in  the  Church  which  he  had 
"  built  from  the  foundations,"  it  may  be  inferred  that  the  edifice  was 
not  wholly  destroyed  by  the  Welsh :  but  how  much,  and  what  remained, 
when  Loziug  was  promoted  to  the  See  by  the  new  Norman  king,  is  not 
defined  by  any  historian.  It  is  said  to  have  remained  in  ruins  from  1055  till 
the  year  1079.  Following  the  fashion  of  the  times,  and  in  the  spirit  of  other 
Norman  Bishops,  Losing  soon  commenced  rebuilding  the  Cathedral2;  and 
it  is  related  that  he  directed  it  to  be  raised  in  imitation  of  a  famed  church 
which  had  been  built  by  Charlemagne,  at  Aix-la-Chapelle,  between  774  and 
795 3.  This,  however,  is  one  of  the  traditions  which  can  neither  be  confirmed 
nor  confuted ;  though  when  we  know  that  the  church  referred  to  was  partly 
made  up  of  genuine  Roman  columns  and  other  materials  conveyed  from 
Rome  and  Ravenna,  we  are  not  disposed  to  place  much  credit  in  the  story. 
Besides,  the  architecture  of  Lozing's  Choir,  &.c.  is  quite  in  unison  with  the 
prevalent  works  of  his  own  age,  and  has  little  similarity  to  those  of  the 

2  Bishops  Walkelyn,  at  Winchester,  Gundulph,  at  Rochester,  Lozing,  at  Norwich,  Carilepho, 
at  Durham,  all  Normans,  built  large  and  fine  churches  at  their  respective  Sees. 

3  See  Gunn's  "  Inquiry,"  p.  00;  Whittington's  "  Historical  Survey,"  p.  32;  and  Paulus 
iEmylius's  "  Lite  of  Charlemagne."  In  Hearne  and  Byrne's  "  Antiquities,"  Lozing  is  said  to 
have  copied  from  a  work  of  the  Emperor  Charles  V.  who  lived  some  centuries  after  the  Bishop ! ! 


DATES  OF  THE  CHURCH.  41 

Romans,  or  the  Italians  of  the  eighth  century.  How  far  he  proceeded  with 
his  building  we  are  not  informed  j  but  Bishop  Raynelm,  who  presided  here 
from  1107  to  1115,  is  reported  to  have  completed  the  new  Church.  If, 
however,  that  prelate  did  finish  it,  many  additions  and  alterations  have  been 
subsequently  made  by  other  Bishops.  The  part  behind  the  altar  was  most 
likely  by  De  Vere,  between  1186  and  1199;  the  Lady  Chapel  and  its  crypt, 
about  1200;  the  central  tower,  by  De  Breuse,  between  1200  and  1215;  the 
north  transept  by  Cantelupe,  or  soon  after  his  decease ;  about  which  time 
the  chapter  house,  and  part  of  the  cloisters  were  erected  ;  the  ailes  of  the 
nave  and  choir,  and  the  eastern  transept,  the  chantry  chapels  of  Stanbury 
and  Audley,  and  lastly,  the  exterior  portion  of  the  north  porch,  by  Bishop 
Booth :  all  these  constitute  so  many  distinct  features  and  classes  of  archi- 
tecture in  the  Church,  and  it  would  be  gratifying  to  ascertain  the  times 
when,  and  persons  by  whom,  they  were  respectively  erected. 

The  Rev.  Thomas  Garbett  published  a  small  volume,  in  1827,  entitled 
u  A  brief  Inquiry  into  the  ancient  and  present  State  of  Hereford  Cathedral," 
in  which  he  says,  "  there  is  the  best  reason  for  believing  that  the  arches  of 
the  choir,  the  east  wall  of  the  south  transept,  ivith  its  side  aisle*,  also  the 
arches  which  communicate  between  the  side  aisles  of  the  choir  and  nave,  and 
the  great  transept,  are  the  remains  of  Athelstan's  Church;  whilst  the  arcade 
of  the  choir,  the  arches  beneath  the  central  tower  (but  not  the  piers),  with 
the  whole  of  the  Saxon  ivork  westward,  are  the  additions  of  Lozing  and 
Raynelm;  these  prelates  having  repaired  rather  than  rebuilt  the  Church." 
In  another  page  the  learned  antiquary  says,  "  I  must  persist  in  regarding 
Athelstan  as  the  founder  of  the  present  Church."  It  is  rather  a  curious 
circumstance  that  Mr.  Wm.  Garbett,  the  well  informed  and  skilful  architect 

4  Surely  Mr.  Garbett  must  err  in  calling  the  passage,  or  corridor,  on  the  east  side  of  the 
south  transept,  an  aile.  According  to  my  plan  and  examination  there  were  no  open  arches 
between  the  two ;  and  I  consider  that  to  be  essential  to  constitute  an  aile.  With  all  deference 
to  my  learned  friend,  I  also  think  the  word  side  unnecessary  in  conjunction  with  aile.  Again, 
how  does  Mr.  G.  reconcile  himself  to  the  term  "  Saxon  work"  applied  to  the  architecture 
of  Lozing's  time  1  If  this  gentleman's  writings  and  opinions  were  not  regarded  by  me  as  superior 
in  accuracy  and  technicality  to  the  generality  of  our  architectural  critics,  I  should  not  make 
these  remarks,  and  with  all  deference,  now  submit  them  for  his  candid  reconsideration. 

G 


42  HEREFORD  CATHEDRAL. 

of  Winchester,  published  a  similar  opinion  respecting  certain  parts  of  the 
venerable  Cathedral  of  that  city5;  and  I  could  not  coincide  with  him  then, 
nor  with  the  Rev.  Mr.  Garbett  now,  in  their  opinions.  Still  I  am  aware  that 
both  these  gentlemen  have  diligently  studied  the  subject,  and  have  most  care- 
fully examined  their  respective  churches ;  I  also  admit  that  the  architectural 
parts  alluded  to  by  each  as  being  Saxon  are  of  inferior  masonry,  and  plainer 
and  less  adorned  than  the  other  divisions  of  the  churches  which  are  admitted 
to  be  truly  Norman.  With  such  persons,  and  with  such  arguments  as  they 
adduce,  I  most  reluctantly,  and  even  with  some  degree  of  self  suspicion, 
differ.  Still  I  own  that  I  cannot  adduce  proofs ;  and  therefore  have  merely 
to  urge  my  own  opinion  against  theirs.  It  is,  however,  founded  on  a  very 
extensive,  and  I  may  say  a  fastidious  examination  of  numerous  churches  in 
this  country,  with  the  histories  of  each,  and  also  a  diligent  study  of  the 
history  and  characteristics  of  antient  churches  at  Caen,  and  other  parts  of 
Normandy  °.  It  would  occupy  too  much  of  the  present  work  to  enter  fully 
into  the  argument,  in  order  to  substantiate  or  justify  my  opinion,  and  must 
therefore  refer  the  reader,  who  may  be  curious  on  the  subject,  to  the  volume 
on  Winchester  Cathedral  already  noticed. 

By  an  examination  of  the  accompanying  engravings,  and  a  more  particular 
description  of  some  of  the  parts  referred  to,  we  shall  become  more  familiar 
with  their  characteristic  details,  and  be  thus  enabled,  perhaps,  to  develope 
something  of  their  history. 

The  principal  exterior  architectural  forms  and  features  of  the  building 
are  represented  in  Plates  ii.  hi.  vi.  and  vii.  in  all  of  which  the  central  tower 
is  shewn.  In  Plate  x.  one  compartment  of  the  choir  and  aile,  with  Bishop 
Stanbury's  chapel,  is  delineated,  in  elevation. 

Plate  ii.  view  of  the  Church  from  the  north-west,  displays  four  windows 
and  four  buttresses,  with  the  parapet  of  the  north  aile  of  the  nave,  also  the 

5  A  long  letter  of  Mr.  Garbett's  is  published  in  my  "  History,  Sfc.  of  Winchester  Cathedral," 
and  I  refer  to  it  with  great  satisfaction  as  containing  much  valuable  information  respecting  the 
ages  and  styles  of  different  parts  of  that  most  interesting  church. 

6  For  accounts  and  illustrations  of  the  architecture  of  these  churches,  the  reader  is  referred  to 
the  "  Architectural  Antiquities  of  Normandy,"  by  A.  Pugin  and  J.  Britton,  2  vols.  4to.  1828. 


I 


1§'  1" 


&.•  * 


CA.THEI>HAI.  ATTTLQirmE  s . 


W.H.Baxtlett  del. 


Engraved,  try  J.LeKinrr 


KOHTHPOTRCH,   PART  OF  K.TRAIiSEFT    &c . 

To  the  KRV?  JOHN    CLUTTOK,  D.D.  Carum  Residentiary  of  tfcre-fbrd  Cathedral,  this  plate  is  rascribed  Try 

THE  AOTHOH . 

£ond*m!PubUshed-Nov.ll1830.-by -Longman,- &  C? Paternost&-~Rr\v . 


JYinttii  111  Jfai/a-.ir.  ' 


fi^riRHF.'iiOTii.A-T.-  A  fiti QTnriHhg .«;  „ 


T-H-Claxte  del. 


Xandan,  Aihlishfd  J>tp\-'' J .1830 ',  by  Hangman   i-  OTJteternojterJteh', 


J.Lc  Khitt  fc. 


frinteti  by  Marn.rU 


§  3 


a  3   a 

•V 

1 

1 

? 

CATHEDRAL  ANTIQUITIES. 


■■iigravod  byR.SaJida. 


^jJJJEff  ©3B2&     Os3T  JBQS)®]R  AX. . 

PAR':'    OF   N. TRANSEPT.  TOWER,  ifcC 
To  Ow  B.P.V?  H.H.MORGAN.  B.D.  Canon  Rcsidenoaiy  of  Oie  Caihodral .  &c  &e. this  plai.  ,    ,i  by  the 


:  .Junj  LIS30  IryJBnJWn  Bus{*n  Sl/vae. 


■  ™a»J>». 


EXTERIOR  OF  THE  CHURCH.  43 

clerestory  of  the  latter,  which,  with  its  parapet,  roof,  and  buttresses,  were 
nearly  all  rebuilt  after  the  fall  of  the  west  end :  the  north  porch  consisting  of 
two  parts  of  different  styles  and  dates.  The  exterior  porch  is  represented 
to  a  larger  scale  in  Plate  in.,  which  displays  its  front  entrance  archway  with 
highly  enriched  spandrils,  and  two  lateral  octagonal  stair-case  turrets,  at  the 
angles.  These  have  glazed  windows  in  the  upper  portions,  forming  a  sort 
of  lanthorn  to  each.  This  exterior  porch,  built  by  Bishop  Booth,  and 
bearing  his  name,  consists  of  two  stories,  the  lower  of  which  exhibits  four 
wide  arches,  springing  from  four  piers  at  the  extreme  angles,  two  of  which 
are  united  with  the  stair-case  turrets,  the  others  with  the  ends  of  the  old 
porch.  Its  upper  story,  containing  an  apartment,  is  sustained  on  a  vaulted 
and  groined  roof,  and  has  three  large  windows,  with  elaborate  tracery.  The 
north  transept  is  externally  shewn  in  Plates  ii.  hi.  and  vi.  in  which  the  large 
buttresses,  with  bevelled  angles,  tall  windows  without  transoms,  and  rising 
nearly  the  whole  height  of  the  building,  are  conspicuous  and  characteristic 
features.  In  Plate  vi.  the  eastern  side  of  this  transept  is  represented,  to 
which  there  is  an  aile,  and  there  is  a  remarkable  architectural  circumstance 
on  this  side,  viz.  the  windows  of  the  triforium  have  semicircular  arched 
mouldings,  enclosing  a  window  of  three  lights  of  lancet  shaped  arches. 
Beneath  the  aile  window  is  a  pointed  arched  cloor-way,  which  was  probably 
an  original  approach  to  the  shrine  of  Cantelupe.  In  the  angle  is  a  stair-case 
turret,  which  is  circular  at  the  bottom  and  polygonal  above :  and  this 
probably  was  an  access  to  a  private  apartment  for  a  monk  over  the  aile  of 
the  transept,  containing  the  sainted  shrine.  The  central  tower,  from  this 
point,  is  displayed  in  all  its  massive  proportions,  and  with  its  profusion  of 
bead  or  bulb  ornaments.  In  the  present  view  the  angular  pinnacles  of  the 
parapet  are  not  shewn,  but  in  Plate  xi.  the  lower  parts  of  two  of  them  are 
delineated,  and  again  in  Plate  vn.  their  general  design  and  forms  are 
represented.  When  the  great  repairs  and  rebuilding  of  the  west  end  were 
made,  there  was  a  timber  and  leaded  spire  placed  on  the  tower,  but  this  was 
taken  down,  and  a  stunted,  squat  appearance  was  thus  given  to  the  building. 
In  the  year  1830  Canon  Russell  presented  a  sum  of  money  to  the  Dean  and 
Chapter  to  build  four  appropriate  pinnacles  at  the  angles,  which  if  well 


44  HEREFORD  CATHEDRAL. 

executed  will  improve  the  appearance  of  the  tower.  The  interior  character  of 
this  tower,  the  thickness  and  openings  in  its  walls,  the  aixhed  flooring  of  the 
belfry,  &c.  are  delineated  in  Plate  xi.  The  original  pitch  of  the  roofs  of 
the  choir  and  north  aile  is  indicated  in  Plate  vi.  ;  that  of  the  nave  was 
formerly  of  the  same  height.  On  that  Plate  the  dressed  or  panelled  parapet 
of  the  eastern  side  of  the  transept,  as  originally  executed,  is  also  shewn,  and 
makes  the  modern  one  to  the  choir  look  very  poor  and  insipid. 

In  Plate  x.  is  an  elevation  of  one  compartment  of  the  exterior  of  the 
choir  on  the  north  side,  shewing  two  buttresses  of  the  north  east  transept, 
part  of  the  Stanbury  chapel,  a  window,  parapet  and  roof  of  the  aile,  a 
clerestory  window,  with  arcade  dressings  to  the  wall,  and  the  modern 
parapet  above  the  whole.  The  style  of  architecture  in  the  arcade  and 
window,  and  also  the  blank  window,  or  double  arch,  with  two  smaller 
arches  within  the  wall  of  the  clerestory,  with  the  ribbed  roof  rising  above 
the  Norman  triforium,  claim  the  particular  notice  of  the  antiquary. 

Plate  vii.  shews  the  exterior  style  and  architectural  features  of  the  east 
end  of  the  Lady  Chapel,  with  its  bold  angular  buttresses,  rising  from 
immense  bases,  like  the  frustra  of  pyramids.  The  numerous  and  large  base 
mouldings  running  round  the  wall  of  this  building,  its  tall  lancet  shaped 
windows,  arcades,  and  ovolar  and  lozenge  shaped  pannels,  are  so  many 
peculiarities  of  design  in  this  chapel,  which  cannot  fail  of  attracting  the 
attention  and  admiration  of  the  architectural  antiquary-  On  the  south  side 
projects  the  Audley  chapel,  which  has  been  already  referred  to.  The 
angular,  embattled  parapet,  at  the  end,  is  a  clumsy  piece  of  modern 
masonry. 

The  south  side  of  the  Church  is  almost  excluded  from  the  examination  of 
the  public,  being  enclosed  within  the  walls  of  a  garden  between  the  Bishop's 
and  the  Vicar's  cloisters,  and  the  enclosed  area  of  the  former. 

The  Interior  architectural  features  and  arrangement  of  the  Church  are 
delineated  in  the  accompanying  prints,  I. — iv. — v. — vm. — ix. — xi. — xn. — 
xni.  and  xvi.  The  plan,  Plate  i.  has  been  already  noticed.  Plate  iv.  is 
an  interesting  and  faithful  display  of  the  nave  and  its  ailes,  as  seen  from  the 
south-west  angle,  after  the  greater  part  of  the  fallen  materials  had  been 


r.ATWTF.HTHRAT.     ATTiHrQII!  HTUKS  . 


"WlLEnrtlett  ad. 


-Gugt-nw3  by.TLe  Kcuir. 


raagmiaipfisiEia)  ©ATHisrons  aji,  „ 


To  SESH&'MtEI  lilDTJlTLlTJ.  ESQ.  of  liorgMU . HercfordahiL-p- ;  this  jflatt  is  iuscj.-il.vil    \,y 


Dir.  Al'lJInl; 


XmtUmsJffiVsTu&Jwi&XlS&ty-Zorigman  S-  CfJhiernarterJtofv. 


h 
& 


INTERIOR  OP  THE  CHURCH  : WEST  END.  45 

taken  away  in  the  year  1786.  My  once  much  esteemed  friend  and  country- 
man, Mr.  Hearne,  was  at  Hereford  in  that  year,  and  with  his  usual  taste 
and  accuracy  made  the  drawing  from  which  the  annexed  engraving  has 
been  copied.  It  becomes  peculiarly  valuable  in  the  estimation  of  the 
architectural  antiquary,  from  shewing  the  style  and  character  of  the  triforium, 
the  clerestory,  with  its  thick  wall  pierced  with  a  corridor,  or  passage,  its 
vaulted  and  ribbed  roof,  and  its  ailes,  all  of  which  were  rebuilt,  in  a  very 
different,  and  I  must  add  a  very  indifferent,  style  from  the  designs  of  the  late 
Mr.  James  Wyatt,  who  has  unfortunately  left  other  specimens  of  ill  applied 
and  ill  designed  works  in  the  Cathedrals  of  Salisbury,  Lichfield,  and 
Durham.  Without  noticing  any  of  the  other  places,  or  even  referring  to 
the  designs  of  Fonthill  Abbey,  and  the  castellated  palace  at  Kew,  one  in 
ruins  and  the  other  fortunately  since  taken  down,  the  designs  at  Hereford 
are  sufficient  to  impeach  the  taste  or  judgment  of  an  architect  who  could 
make  and  recommend  them  to  join  to,  or  combine  with,  the  bold,  broad, 
substantial  Norman  work  of  the  original  nave.  That  front,  however,  is  not 
the  only  or  the  worst  part  of  the  design,  but  the  triforium  and  clerestory  of 
the  nave  have  pointed  arches,  with  their  flimsy  columns,  poor,  mean 
mouldings,  and  all  the  dressings  equally  insipid,  and  wholly  discordant  to 
the  original  work.  I  could  no  more  reconcile  myself  to  have  a  drawing 
and  engraving  made  of  any  part  of  such  building  (I  will  not  miscall  it 
architecture)  than  I  could  reengrave  any  of  Batty  Langley's  "  Gothic,"  or 
the  "  Bricklayer's  Gothic  "  of  the  present  day,  which  Church  Commissioners 
unfortunately  and  heedlessly  encourage.  If  a  very  great  saving  had  been  made 
by  adopting  the  light,  pointed  style,  which  Mr.  Wyatt  designed,  both  the 
architect  and  the  Chapter  might  have  partly  justified  themselves;  but  when  it 
is  notorious  that  the  whole  restoration,  in  conformity  to  the  old  work,  might 
have  been  executed  at  a  less  sum  than  was  expended  on  the  present,  we  can 
neither  palliate  nor  forgive  the  tasteless  novelties  which  have  been  executed. 
If  my  respected  friend  Mr.  Garbett  reprobates  this  language  as  wanting  in 
"  discrimination,  and  as  the  effect  of  prejudice"  (see  p.  20  of  his  Inquiry),  I 
must  tell  him  that  I  have  here,  as  upon  most  other  occasions  of  a  controverted 
nature,  and  where  the  subject  of  architectural  design  is  referrable  to  any 


46  HEREFORD  CATHEDRAL. 

maxims  of  taste,  science,  or  archaeology,  endeavoured  to  analyse  and  criticise 
my  own  opinions  before  I  have  committed  them  to  paper.  That  the  clergy 
knew  nothing  respecting  the  dates,  styles,  and  marked  features  of  the 
circular  and  pointed  architecture  of  the  monastic  ages,  is  readily  admitted, 
aud  unfortunately  the  architect  was  not  much  better  informed ;  for  there  were 
then  no  correct  publications  on  the  subject,  and  architects  and  antiquaries 
had  not  studied  it.  Fortunately  we  live  in  an  age  when  more  correct  ideas 
are  prevalent,  and  when  the  eyes  of  the  public  are  opened  to  better  principles. 
At  York,  at  Winchester,  at  Peterborough,  &c.  repairs  and  alterations  have 
been  made  in  a  style  and  manner,  if  not  wholly  unexceptionable,  at  least 
commendable.  The  fall  of  the  western  end  of  Hereford  Cathedral  is  the 
most  remarkable  event  of  modern  times  in  the  history  of  English  Cathedrals; 
whilst  the  rebuilding  of  it,  we  cannot  say  restoration,  is  as  remarkable  for 
its  inconsistent  and  discordant  character.  Inigo  Jones  built  a  Roman 
screen,  or  portico,  to  the  west  front  of  old  St.  Paul's,  and  Sir  Christopher 
Wren  built  two  towers  at  the  west  end  of  the  Abbey  Church  at  Westminster, 
both  of  which  have  been  justly  reprobated  by  all  discriminating  critics  of  the 
present  age.  It  is  equally  due  to  the  canons  of  good  taste  and  Christian 
architecture  to  protest  against  such  designs  and  works  as  those  executed  at 
Hereford,  between  the  years  178G  and  1796,  for  the  work  was  more  than 
ten  years  in  progress7.     Mr.  Gough,  in  a  letter  to  the  Gentleman's  Magazine, 

7  It  is  not,  perhaps,  possible  to  specify  the  expenses  attending  these  alterations;  but  it  is 
stated,  in  a  local  publication,  that  they  '*  amounted  to  nearly  £.13,000;  and  about  £.2000  more 
at  the  same  time  were  appropriated  to  the  general  repairs  of  the  central  tower  and  other  parts  of 
the  fabric:  of  these  sums  about  £.'2000  were  subscribed  by  the  Bishop,  Dean  and  Chapter,  and 
other  members  bf  the  Cathedral;  £.5000  by  the  nobility,  gentry,  and  clergy  of  the  Diocess,  and 
the  Bishops  and  Chapters  of  other  dioceses ;  and  the  remaining  £.8000  were  charged  upon  the 
estates  of  the  Church." — "  Hereford  Guide,"  edit.  1027,  p.  140.  The  new  works  and  alterations 
then  made  are  thus  specified  in  the  same  volume: — "  The  total  rebuilding  of  the  west  front 
without  a  tower,  the  foundations  of  which  were  removed  fifteen  feet  inward,  and  the  nave 
consequently  was  as  much  shortened  ;  the  arcades  and  clerestory  windows  in  the  upper  part  of 
the  nave,  altered  from  the  circular  to  the  pointed  form  ;  the  vaulting  of  the  nave  renewed  ;  the 
roofs  of  the  nave,  choir,  and  transepts  flattened  ;  the  spire  taken  down  from  the  central  tower  ; 
the  battlements  raised  somewhat  higher,  and  pinnacles  with  crockets  placed  at  the  angles."  At 
the   same  time  the  Cathedral   yard   was  levelled.      In   the  year  1793  the  Dean    and   Chapter 


MR.  WYATT'S  NEW  WORKS,  ETC.  47 

1790,  indignant  at  the  proceedings  at  Hereford,  says,  "  it  is  partly  through 
the  neglect  of  the  Chapters,  and  partly  by  the  ill  management  of  the 
architects  they  employ,  that  they  (the  Cathedrals)  are  falling  about  our  ears." 
The  lives  of  sixteen  men  were  placed  in  danger,  and  some  were  killed  by 
the  negligence  of  the  influential  persons  in  placing  the  scaffolding  within  the 
nave.  Even  Mr.  Garbett,  who  is  disposed  not  only  to  justify  but  applaud 
most  of  the  new  works  in  the  nave,  &c,  admits  that  the  "  doors  and  niches 
of  the  west  front  are  poor  in  themselves,  and  strikingly  at  variance  with  the 
rest,  as  to  offend  at  first  view ;  and  to  excite,  from  their  prominent  situation, 
a  prejudice  against  the  whole  fabric.  Nor  is  this  partial  deviation  in  style 
the  only  thing  to  be  lamented.  The  foundation  (the  church)  itself  has  been 
so  much  abridged,  that  of  the  four  arches  which  perished  with  the  tower,  two 
only  have  been  rebuilt,  and  those  without  the  least  decorative  feature.  A 
change  also  took  place  in  the  interior,  for  which  no  reason  has  been  assigned; 
and  which  merits  unqualified  condemnation,  viz.  raising  the  pavement  so  as 
to  conceal  the  square  basement  of  the  pillars,  and  consequently  to  diminish 
the  height  both  of  the  nave  and  side  aisles.  The  choir  was  originally 
approached  by  a  flight  of  steps ;  but  these  are  now  done  away."  The 
accompanying  engraving  shews  the  original  style  and  finishing  of  the  arches 
and  columns  of  the  nave,  the  triforium,  above,  and  the  clerestory  still  higher, 
though  it  seems  that  the  last  may  have  had  its  windows  inserted  subsequent 
to  the  first  building.  The  arched  roof  is  also  evidently  of  later  architecture 
than  the  lower  arches,  as  are  the  walls,  windows,  &c.  of  the  ailes. 

The  architecture  of  the  original  Choir  is  illustrated  by  Plate  x.  where 

appealed  to  the  public,  in  the  Hereford  Journal,  &c.  for  additional  aid,  stating  that  they  had 
expended  all  the  moneys  raised,  "  the  income  of  their  fabric  estates,  and  the  further  sum  of 
£.4000  raised  upon  their  other  estates,  to  the  restoration  of  the  necessary  parts  of  their  ancient 
fabric,  that  there  is  still  required  to  complete  that  object  £.3000,  which  must  remain  a  charge 
on  the  Dean  and  Chapter."  They  then  call  for  another  subscription,  to  enable  them  to  make  a 
finishing  to  the  central  tower,  in  place  of  the  destroyed  spire,  and  say  that  it  is  estimated  at 
£.1000,  towards  which  they  had  subscribed  among  themselves  £.547.  The  remaining  sum  does 
not  appear  to  have  come  in,  for  the  works  then  executed  did  not  appear  to  have  satisfied  many  of 
the  former  subscribers.  Mr.  Duncumb  states  that  "  an  expenditure  of  nearly  £.20,000  has 
proved  very  inadequate  to  the  restoration,"  Collections  for  Herefordshire,  &c.  vol.  i.  p.  529. 


48  HEREFORD  CATHEDRAL. 

we  recognise  the  style  of  its  strong  semicircular  arches,  between  immense 
piers ;  also  its  triforiuin,  of  corresponding  design,  and  its  clerestory  of  the 
first  pointed  character.  There  were  three  of  these  compartments  on  each 
side  of  the  choir,  but  they  are  all  either  partially  or  wholly  filled  up  by 
screens,  monuments,  or  walling,  and  heuce  the  true  effect  of  this  part  of 
Lozing's  work  is  scarcely  to  be  distinguished.  This  division  of  the  building, 
including  the  lofty  semicircular  arches  under  the  tower,  and  the  arch  or 
arches  which  originally  opened  to  the  Lady  Chapel,  must  have  exhibited  a 
fine  and  solemn  example  of  true  Norman  architecture.  It  is  also  probable 
that  the  Lady  Chapel,  of  Lozing's  time,  if  finished,  was  terminated  semi- 
circularly,  in  accordance  with  the  fashion  of  the  age.  We  may  safely  infer 
that  the  ailes  of  the  choir  were  executed  in  a  corresponding  style,  as  the 
terminating  arches  of  the  ailes,  both  to  the  west  and  to  the  east,  are  precisely 
like  those  of  the  choir.  In  Plate  xih.  one  of  these  arches  is  shewn,  and 
also  the  soffit,  mouldings,  and  capitals  of  the  south  eastern  arch  of  the  choir, 
as  seen  in  the  aile.  These  prints  represent  the  mouldings  round  the  arch  on 
the  choir  and  aile  sides  as  different  in  their  details,  the  latter  having  merely 
a  sort  of  bead,  or  torus,  whilst  the  former  has  several  torus  and  zigzag 
mouldiugs.  In  the  triforium,  the  mouldings,  as  well  as  the  filling  up  of  the 
arch  and  the  capitals,  are  variously  enriched  with  Norman  decorations. 
u  The  clerestory  range  of  the  choir,"  says  Mr.  Garbett,  p.  35,  "  consists  of  an 
inner  and  an  outer  wall,  forming  an  avenue  that,  prior  to  the  insertion  of  the 
great  east  window,  was  continued  round  the  extremity.  The  inner  wall  is 
separated  by  piers  into  three  compartments ;  each  compartment  contains 
two  low  trefoil  arches  on  the  sides,  and  a  high  pointed  arch  in  the  centre, 
which  is  subdivided  by  a  tall  clustered  column,  branching  off  in  the  head, 
and  forming  two  lesser  arches.  Each  pier,  which  with  the  arches  and 
arcades  is   Saxon*,   is  surmounted   by   two  gothic   pediments;    and   from 

8  The  application  of  the  term  Saxon  to  architecture  admitted  to  be  executed  by  the  Normans 
is  calculated  to  mislead  the  young  and  uninitiated  reader.  It  may  as  well  be  called  Roman.  A 
discriminating  aud  critical  writer,  as  Mr.  Garbett  shews  himself  in  most  parts  of  his  clever 
little  volume  to  be,  should  be  more  precise  in  his  language.  This  gentleman  recommends,  very 
urgently,  that  the  choir  be  enlarged,  by  taking  away  the  present  clumsy  altar  screen,  opening  and 


CATHEDBAX  AHTIQ01TTE 
1 


"VOLEartlett  del* 


Engraved  T-yW?  Wiiulnotli  - 


SOUTH  AXLE ,  iMOTTUKLEHT  OF  BI3J3HJP  MAYO,  fee. 
To  the  EEVP5TEWTON-  DICKENSON  HKNT)  ITEWTON,A£.  Rector  of  Brohurv,  Jb  Vicax  of  Bredwaxdine ,  this  plaie  ia  inscribed  ty  the 

LviidoTvPtibLCshed  Jul,/ 1.1830 '.buJ-uruniui/i  &  (XJBaXerrwsterSow. 


/hiaaf,fa/I!.f 


TOWER  AND  TRANSEPT.  49 

between  these  pediments  rises  a  small  clustered  column,  sustaining  the  stone 
vaulting,  the  groins  of  which  are  the  same  in  disposition  and  number  with 
those  of  the  Lady  Chapel." 

As  indicated  in  the  Ground  Plan,  the  arches  under  the  north  and  south 
sides  of  the  tower  are  propped  up  by  square  piers  at  the  centre  of  each, 
and  pieces  of  masonry,  built  up  against  the  old  piers.  The  architect,  or 
builder,  probably  considered  some  support  of  this  kind  to  be  necessary  to 
sustain  the  superincumbent  weight  of  the  tower;  but  nothing  can  be  more 
unsightly  and  unarchitectural  in  its  character  and  effect.  It  is  clumsy, 
tasteless,  and  bad.  If  the  arches  were  in  danger,  why  not  have  constructed 
screens,  similar  to  those  at  Salisbury  (see  View  in  my  Cathedral  Antiquities, 
Salisbury),  or  as  at  Canterbury ;  or  with  inverted  arches,  as  at  Wells. 
"  Of  all  plans,"  says  Mr.  Garbett,  u  which  a  country  mason  could  have 
selected  out  of  numerous  blunders,  this  central  pillar  is,  perhaps,  the  worst, 
whether  we  respect  its  utter  destitution  of  character,  its  glaring  obtrusiveness, 
its  acknowledged  inutility,  nay,  its  tendency  to  impair  the  fabric,  by  exciting 
a  reaction,  and  forcing  out  of  the  perpendicular  the  clerestory  range  of  the 
choir.  Nor  is  this  all ;  for  of  the  four  circular  arches  which  communicate 
between  the  side  ailes  of  the  choir  and  nave  and  the  transept,  one  only 
remains  in  its  original  state,  the  other  three  having  been  blocked  up,  leaving 
only  a  small  passage  way  in  each ;  the  adjoining  arch  on  either  side  the  choir 
has  shared  the  same  fate ;  and  as  to  the  arches  above,  the  present  surface  of 
the  wall  exhibits  not  a  trace  of  the  rich  work  which  lies  concealed  behind 
it,"  (p.  61.) 

Of  the  Transept,  we  see  by  the  dark  colour  of  the  Ground  Plan  that 
parts  of  the  wall  are  old,  and  part  of  a  lighter  shade,  intimating  a  later  date. 
Mr.  Garbett  contends  that  the  eastern  wall  of  the  south  transept  is  a  portion 
of  Athelstan's  Church.  Its  architectural  style  of  arches,  columns,  triforium, 
&c,  is  shewn  in  Plate  xi.  and  the  plan  in  Plate  i.,  but  if  this  part  of  the 

including  the  Lady  Chapel,  and  terminating  it  at  the  west  under  the  eastern  arch  of  the  tower. 
This  suggestion  is  certainly  entitled  to  the  consideration  of  the  Chapter,  and  with  some  other 
improvements,  much  wanted,  may  easily,  and  upon  moderate  terms,  be  made,  when  architects 
and  workmen  are  found  to  be  skilful,  honest,  and  industrious. 

H 


50  HEREFORD  CATHEDRAL. 

building  be  of  that  prelate's  age,  I  must  conclude  that  the  lower  part  of 
the  tower,  with  the  smaller  arches  to  the  ailes,  and  the  present  chapter  room, 
&c.  are  of  the  same  time.  These  members  of  the  Church  certainly  exhibit 
some  dissimilitude  of  forms  and  details  to  the  choir  and  nave,  but  it  is 
difficult  to  account  for  their  preservation  by  the  first  Norman  prelate :  for 
he,  like  the  generality  of  the  Normans,  was  too  ambitious  of  originality  and 
superiority,  as  well  as  too  national,  to  engraft  new  works  upon  those  of  his 
Anglo-Saxon  predecessors.  All,  however,  is  left  to  conjecture, — and  my 
good  friend,  Mr.  Garbett,  may  indulge  freely  and  fully  in  his  without  any 
fear  of  having  it  overruled  by  incontrovertible  evidence.  The  south  end  of 
this  transept  has  a  large  window,  of  six  lights,  inserted,  and  also  another  of 
four  lights  in  the  western  wall.  In  the  north  transept  we  perceive  a  style  and 
character  of  architecture  unlike  any  other  part  of  the  building,  and,  indeed, 
of  very  unusual  character.  It  is  well  defined  in  Plates  xi.  and  xn.,  in  which 
the  arch  mouldings  of  the  open  arches  of  the  triforium,  and  of  the  windows 
are  represented  as  being  almost  triangular,  or  rather  forming  two  sides  of  a 
triangle.  They  display  several  mouldings,  and,  as  in  the  Lady  Chapel,  are 
enriched  with  a  sculptured  ornament  called  the  dog-tooth.  The  capitals  of 
the  clustered  columns  are  richly  foliated.  Of  this  transept  Mr.  Garbett 
says,  "  The  sharp  pointed  arches  opening  into  the  side  aisle ;  their  distri- 
bution into  multiplied  mouldings  of  the  most  delicate  execution;  the  arcades 
immediately  above,  divided  by  mullions  into  lesser  arches,  and  closed  in  by- 
perforated  quatrefoils  in  circles ;  the  high  pointed  and  expanded  windows, 
differing  only  according  to  their  situations,  but  especially  that  towards  the 
north,  which  occupies  nearly  the  whole  of  the  extremity;  the  dog-tooth 
quatrefoil  and  patterns  in  mosaic,  tastefully  introduced  within  the  arches, 
and  on  the  surface  of  the  walls,  all  preserve  the  same  acute  and  determined 
character;  with  the  lofty  stone  vaulting  connecting  together  the  different 
objects,  render  this  apartment  an  exquisite  specimen  of  the  architectural 
genius  of  the  twelfth  century."  This  transept  is  adorned  by  a  very  interesting 
monument  of  antient  architectural  and  sculptural  design,  raised  to  the 
memory  of  Saint  Cantelupe,  which  will  be  hereafter  noticed.  It  is,  however, 
most  lamentably  disfigured  by  numerous  pews  and  seats,  appropriated  to  the 


EMBL&IL   &BKEBqnDECPSB 


T.WCLu-ki;  clel. 


EngrinisL  by  JLc  liL-ux. 


VJDBW  IK  TIHMK  U .  TBAHSHPT . 


Tb  the  XEVV  JOHN  '  JOjSTE S .  M. A.  OF  HEKEFOItl) ;  a  Jatron  of  Aril-i^iiariaii  Literattrre , -tbifl  .Hate  is  i3iscrjVcL"by- 

THE  -AUTHOR . 

Zcndcn  lUiUsltxd,  ^iu^u^t  1JSJ1.  hyXanariuai  S--  CH&avwsterJfom 


EAST  TRANSEPT.  51 

parishioners  of  St.  John  the  Baptist's  parish,  who  formerly  occupied  part  of 
the  nave,  and  who  from  prescriptive  right  claim  accommodation  within  the 
walls  of  the  Cathedral  Church. 

Behind  the  altar,  and  extending  north  and  south  beyond  the  ailes,  as 
shewn  in  the  plan,  is  the  Eastern  Transept,  a  portion  dissimilar  in 
architectural  character  to  any  other  part  of  the  Church.  It  consists  of  two 
ailes,  of  the  same  height  and  same  width,  with  three  columns  and  two  piers 
extending  through  the  middle,  north  and  south.  One  of  the  columns  and 
the  piers  are  now  incorporated  in  a  screen  and  walls  enclosing  the  western 
end  of  the  Lady  Chapel.  They  are  represented  in  Plate  v.,  which  also 
displays  the  character  of  the  rib  mouldings,  the  varied  and  enriched  style 
of  the  capitals,  the  height  of  the  vaulting,  &c.  In  this  view  I  have  omitted 
the  temporary  screen,  which  is  made  to  fill  up  the  two  arches  at  the  west  end 
of  the  Lady  Chapel,  and  thus  shut  out  the  whole  of  that  very  fine  and  very 
interesting  apartment.  It  is  not  easy  to  account  for  the  original  meaning 
and  appropriation  of  this  eastern  transept,  nor  for  its  union  with  the  Lady 
Chapel,  and  the  peculiar  separation  of  that  from  the  choir.  It  was  most 
likely  intended  to  contain  four  or  more  chantries  or  altars  under  the  eastern 
windows,  and  might  also  have  been  connected  with  the  College,  as  a 
cloister  or  corridor,  communicates  between  that  edifice,  and  the  south 
transept.  u  In  noticing  the  architecture  of  these  transepts,"  says  Mr.  Garbett, 
p.  40,  "  their  construction  must  not  be  overlooked.  Although  they  are  in 
part  open  from  north  to  south,  by  means  of  the  avenue  which  separates  the 
Lady  Chapel  from  the  choir,  they  are,  in  reality,  nothing  more  than  the  side 
aisles  of  the  latter  extended  into  double  aisles,  having  a  pillar  in  the  centre 
for  the  sustentation  of  the  groined  roof;  and  forming  a  square  apartment 
at  each  extremity,  lighted  by  four  windows.  The  head  work  of  the 
windows  on  the  east  side  of  the  south  extremity  (see  Plate  xiii.)  differs  from 
that  of  those  in  the  north  (see  Plate  v.),  the  spandrils  formed  by  the  centre 
and  side  mullions  in  the  crown  of  the  arch  containing  each  an  oblong 
quatrefoil.  The  windows  towards  the  south  are  still  more  varied."  The 
same  gentleman  considers  this  transept  to  be  of  prior  date  to  the  ailes  of  the 
nave.  Connected  with,  and  branching  from  it,  is  the  Lady  Chapel,  which 
may  be  regarded  as  the  most  beautiful  specimen  of  architecture  in  the  whole 


52  HEREFORD  CATHEDRAL. 

Church.  The  Plan  is  given  in  the  Ground  Plan,  which  also  displays  the 
situations,  proportionate  openings,  and  number  of  its  windows;  whilst 
Plates  viii.  ix.  and  xvi.  will  clearly  illustrate  the  general  design  and  style 
of  the  interior  architecture  of  this  unique  apartment.  Plate  viii.  represents 
one  compartment,  or  severy,  of  the  chapel  on  the  north  side,  near  the  east 
end,  with  a  section  through  one  of  the  windows  at  that  end.  This  sectional 
part  shews  the  thickness  of  the  wall  beneath  and  above  the  window — the 
numerous  columns  and  mouldings  of  the  window — the  several  base  mouldings 
on  the  outside,  the  geometrical  forms,  and  mouldings,  and  clustered  columns 
of  the  windows  on  the  north  side,  with  the  rib  mouldings  of  the  arched 
ceiling,  and  a  monumental  niche  with  a  statue,  beneath.  Above  the  windows 
is  a  quatrefoil  panel,  enriched  with  cusps  and  rosettes.  A  perspective  view 
of  the  window's  at  the  south  east  angle  of  this  chapel  is  given  in  Plate  xvi. 
which  serves  to  exemplify  more  clearly  and  fully  the  elaborate  enrichments 
of  the  architecture.  The  whole  design  of  the  east  end,  with  its  five  lights, 
or  windows,  and  circular  and  ovolar  panels  above,  with  section  of  the 
vaulted  roof  over,  and  floor  supported  on  vaults  below,  are  delineated  in 
Plate  ix.  This  plate  also  displays  the  crypt,  with  its  exterior  porch  and 
stairs,  on  the  north  side,  and  Audley  chapel  to  the  south.  The  references 
are,  a,  stairs;    b,  crypt,  or  vault;   c,  lower   part  of  the  Audley  chapel; 

d,  upper  part,  approached  by  stairs,  as  indicated  on  the  Ground  Plan ; 

e,  roof  to  the  stairs ;  f,  an  altar  tomb,  marked  t  in  Plan,  u ;  c,  floor  of 
chapel ;  h,  vaulting  of  the  roof;  i,  section  of  wall  over  the  window ; 
k,  windows,  a  plan  of  the  pier  and  pillars  of  one  of  which  is  given  in  the 
Ground  Plan,  s. 

"  The  Lady  Chapel,  both  within  and  without,"  remarks  Mr.  Garbett, 
"  displays  simplicity  of  outline  and  beauty  of  detail.  The  sides  consist  of 
three  compartments,  separated  on  the  outside  by  prominent  buttresses  of  an 
antique  kind  ;  and  within  side  by  clustered  shafts,  with  sculptured  capitals 
of  human  heads  and  foliage,  from  whence  springs  the  groined  roof.  Each 
compartment  contains  two  long  and  narrow  lights,  the  receding  piers  of 
which  are  enlivened  by  slender  pillars,  which  sustain  the  detached  mouldings 
of  the  arch  above.  The  east  end  differs  from  the  sides,  as  well  in  respect  of 
design  and  ornament  as  of  dimensions." 


CATHEDRAL  ANTZQiJiTSjES  - 


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CLOISTERS,  CHAPTER  HOUSE.  53 

From  this  brief  account  of  the  interior  of  the  Lady  Chapel,  and  from  the 
engravings,  a  stranger,  and  an  admirer  of  Christian  architecture,  will  lament 
to  learn  that  this  fine  room  is  filled  and  lumbered  with  old  bookcases,  and 
that  its  walls,  columns,  windows,  and  mouldings  are  obscured  and  smeared 
over  with  repeated  coats  of  whitewash.  Whilst  many  thousands  of  pounds 
were  so  tastelessly  expended  in  building  a  west  front,  and  the  upper  part  of 
the  nave,  every  lover  of  architecture  must  deplore  the  present  neglected  and 
dilapidated  state  of  this  chapel.  Five  or  six  hundred  pounds,  judiciously 
expended,  would  protect  it  from  further  injury,  and  remove  all  its  disfigure- 
ments ;  but  I  can  almost  excuse  the  Chapter  from  commencing  architectural 
repairs,  after  they  have  paid  so  dearly  for  experience,  and  suffered  so 
severely  from  the  consequent  tax  on  its  income. 

In  addition  to  what  has  been  said  of  the  Church  generally  and  particularly, 
it  will  be  proper  to  notice  some  architectural  objects  belonging  to,  or 
materially  connected  with  it.  These  are  the  cloisters,  the  chapter  house,  the 
vestry,  and  the  font.  The  first,  commonly  called  the  Bishop's  Cloisters,  to 
distinguish  them  from  another  cloister  belonging  to  the  college,  consists  at 
present  of  only  two  walks,  or  covered  corridors,  that  to  the  west  having 
been  taken  down  to  make  room  for  a  warehouse-looking  pile  of  brick 
building  appropriated  to  the  grammar  school.  It  does  not  appear  that  it 
ever  had  a  walk  on  the  north  side  against  the  Church.  Between  a  continued 
series  of  buttresses  are  windows  of  large  dimensions,  with  mullions  and 
tracery.  The  vaulting  of  the  roof  is  adorned  with  numerous  ribbed  mouldings, 
as  indicated  in  the  Ground  Plan  at  x,  at  the  intersections  of  which  are 
shields,  charged  with  sculptured  figures,  foliage,  arms,  &c.  These  ribs 
spring  from  slender  pillars  between  the  windows,  and  corbels  heads  on  the 
other  side.  The  entrance  door-way  to  the  Chapter  House,  from  the  east 
walk,  still  remains,  but  is  walled  up.  It  consists  of  a  pointed  arch,  under  a 
lofty,  richly  ornamented  pedimental  moulding,  having  clustered  shafts  on  the 
sides,  with  foliated  capitals.  In  the  centre  is  a  slender  pillar,  dividing  the 
arch-way  into  two  smaller  openings.  The  once  elegant  chapter  room,  to 
which  this  door-way  communicated,  has  fallen  beneath  the  fanatic  frenzy 
of  the  Cromwellian  soldiers,  and  the  injudicious  zeal  of  Bishop  Bisse,  who 
carried  away  many  materials  to  assist  in  repairing  the  adjoining  palace. 


54  HEREFORD  CATHEDRAL. 

*  A  structure  so  elegant,  and  withal  so  necessary  an  appendage  to  a 
Cathedral  Church/'  remarks  Mr.  Garbett,  "  was  assuredly  entitled  to  a 
better  fate  than  it  unhappily  met  with  from  opposite  parties,  who,  as  we  see, 
anticipate  by  a  rude  despoliation  the  natural  date  of  its  decay  and  ruin." 
This  Chapter  House  appears  from  its  small  remains  to  have  been  decagonal 
in  plan;  and  though  its  lower  division  shews  the  architecture  of  the  end  of 
the  thirteenth  century,  the  upper  part  was  as  late  as  the  reign  of  Henry  VI. 
Part  of  the  vestibule  is  built  up  in  a  modern  house,  and  three  sides  of  the 
lower  division  remain  in  ruins. 

Near  the  west  end  of  the  Cathedral  Church,  placed  in  its  south  aile,  is 
an  ancient  Font,  which  consists  of  one  piece  of  stone,  cut  into  a  sort  of  half 
globe,  hollowed  within,  and  adorned  with  sculpture  on  the  exterior  surface. 
Beneath  so  many  semicircular  arcades  are  figures  of  the  twelve  apostles. 
Round  the  rim  is  the  Roman  key  ornament,  the  columns  are  twisted,  and 
the  whole  rests  on  four  lions.  In  this  part  of  the  design  it  resembles  some 
of  the  architectural  tombs  of  the  Lombards. 

The  present  Chapter  Room,  or  vestry,  marked  vv,  in  the  Ground  Plan,  is 
au  ancient  part  of  the  edifice.  Within  it  is  preserved  an  old  Map  of  the 
world,  which  has  long  been  regarded  as  a  curiosity  among  antiquaries.  The 
late  Mr.  Carter  made  a  drawing  of  that  portion  called  Great  Britain,  which 
was  engraved  for  Gough's  "  British  Topography,"  wherein  that  zealous 
antiquary  has  printed  some  remarks  on  its  age  and  character.  Strange  to. 
say,  the  former  members  of  the  Chapter  refused  to  allow  any  person  to 
copy  it  for  publication,  and  also  neglected  to  furnish  the  public  with  any 
representation,  or  account  of  it.  A  better  and  more  liberal  feeling  has 
operated  on  the  present  Chapter,  who  have  allowed  the  map  to  be  sent  to 
London  to  be  copied  for  the  use  of  the  "  Royal  Geographical  Society."  By 
a  learned  member  of  this  very  useful  institution,  I  have  reason  to  believe 
(being  one  of  its  council)  that  a  memoir  on,  and  engraving  of  this  very 
curious  specimen  of  early  map  drawing  will  be  speedily  published.  Expecting 
this,  I  forbear  to  make  further  remarks  here,  as  the  subject  is  calculated  to 
furnish  an  interesting  topic  for  disquisition,  and  a  few  observations  would 
neither  be  satisfactory  nor  do  justice  to  the  map. 


55 


SOME  ACCOUNT  OP  THE  MOST  INTERESTING  MONUMENTS,  AND  NOTICES  OF  DISTIN- 
GUISHED PERSONS  INTERRED  WITHIN  THE  CHURCH. 

It  has  been  already  remarked  that  the  Church,  which  we  are  now  reviewing, 
contains  more  monuments  of  Bishops,  Deans,  &c  than  perhaps  any  other 
Cathedral  in  England.  The  "  Hereford  Guide"  tells  us  that  it  is  the 
burial  place  of  at  least  thirty-four  prelates,  the  sites  of  whose  interments 
have  been  ascertained,  and  of  one  other,  John  Le  Briton,  whose  place  of 
sepulture  is  unknown.  John  Tyler,  Bishop  of  Landau",  and  Dean  of  this 
Cathedral,  was  interred  here,  and  many  other  persons  of  eminence  have 
been  buried  within  the  walls :  but  the  sepulchral  memorials  of  several  have 
been  destroyed,  and  others  much  mutilated.  It  is  asserted  in  the  "  Guide," 
that  when  the  Parliamentary  soldiers  occupied  the  city,  in  1645,  no  less 
than  one  hundred  and  seventy  brasses  were  taken  away,  and  several  of  the 
monuments  mutilated  and  defaced,  but  marks  of  some  of  them  still  remain  \ 
Several  brasses  were  likewise  displaced  when  the  Cathedral  underwent  its 
extensive  repairs,  subsequent  to  the  fall  of  the  west  end  in  1786,  and  no 
less  than  two  tons  weight  was  sold  to  a  brazier. 


1  Though  Hereford  suffered  materially  in  those  barbarous,  fanatical,  psalm-singing  wars,  it 
is  particularly  noted  for  its  loyalty.  On  the  restoration  of  its  privileges  by  Charles  II,  its  motto 
was,  "  InvictcB  fidelitatis  prmmium."  And  Phillips,  the  encomiast  of  Herefordshire  Cider, 
says, 

"  Yet  the  cider  land  unstained  with  guilt ; 
The  cider  land,  obsequious  still  to  thrones, 
Abhorr'd  such  base  disloyal  deeds,  and  all 
Her  pruning-hooks  extended  into  swords, 
Undaunted  to  assist  the  trampled  right 
Of  monarchy." 


56  HEREFORD  CATHEDRAL. 

In  the  present  volume  I  propose  to  take  notice  of  the  most  material  still 
remaining  in  the  Church,  and  point  out  their  respective  situations  by 
references  to  the  Ground  Plan. 

In  the  south  aile  of  the  nave,  beneath  one  of  the  windows  (No.  1),  is  a 
tomb  to  the  memory  of  Sir  Richard  Pembridge,  Knight  of  the  Garter,  who 
died  in  1375.  On  an  altar-shaped  monument  is  an  effigy  of  the  deceased, 
and  on  the  sides  and  end  are  seven  shields,  charged  with  his  arms,  &c. :  it 
was  removed  to  this  place  from  the  Grey  Friars  monastery.  East  of  this, 
under  a  pointed  arch  in  the  wall  (No.  2),  is  a  stone  effigy,  erroneously  said  to 
represent  Bishop  Athelstan  ;  and  near  it,  at  No.  3,  is  another  niche,  with 
the  remnant  of  a  tomb,  ascribed  to  Bishop  Walter,  and  noted  in  the  Guide 
as  "  the  most  ancient  monument  in  the  Cathedral." 

Inserted  in  the  wall  of  the  north  aile  of  the  nave  (No.  4)  is  a  handsome 
monument  to  Bishop  Booth,  whose  effigy  rests  on  an  altar  tomb,  pontifically 
robed,  which  was  painted  and  gilt ;  there  are  two  angels  seated  at  the  head 
of  the  statue.  Attached  to  the  sides  of  the  tomb,  and  in  the  spandrils  of 
the  arch,  are  twelve  shields  of  arms ;  viz.  those  of  Ethelbert,  the  See,  the 
Deanery,  Booth's.  This  monument  was  painted  and  gilt,  and  is  adorned 
with  an  ogee  arch,  having  bold  and  rich  crockets,  and  an  elaborate  finial. 

Following  the  order  of  numbers  on  the  Plan,  we  next  examine  the 
sepulchral  memorials  in  the  north  transept,  called  St.  Catherine's  aile : 
No.  5  points  out  the  situation  of  an  old  monument  inserted  in  the  wall, 
which  is  represented  in  Plate  xii.  It  consists  of  an  arched  recess,  and 
contains  a  coffin-shaped  tomb,  supporting  the  effigy  of  a  Bishop  in  pontifical 
robes.  This  commemorates  Thomas  Charlton.  A  view  of  it  is  engraved  in 
Gough's  "  Sepulchral  Monuments,"  vol.  i.  p.  97.  In  the  eastern  aile  of  this 
transept  is  the  most  interesting  antient  tomb,  or  rather  shrine,  in  the  Church. 
It  is  said  to  enclose  the  bones,  or  certain  relics  of  the  sainted  Cantelupe,  of 
whom  we  have  already  recorded  some  particulars.  The  annexed  engraving, 
Plate  xiv.,  supersedes  the  necessity  of  description,  excepting  to  remark  that 
one  side  of  the  shrine,  with  its  six  niches  and  mail-clad  knights,  is  enclosed 
by  a  pew,  and  thus  shut  out  from  sight.  The  execution  of  the  sculpture,  in 
the  armour  and  the  varied  attitudes  of  the  figures,  and  the  animals  under 


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MONUMENTS.  57 

their  feet,  the  foliage  in  the  spandrels  of  the  arches,  and  the  capitals  of  the 
columns  are  all  beautiful  and  admirable.  In  the  diversified  expression  and 
character  of  the  figures,  and  the  fancy  displayed  in  the  whole  design,  we 
recognise  the  hand  of  a  skilful  and  experienced  artist :  and  had  this  relic  of 
monastic  superstition  been  met  with  among  the  ruins  of  some  classical 
building  of  Italy,  its  beauties  would  have  been  proclaimed  by  all  the 
connoisseurs  and  cognoscenti  of  that  fanned  country.  It  has  been  already 
remarked  that  the  shrine  was  made,  and  the  bones  transferred  to  this  spot, 
about  five  years  after  the  saint's  decease,  and  it  is  probable  that  the  transept 
was  designed  and  erected  at  the  same  time,  to  give  additional  effect  and 
importance  to  the  event.  Mr.  Duncumb  describes  the  tomb  of  "  freestone," 
and  Mr.  Gough  calls  it  "  red  stone  ;"  but  I  believe  that  it  consists  of  Purbeck 
marble,  a  stone  of  greyish  colour,  abounding  with  shells.  It  is,  however, 
absurdly  coated  with  white  paint,  and  thereby  appears  like  common  board. 
In  Gough's  "  Sepulchral  Monuments,"  vol.  i.  p.  62,  is  a  short  account  of 
this  shrine,  accompanied  by  an  engraving,  from  a  drawing  by  Mr.  Carter. 
On  a  gravestone,  in  this  transept,  is  a  long  Latin  inscription  to  the  memory 
of  John  Philips,  author  of  the  poem  entitled  "  Cider,"  which  was  once 
popular,  but  is  now  almost  obsolete.  He  died  in  February,  1708,  at  the 
age  of  thirty-two. 

Against  the  north  wall  is  a  bust  of  Bishop  Field,  under  a  canopy. 
Between  the  ailes  of  this  transept  and  the  choir,  is  a  handsome  monument 
to  the  memory  of  Bishop  Aquablanca  (No.  7).  It  consists  of  columns, 
three  open  arches,  with  canopies  covering  and  enclosing  an  effigy  of  the 
prelate.  Near  this  monument,  resting  on  the  floor,  is  an  effigy  on  a  coffin 
tomb,  to  the  memory  of  Dean  Aquablanca,  nephew  of  the  Bishop. 

Against  the  north  wall  of  the  north  aile  of  the  choir  (No.  8),  is  a 
monumental  memorial  ascribed  to  Bishop  Mapenore,  with  his  effigy  ;  nearly 
opposite  to  which  (No.  9)  is  another  old  monument,  said  to  cover  the  grave 
of  Bishop  Bennet.  At  10  is  an  effigy,  on  a  coffin  tomb,  for  Bishop  Clive  ; 
near  which  is  a  door-way  (3)  to  the  once  splendid  monumental  and  chantry 
chapel  of  Bishop  Stanbury.  The  plan  of  this  is  shewn  (1)  in  the  Ground 
Plan,  Plate  i.,  and  an  interior  view,  with  representations  of  its  numerous 

i 


58  HEREFORD  CATHEDRAL. 

shields,  most  of  which  are  allusive  to  our  Saviour  and  to  saints,  are 
engraved  in  Gough's  "  Sepulchral  Monuments,"  vol.  ii.  p.  240.  At  the 
time  Mr.  Gough  wrote  his  account,  he  states  that  "  this  chapel  is  used  as  a 
vestry  for  the  churchwardens,  and  not  shewn  by  the  vergers."  It  is  now 
certainly  unoccupied,  but  in  a  dirty,  neglected  condition.  At  the  east  end 
was  an  altar,  to  the  right  of  which,  in  a  niche  of  the  wall,  is  a  coffin  tomb, 
supporting  the  effigy  of  a  Bishop,  of  fine  proportions,  with  a  crozier  in  the 
left  hand.  The  whole  interior  of  the  chapel  is  covered  with  tracery  and 
panelling,  as  is  the  groined  ceiling,  which  resembles  in  style  that  of  King's 
College  Chapel,  Cambridge.  On  the  north  wall  of  the  choir  is  a  long 
inscription  to  Stanbury,  whence  some  have  supposed  that  he  was  buried 
near  the  altar  ;  and  Willis  thinks  that  the  effigy  in  the  chapel  is  intended  to 
represent  some  other  Bishop,  but  this  conjecture  seems  very  improbable. 
At  the  west  end  of  the  chapel  are  the  arms  of  Canterbury,  Hereford,  and 
Stanbury. 

On  the  outside  of  this  chapel,  in  the  aile  (No.  12),  is  an  effigy  beneath  a 
pointed  niche  in  the  wall,  with  an  inscription  to  Bishop  Lozing,  but  it  is  not 
likely  that  such  a  distinguished  prelate  and  builder  would  have  been  interred 
in  that  situation.  Indeed  it  may  be  remarked,  in  this  place,  that  four  or 
five  of  the  effigies  of  Bishops,  with  the  niches  in  which  they  are  placed,  and 
the  accompanying  inscriptions,  were  apparently  all  made  at  one  time,  and 
subsequent  to  the  decease  of  the  respective  persons. 

Nearly  opposite,  beneath  the  eastern  arch  of  this  aile,  is  a  very  handsome 
alabaster  altar  tomb  (No.  11),  sustaining  a  beautiful  effigy,  and  adorned  with 
several  small  statues  in  niches,  all  of  the  same  material.  This  monument  is 
variously  ascribed,  as  it  has  no  inscription  to  intimate  the  name  of  the 
person  for  whom  it  was  intended.  Willis  and  Duncumb  consider  that  it 
belongs  to  Bishop  Stanbury.  There  are  eleven  statues  on  the  outside,  two 
at  the  feet,  and  the  verger  states  that  there  are  other  figures  on  the  side, 
towards  the  altar.  The  shields  on  them  would  most  likely  enable  us  to 
appropriate  the  monument  to  its  proper  Bishop. 

In  the  north  side  of  the  eastern  transept  are  two  old  tombs  at  13  and  14, 
respectively  assigned  to  Bishops  Swinford  and  Godwin,  both  much  muti- 


MONUMENTS.  59 

lated.     Against  the  eastern  wall,  at  15,  is  a  large,  clumsy  monument  to 
Bishop  Westfaylinq,  with  his  effigy  reclining  on  one  side. 

The  Lady  Chapel,  now  the  library,  contains  some  ancient  memorials 
worthy  of  particular  notice.  No.  17  is  the  site  of  the  very  curious  and 
interesting  monument  represented  in  Plate  xv.  and  generally  attributed  to  a 
Humphrey  de  Bohun,  Earl  of  Hereford.  An  effigy  of  the  deceased  is  placed 
on  a  ledge,  in  a  square  recess,  clad  in  chain  and  plate  armour,  with  long 
spurs,  a  small  helmet,  and  a  dog  at  his  feet.  The  frame  of  the  tomb  is 
adorned  with  rosettes  and  panelled  buttresses,  with  a  canopy  of  open  trefoil 
arched  mouldings  above,  and  panelling  below.  It  is  surmounted  by  an  open 
screen  of  elaborate  and  exquisite  workmanship,  in  which  are  two  small 
statues  of  females,  seated,  and  apparently  offering  incense.  The  heads  are 
gone.  Duncumb  describes  two  shields  of  arms  as  attached  to  the  tomb. 
In  a  niche  to  the  east  (see  Plate  vin.)  at  No.  18,  is  an  effigy  of  a  female, 
said  to  be  that  of  the  wife  of  the  Earl.  There  is  probably  some  error  in 
ascribing  these  monuments  to  Bohun,  Earl  of  Hereford,  and  his  Countess ; 
for,  on  referring  to  the  account  of  that  family  in  Dugdale's  "Baronage," 
I  do  not  find  that  either  of  them  was  buried  here,  or  had  any  immediate 
connexion  with  the  Cathedral.  The  design  of  the  screen  of  the  monument, 
and  of  the  two  effigies,  are  of  different  ages.  There  were  eight  or  nine 
Humphrey  Bohuns.  Mr.  Gough,  in  "  Sepulchral  Monuments,"  says  that  the 
arms  indicate  the  man  to  be  a  Bohun,  but  not  an  earl  of  Hereford. 

At  the  south-east  angle  of  this  chapel  (No.  19)  is  a  fragment  of  a  statue, 
which  Mr.  Duncumb  describes  as  K  a  lady  wearing  a  coronet,"  but  which 
other  antiquaries  consider  to  be  that  of  St.  Ethelbert,  taken  from  a  pedestal 
near  the  high  altar,  where  Bishop  Mayo  ordered  by  his  will  that  his  own 
monument  should  be  erected.  Against  the  south  wall,  near  the  west  end  of 
the  chapel,  is  a  monument,  in  a  niche,  to  Dean  Berew,  or  Borew,  whose  effigy 
is  placed  on  a  slab  beneath  a  pointed  arch.  Small  figures  of  boars,  with  sprigs 
of  rue,  are  sculptured  in  a  cavetto  moulding  round  the  arch.  Near  this,  on 
the  floor,  are  monumental  slabs,  with  fragments  of  brasses,  &c.  which 
covered  the  graves  of  persons  who  were  interred  here.  (See  Figures  38, 
39,  40,  41,  42.)     One  of  these  commemorated  Richard  de  la  Marr,  and  his 


60  HEREFORD  CATHEDRAL. 

lady,  Isabella,  who  died  respectively  in  1435  and  1421.  Another  was  to 
Dean  Harold  :  1393. 

In  the  south  wing  of  the  eastern  transept  are  the  following  monuments 
(No.  21) — Bishop  Lewis  Charlton,  a  mutilated  effigy  of  whom  on  a  dilapi- 
dated tomb,  with  shields  of  arms,  and  an  inscription,  commemorate  his 
name  and  sepulture 2.  Near  it,  at  22,  is  a  large  mass  of  marble  and  stone, 
painted,  &c.  in  the  bad  taste  of  1636,  to  the  memory  of  Bishop  Coke.  At 
the  southern  extremity  are  tombs  to  Bishop  Ltndsell  (23),  Dean  Harvey  (24), 
and  Dean  Chandler  adjoining. 

The  south  aile  of  the  cboir  is  adorned  with  a  very  handsome  monument 
(at  25),  to  Bishop  Mayo,  whose  effigy,  in  freestone  on  an  altar  tomb  of  the 
same,  and  surmounted  by  a  canopy  of  unusual  and  fine  design,  are  repre- 
sented in  the  annexed  engraving  (See  Plate  xm.)  The  monuments,  Nos.  26, 
27,  30,  and  31,  are  indicated  in  the  Wood  Cut  in  the  title  page.  Beneath 
four  pointed  arches,  on  slabs,  are  four  effigies  said  to  represent  Bishops 
De  Vere,  Foliot,  Betun,  and  Melun.  On  the  floor  is  a  fine,  large, 
inlaid  brass,  almost  the  only  relic  of  the  sort  in  the  church,  for  Dean 
Frowcester  (37).  The  place  of  sepulture  of  Bishop  Raynelm  is  pointed 
out  by  No.  28. 

In  the  south  transept  are  three  monuments  pointed  out  by  figures  32, 
33,  34.  The  first  refers  to  a  large  altar  tomb  to  Alexander  Denton  and  his 
lady,  whose  effigies  repose  on  a  slab  of  alabaster.  Willis  states  that  Denton 
was  buried  at  Hillesdon,  in  Buckinghamshire,  in  1576. 

Beneath  the  great  south  window  in  the  wall  is  a  monument  to  Bishop 
Trevenant,  who  most  probably  rebuilt  that  end  of  the  church.  Against  the 
west  wall  (No.  34),  is  a  mural  slab  to  the  memory  of  Dean  Tvler,  who 
was  also  Bishop  of  Landaff. 

The  Choir  has  fifty  stalls  for  the  members  of  the  Cathedral,  a  pulpit,  and 
a  throne.  Beneath  the  seats  of  the  stalls  are  various  carvings,  some  of  which 
are  executed  with  much  spirit ;  and  others  distinguished  for  the  grotesque 
and  ludicrous  figures  represented.      The  great  and  inappropriate  screen, 

5  A  view  and  account  of  this  tomb  are  given  in  Gough's  "  Sep.  Mon."  vol.  i.  PI.  xlvii. 


BISHOPS'  PALACES.  61 

which  is  returned  on  the  north  and  south  sides,  has  been  already  noticed. 
Within  the  last  few  years,  the  east  window  has  been  filled  with  painted 
glass  :  being  a  copy  from  a  picture  by  Mr.  West,  of  the  Last  Supper. 

The  Choir  contains  several  monuments,  some  of  which  are  very  imposing 
in  materials  and  workmanship,  though  not  very  attractive  as  objects  of  art 
or  antiquity.  No.  29  is  the  site  of  the  ponderous  mass  of  marble  raised  to 
the  memory  of  Bishop  Bisse  and  the  Countess  op  Plymouth,  his  lady. 
When  this  monument  was  raised,  another  for  Bishop  Braoes,  with  his 
effigy,  was  removed  to  the  opposite  side  of  the  choir. 

Bishops  Butler,  Beauclerk,  Humphreys,  Crofts,  and  Trellick  were 
interred  in  the  choir,  near  the  altar,  where  flat  stones  cover  their  remains. 


The  following  Notices  of  the  Palaces  of  the  Bishops  of  this  See  are  given 
in  Leland's  Itinerary,  vol.  viii.  p.  54,  ed.  1744: — 

PALATIA  EP1SCOPI  HEREFORDEM. 

Sugwas  a  slite  Shot,  or  more,  of  Wy  Ryver  on  the  lifte  Ripe  of  it  2.  Miles 
dim.  It  stondithe  in  the  Roots  of  an  Hillet,  and  a  Park  by  it  now  without 
Dere. — Colwel  Park  longed  to  the  Byshope  of  Hereford  by  *  Malvern  Chace, 
and  a  Pece  of  a  Malvern  is  the  Byshops,  fro  the  Crest  of  the  Hill,  as  it 
aperithe  by  a  Dyche. 

Bosberie  x.  Miles  by  North  Est  from  Hereford  at  the  Head  of  Ledon 
Reveret,  and  thereby  is  a  place  longginge  to  Seint  John's  in  London  caulled 
Upledon. 

Gul.  Ver.  episcopus,  ut  patet  ex  ejus  aepitaphio,  multa  egregia  construxit 
cedijicia. 

Whitburne  7.  Miles  from  Worcester.  It  is  in  the  very  extreme  Parte  of 
Herefordesldre  on  the  righte  banke  of  Temde  Ryver. 

»  Mai venn  MS.  "  Epitaphia  MS. 


62  HEREFORD  CATHEDRAL. 

Johannes  Films  Alani,  Dominus  de  Arundel,  cepit  Byssops  Castell,  et 
constabulurium  P  castrifide  data  interfecit  anno  regni  45.  Henrici  3.  et  r  inde 
tenuit  pene  6.  annis. 

There  was  a  faire  Mansion  Place  for  the  Byshope  at  Ledbryi  xn.  Miles 
by  Est  North  Est  from  Hereford,  and  vn,  Myles  or  more  from  Rosse.  This 
Hous  is  all  in  Ruyne.  The  convict  Prison  for  the  Byshope  of  Hertford  was 
at  Rosse,  now  at  Hereford 

Rosse  at  the  veri  West  End  of  the  Paroche  Churche  Yarde  at  Rosse, 
now  in  clene  Ruynes. 

By  shops  Castle  a  23.  Miles  by  North  Northe  West  from  Hereford  in 
Shropshire. — It  is  xn.  Miles  from  Shroivsbirie. 

Prestebyri  5.  Miles  from  Glocester  hard  by  Clife.  Ther  is  a  Parke 
hard  by  Prestebyri. 

Joannes  le  Breton  episcopns  Hereforden.  fuit  aliquanto  tempore  vice- 
comes  Hereford  :  cuslos  maner :  de  Abergeveney,  et  trium  castrorum. 

Breton  episcopus  custos  Garderobe  domini  Q  regis. 

Kilpek  Castelle  a  5.  Mils  from  Hereford  by  Southe  West  very  nigh 
Worm  Brooke. 

Some  Ruines  of  the  Waulls  yet  stonde.  Ther  was  a  Priorie  of  Blake 
Monks  suppressed  in  Thomas  Spofford's  Byshope  of  HerforcCs  time,  and 
clerly  united  to  Glocester. 

f>  Cast.  MS.  y  In  detinuit  MS.  a  Rege  MS. 


63 


A    CHRONOLOGICAL    LIST   OF   THE 

3St!5i)0pjS!  of  liertfortr, 

WITH    THE   CONTEMPORARY   KINGS    OF    ENGLAND. 


[For  the  list  of  Bishops 
previously  to  Ethelstan, 
vide  pages  3,  4,  5.] 

Ethelstan 


Leofgar , 

See  vacant  four  years. 

Aldred  (in  trust) 

Walter  of  Lorraine  .... 
Robert  Lozing 

Gerard 


Roger  Lardarius 

Raynelm,  or  Raynald 

Geoffry  de  Clive 

Richard  de  Capella 

Robert  de  Betun 

Gilbert  Foliot 

Robert  de  Melun 

See  vacant  seven  years. 

Robert  Foliot 

William  de  Vere 

Egidius,     or    Giles    de  ) 

Bruse,  or  Braoes  . .  .  .  j 

Hugh  de  Mapenore 

Hugh  Foliot 

Ralph  de  Maydenstan 

Peter  de  Aquablanca 

John  Breton,  LL.D 

Thomas  Cantelupe 

Richard  de  Swinford 

Adam  de  Orlton,  LL.D. .  . 
Thomas Charlton,LL.D.. . 

John  Trellick,  D.  D 

Lewis  Charlton,  S.T.  P... 
Wm.  Courteney,  LL.  D. .  . 

John  Gilbert 

John  Trevenant , 

Robert  Mascall 


Consecrated  or  Installed. 


Supp. 


1012 
1056 


Con 1060 

Con.... Dec.  29,  1079 


1095 

Not  consecrated. 

(Appointed 1101") 

(Con.  Aug.  SO,  1 107J 
Con..  ..Dec.  26, 1115 

Con Jan.  16,  1121 

Con.  ..June  19,  1131 
Con.  . .  Sept  5,  1149 
Con...Dee.22,11632 


Con. 
Con. 


•  Oct.  4,  1174 
.Oct.  6,  1186 


Con..  .Sept.  24,  1200 

Con.  .  .  Dec.  6,  1216 
Con.  .  ..  Nov.  1,  1219 

Con.  ..  Nov.  12, 1234 


Con. 
Con. 
Con. 
Con. 
Con. 
Con. 
Con. 
Con. 
Con. 


..Dec.  23, 
. .  June  3, 
. .  Sept.  8, 
.  March  7, 
.Sept.  12, 
.  Oct.  18, 
..June  24, 
..Oct.  25, 


Con. 
Con. 


.Sept.  12, 
.  June  20, 

.  ..July  2,  1404 


1240 
1269 
1275 
1283 
1317 
1327 
1344 
1361 
1369 
1375 
1389 


Died  or  Translated. 


Died..Feb.l0,1055I 
Killed  .  June  16,  1056 

S  York 1060  ) 

I  D.Sept.  11,1069  \ 

Died 1079 

Died  .  .June  26,  1095 

J  York 1095 

(Died 1101 

Died  ..  Oct.  28,  1115 

Died.... Feb.  3,1119 
Died..  Aug.  15,  1127 
Died..  April  22,  1148 

To  London 1162 

Died..  March  4,  1167 

Died  . .  May  9,  1186 
Died  ..  Dec.  24, 1199 

Died...  Nov.  5,  1215 

Died  ....April,  1219 
Died  ..July  26,  1234 

5ResignedDec.l7,  j 
1239.  [ 

(.Died 1244  } 

Died..  Nov.  27,  1268 

Died April,  1275 

Died.. Aug.  25,  1282 
Died  March  15,  1316 

Worcester 1327 

Died...  Jan.  11,  1343 

Died Feb.  1360 

Died... May  23, 1369 
London  Sept.12, 1375 

St.  David's 1389 

Died  ..  1403  or  1404 

Died.. Dec.  22,  1416 


Kings. 


<  Ethelred  II.  to 
\  Ed.  Confessor. 

— 

Edw.  Confessor. 

York  

jEd.Con.  Harold 
(II.  and  Wm.  I. 

William  I. 

York 

William  I. 

Henry  I. 

Henry  I. 

Henry  I. 

Henry  I. 

.... 

Stephen. 

Henry  II. 

Henry  II. 

Henry  II. 

John. 

Henry  III. 

Henry  III. 

Henry  III. 

Henry  III. 

Hereford  (supp) . 

Henry  III. 

Edward  I. 

Edward  I. 

Edward  II. 

Edward  III. 

Hereford  (supp.) 

Edward  HI. 

Edward  III. 

Edward  III. 

Haverfordwest. . . 

Edward  III. 

Richard  II. 

C  White  Friars, } 
(    London . . .  .  j 

Henry  IV. 

1  Leland  says  1081 ;  Antiq.  of  Cath.  says  1050. 


2  Antiq.  of  Cath.  says  Jan.  II,  1102 ;  Willis  says  May  22,  1104. 


64 


HEREFORD  CATHEDRAL. 


Edmund  Lacy,  D.D. 


Thomas  Polton,  LL.B... 


Thomas  Spofford 

Rich.  Beauchamp,  LL.  D. 
Richard  Butler,  or  Bolers . 

John  Stanbury 

Thomas  Milling,  S.T.  P... 

Edmund  Audley 

Adrian  de  Castello 

Richard  Mayew,  S.T.P... 
Charles  Booth,  LL.  D.  .. . 

Edward  Fox,  S.T.P 

Edmund  Bonner,  LL.D.. . 

John  Skyp  

John  Harley 

Robt.  Purfey,  or  Warton. . 

Thomas  Reynolds 

John  Scory,  S.T.P 

Herb.  Westfayling,  D.D.. . 

Robert  Bennett,  D.  D 

Francis  Godwin,  D.D. 

William  Juxon,  S.T.  P..  . 

Augustine  Lindsell.S.T.P. 

Matthew  Wren,  D.  D 

Theophilus  Field,  D.D... 

George  Coke 

See  vacant  fourteen  years. 

Nicholas  Monk 

Herbert  Croft 


Gilbert  Ironside,  D.  D... . 

Humphrey   Humphreys,  / 

D.D S 

Philip  Bisse,  D.D 


Ben.  Hoadley,  D.  D. 


Hon.  H.  Egerton,  D.D.. 
Lord  James  Beauclerk... . 

Hon.  John  Harley,  D.D. .  . 

John  Butler 

Foliot   Herbert    Walker  ) 
(Jornewall,  D.D > 

John  Luxmore,  D.  D 


Consecrated  or  Installed. 


Con.  ..April  18,  1417 
Con Nov.  9,  1420 


George   Isaac  Hunting-  i 
ford,  D.D \ 


Nov.  17,  1422 

Con Feb.  9,  1449 

Con Feb.  4,  1451 

Enth..  April  25,  1453 
App.  ..Aug.  15,  1474 
(  From  Rochester,  } 
\     Dec.  26,  1492.  S 

Con 1502 

Con Oct.  1504 

Con..  .Nov.  30,  1516 

Con... Sept.  26,  1535 

Elected  Nov.  27, 1538 

Con. ..  Nov.  23,  1539 

Con.  . .  May  26, 1553 

Con... April  24,  1554 

Not  consecrated 

Con.  ..  July  20,  1559 
Con.  ..'Dec.  12,  1585 

Con Feb.  20, 1602 

Con. ...Nov.  28,  1617 
\  Trans,  to  London  / 
\    before  Con.  .  .  .  \ 
Con.  March  24,  1633 

Con.  ..March  8,  1635 

Con...  Dec.  23,  1635 
Con July  2,  1636 

Con.  .  .  Jan.  13,  1661 
Con.  ..  .  Feb.  9,  1662 

Con.  ..July  29,  1691 

Con Dec.  2,  1701 

Enth.  .Sept.  17,  1713 

Con 1721 

Con.  .  ..  Feb.  2,  1724 
Con.  .  .June  26,  1746 

Con Nov.  1787 

Con 1788 

Con Jan.  1803 

Con July  1808 

Con July  5,  1815 


Died  or  Translated. 


<  Exeter 1420  J 

(  D.  May  23, 1455  S 
(  Chichester  1422  j 
(D.Aug.  23,1433) 
Resigned 1448 

Salisbury  Aug.l  4,1 450 
Lichfield,  &c...  1453 
Died..  May  11,  1474 

Died 1492 

S  Salisbury  . .  1 502  \ 
I  D.Aug.  23,  1525  ] 
Bath  and  Wells,  1504 
Died.. April  18,1516 
Died  ...May  5,1535 

Died  ...May  8,  1538 

S  London 1539  3 

*  D.  Sept.  5,  1569  S 

Died 1552 

(  Deprived  . .  1554 

\  Died 1557 

Died..  Sept.  22,  1557 
Died.. Nov.  24,  1559 
Died  ..June  26,  1585 
Died..  March  1,  1601 
Died  ..  Oct.  25,  1617 
Died April,  1633 


Died  ..Nov.  6,  1634. 
(  Norwich  ..  1636) 

I  Ely 1638  } 

(  D.April  24,  1667  ) 
Died  ...June  2,  1636 
Died  ..Dec.  10,1646 

Died.. Dec.  17,  1661 
Died..  May  18,  1691 

Died.. Aug.  27,  1701 

Died  .  .Nov.  20,  1712 

Died... Sept.  5,  1721 

I  Salisbury y 

<  Winchester  .  . .  .  > 

{Died 1761  ) 

Died 1746 

Died  ..Oct.  19,  1787 

Died  ...Jan.  7,  1788 

Died.. Dec.  10,  1802 

To  Worcester  .  .  1 808 

i  To   St.   Asaph,     ) 
(  June,  1815  ) 


Exeter . 
Rome  . 


)St.  Mary's  Ab-) 
\    bey,  York..) 


Salisbury 
Lichfield  . . . 
Hereford  . . . 
Westminster 

Salisbury  . . 


Hereford 

Hereford 

(S.  Mary  Mont-} 
\  halt,  Lond...  ( 
\  St.  George's,  ] 
)  Southwark .  < 
London  


Hereford 


Whitbourn . 
Hereford  . . 
Hereford  . . 
Whitbourn 


Hereford  . . , 
Cambridge 


Hereford 


Westminster.  . . . 

Hereford 

f  St.  Mary  So-  j 

\  merset,  Lond.  } 

Hereford 

Hereford 

Winchester 


Kings. 


Hereford 

!    Brampton    ) 
Bryan  ...     \ 
Hereford 


Henry  V. 
Henry  V. 

Henry  V. 

Henry  VI. 
Henry  VI. 
Henry  VI. 
Edward  IV. 

Henry  VII. 

Henry  VII. 
Henry  VII. 
Henry  VIII. 

Henry  VIII. 

Henry  VIII. 

Henry  VIII. 
(Edw.VI.&VII. 

)Mary. 
Mary. 

Elizabeth. 
Elizabeth. 
Elizabeth. 
James  I. 


Charles  I. 

Charles  I. 

Charles  I. 
Charles  I. 

Charles  IF. 
Charles  II. 

Wm.  and  Mary. 

William  III. 
Anne. 

George  I. 

George  I. 
George II. &  III. 

George  III. 

George  III. 

George  III. 

George  III. 

George  III. 


65 


A   CHRONOLOGICAL  LIST  OF  THE 

Srauss  of  &ttt forfcu 

WITH  BIOGRAPHICAL  MEMORANDA. 

The  ensuing  List  of  the  Names,  Dates  of  Election,  &c.  of  the  Deans  of  Hereford  has  been  derived  from  the 
published  Accounts  in  Le  Neve's  "Fasti  Ecclesie,"  who  acknowledges  his  obligations  to  Mr.  Reynolds, 
"  sometime  Registrary  of  Hereford,"  Willis's  "  Survey  of  the  Cathedrals,"  and  various  miscellaneous  works. 
Though  the  Author  has  endeavoured  to  make  it  complete  and  correct,  and  has  attempted  to  reconcile,  or  at 
least  improve  upon,  the  lists  of  each  of  the  authors  here  specified,  he  is  aware  of  defects  and  omissions  which 
he  has  not  the  means  of  remedying. 


1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 


Ralph1 

Geffrey,  or  Geoffrey 

Ralph  2 

Geffrey,  or  Geoffrey. 

Richard    

Hugh  de  Breuse3 

Hugh  de  M  apenore  4  .  .  . 

Henry 

Thomas  de  Bosbury .  . . . 
Ralph  de  Maideston5. . . , 

Stephen  de  Thorne 

Ancellinus,  or  Amselm6  . 
Giles  de  Avenbury.  ..*.., 
John  de  Aquablanca7  .  . , 
Stephen  de  Ledbury  8 . . . , 
Thomas  de  Trellick9.  . . . 
William  de  Birmingham  . 
John  de  Middleton10 


Elected,  &c 


Held  it 1140 

1150 

1157 

1173 

about  1187 

1202 

1203 

Consecrated  Jan.  15, 1216 

about  1218 

Elected  . .  Dec.  14,  1231 
Elect,  about  Oct.  28, 1234 

about  1247 

Elected 1271 

about  1278 

Elected 1320 

Elected 1352 

1363 


Died  or  removed. 


Deposed  by  Bishop  Betun. 

Bishop  of  Hereford 1216 

Died Sept.  26,  1231 

Bishop  of  Hereford 1234 

Died  ...  13  C.  Oct.  1277  or  1278 

Died 1320 

Died    1352 

Dean  of  St.  Paul's 1363 

Living  in 1369 

Deprived about  1280 


BIOGRAPHICAL  MEMORANDA  OF  THE  DEANS. 

1  Some  writers  place  John  de  Middleton  as  the  first  Dean,  whilst  others  state  that  Ralph  was  constituted  by 
Bishop  Betun,  who  shortly  after  deposed  him.  Ang.  Sac.  vol.  ii.  p.  312.  He  appears  as  witness  to  Will.  Devereuis 
grant  to  Croyland  in  the  time  of  King  Stephen.    Antiquities  of  the  Cath.  223,  and  Mon.  Anglic. 

2  A  second  Ralph  is  given  in  the  lists,  but  it  is  not  clear  that  he  is  a  different  person  to  the  first  Dean.  In  the 
Antiquities  of  Hereford  he  is  described  as  opposing  Bishop  Betun,  who  was  dead  before  this  Dean  was  appointed. 

3  Le  Neve  places  Breuse  as  second  Dean,  but  he  occurs  as  sixth  in  Willis's  list,  and  third  in  "The  Antiquities." 
Giles  de  Breuse  was  Bishop  at  the  same  time,  and  probably  his  brother. 

4  Giraldus  tells  us  that  this  Dean  was  proposed  for  the  See  of  St.  David's  in  1203.  In  1216  he  was  advanced  from 
the  Deanery  to  the  Bishopric. 

5  See  Account  of  Bishops,  p.  14. 

6  According  to  Willis  and  Dugdale,  he  held  this  Deanery  in  1247  and  1262.  In  "The  Antiquities"  he  is  called 
Antellinus,  with  the  date  of  1256. 

7  He  was  nephew  of  Bishop  Aquablanca.  In  his  will  he  directed  his  body  to  he  interred  near  the  Bishop's  in  the 
north  aile.     His  efBgy,  in  the  Dean's  habit,  lies  on  a  slab. 

8  Dugdale  gives  the  dates  of  1341  and  1348  ;  the  Antiquities,  1331 ;  and  Willis,  as  above.  He  was  Prebendary 
of  Bullinghope. 

9  Trellick  was  made  Bishop  of  Rochester  in  1364. 

10  Le  Neve  and  Dugdale  erroneously  place  Middleton  as  the  first  Dean.  Willis.  And  his  name  occurs  as  the 
second  in  "The  Antiquities." 

K 


66 


HEREFORD  CATHEDRAL. 


No. 

19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
32 
33 
34 
35 
36 
37 
38 
39 
40 


DEANS. 


Elected,  &c. 


Died  or  removed. 


John  Harold a 

John  Prophet 

Thomas  Felde,  LL.  D.12.  .. 

John  Stanwey 

Henry  Shelford 

John  Berew  13 

John  ap  Richard 

Richard  Pede,  LL.  D 

Thomas  Chandeler,  D.  D.14 

Oliver  King,  LL.  D. 15 

John  Harvey l6 

Reginald  West 

Thomas  Wolsey,  Cardinal  u 
Edmund  Frovrcester,S.T.P.18 
Galmaliel  Clifton,  LL.  D.  J9. . 
Hugh  Coren,  or  Curwyn20 . . 
Edmund  Daniel,  A.  M.-1  .. 

John  Ellis,  M.  A 

John  Watkins,  A.  M. 22. . . . 
Charles  Langford,  D.D.23.. 
Edmund  Doughtie,  A.  M.  . . 
Richard  Montague,  D.  D.  Si 


Installed 1380 

Installed  . .  Nov.  7, 1393 
Installed.  .April  20, 1407 

1419 

Installed.  .Sept.  26, 1434 

Elected 1445  or  1446 

Elected  .  .  June  24,  1462 
Installed . .  March  8, 1462 
Installed  March  26,  1481 
Installed  March  23,  1490 
Installed  about  July,  1491 

Elected aboutloOl 

Elected 1512 

Installed  ..  Jan.  27,  1512 
Installed..  Aug.  14,  1530 
Installed  . . .  June  1,  154L 
.  July  3,  1558 
Feb.  18,  1559 
Nominated.  .Jan.  9, 1576 
Installed  . .  April  5,  1593 
Installed.  .Dec.  2»,  1607 
Installed  . .  Dec.  9,  1616 


Installed 
Installed 


Died Oct.  19,  1393 

Dean  of  York 1407 

Died July,  1419 

Died Aug.  9,  1434 

Died 1445  or  1446 

Died April  6,  1462 

Deprived June  26,  1462 

Died 1480 

Died Nov.  2,  1490 

Resigned 1491 

Died about  April,  1500 

Resigned 1512 

Resigned Dec.  3,  1512 

Died May  16,  1529 

Died April  29,  1541 

Archbishop  of  Dublin 1555 

Deprived 1559 

Died about  1576 

Resigned 1593 

Died Oct.  28,  1607 

Died 1616 

Resigned 1617 


"  He  was  buried  in  the  Cathedral,  where  the  following  fragment  of  an  inscription  remained  in  Willis's  time — 
"  De  Salme  Mercy  m.ccc.lxxxxiii."     Willis's  date  is  1493. 

"  By  will  he  directed  his  body  to  be  interred  in  the  Church  of  Maidstone ;  that  forty  marks  be  given  to  the  Cathedral 
of  Hereford,  and  ten  pounds  towards  the  fabric  of  Leighton  Buzzard  Church. —  Willis. 

13  This  Dean  was  buried  in  the  Lady  Chapel,  where  an  effigy  in  the  south  wall,  under  an  arch,  with  figures  of 
hoars,  and  the  rue-leaf,  are  said  to  commemorate  him. 

14  His  remains  were  interred  in  the  Cathedral,  where  a  monument  with  an  efiigy  and  an  inscription  remain. 

14  He  was  principal  secretary  to  Henry  VII. — Bishop  of  Exeter  in  1492 — transferred  to  Bath  and  Wells,  149.5. 
He  pulled  down  and  began  to  rebuild  Bath  Abbey  Church,  and  died  June  24, 1509.  He  was  buried  in  St.  George's 
Chapel,  Windsor,  where  there  is  an  inscription  to  his  memory.  See  History  of  Bath  Abbey  Church  ;  also  History  of 
Wells  Cathedral. 

16  By  will  he  appointed  to  he  buried  in  the  Cathedral,  before  St.  Margaret's  Altar,  and  a  chantry  to  be  erected  to 
his  memory.     Willis  supposes  the  effigy  in  the  upper  end  of  the  south  aile  to  be  his. 

17  See  Accounts  of  Wells  Cathedral  and  York  Cathedral. 

"  He  was  Canon  and  Prebendary  of  Barton  Colwalle — interred  in  the  upper  end  of  the  south  aile.  His  monument 
of  marble  contains  his  "portraiture  lying  under  a  canopy,  with  figures  of  six  saints  engraved  on  two  pillars  which 
support  it."     Antiquities  of  Cath.  p.  231.     Willis  gives  a  long  inscription  from  his  gravestone. 

19  Canon  of  Windsor  and  York,  and  Rector  of  West  Idesley,  in  the  county  of  Berks  ;  buried  in  the  Cathedral.  In 
his  will  "  he  directed  a  solemn  dirge  to  be  kept  for  him  in  the  Cathedral."     Willis,  p.  535. 

su  See  some  account  of  this  Dean  in  the  History,  &c.  of  Oxford  Cathedral,  p.  25. 

-'  Prebendary  of  Worcester.  In  1559  he  was  deprived  of  this  Deanery  by  Queen  Elizabeth.  Retired  to  Rome, 
where  he  died  Oct.  13,  1576.  and  was  buried  in  the  English  Collegiate  Chapel  of  St.  Thomas  a  Becket.  Willis  gives 
a  copy  of  the  inscription  on  his  monument  at  Rome. 

52  Le  Neve  says  he  was  installed  March  13, 1574.    Antiquities  of  Cath.  say  March  13,  1557.    He  died  May,  1594. 

53  Prebendary  of  Bristol,  and  Rector  of  Stokehammond,  Bucks.  When  he  died  he  was  Prebendary  of  Pratm 
Minus,  Vicar  of  Lugwarden,  and  Rector  of  Eastham.     Buried  in  the  Cathedral.     Willis. 

24  Exchanged  the  Deanery  for  the  Archdeaconry  of  Hereford.     Willis. 


CHRONOLOGICAL  LIST  OF  DEANS. 


67 


No. 

41 
42 
43 
44 
45 
46 
47 
48 
49 
50 
51 
52 
53 
54 
55 
56 
57 
58 
59 
HO 
61 


DEANS. 


Silvanus  Griffith,  S.  T.  P.  =5 
Oliver  Lloyd,  LL.  D. s6  . .  . . 
Daniel  Price,  S.  T.  P. 27  .  . . 
John  Richardson,  D.  D.  28.  . 
Jonathan  Brown,  S.T.P.  ^ 

Herbert  Croft,  D.D 

Thomas  Hodges,  D.  D.  30  . . 
George  Benson,  S.  T.  P.  31 . . 

John  Tyler,  D.  D.  32 

Robert  Clavering  33 

John  Harris  3i 

Edward  Cressett,  M.  A.35  . . 

Edmund  Castle,  D.  D 

John  Egerton,  B.  L.  L.  36  ... 

Francis  Webber,  D.D 

Nathan  Wetherell,  D.  D.  37.. 
William  Leigh,  LL.  D. 38. . . 
George  Gretton,  D.  D.  39.  . . 
Robert  James  Carr,  D.  D.40. 

Edward  Mellish,  A.M 

Edward  Grey,  D.D 


Elected,  &c. 


Installed.  .Sept.  16, 1617 


Installed . 
Installed  . 
Installed . 
Installed. 
Installed . 
Installed . 
Installed. 
Installed . 
Installed . 
Installed. 
Installed . 
Installed. 
Installed. 
Installed. 
Installed., 
Installed . 
Installed . 
Installed 
Installed . 


Dec.  16, 
.  Oct.  27, 


,Dec.  10, 
,  Sept.  10, 
,  Sept.  27, 

,  May  16, 
, .  Oct.  8, 
.March  2, 
•  Aug.  7, 
.  July  30, 
.  Nov.  9, 
March  4, 
..April  5, 
. .. .  Aug. 
.  July  8, 


1623 
1631 
1636 
1644 
1661 
1672 
1692 
1724 
1729 
1736 
1748 
1750 
1756 
1771 
1808 
1809 
1820 
1827 
1831 


Died  or  removed. 


Died Nov.  1623 

Died 1625 

Died Sept.  23,  1631 

Died. 1636 

Died Dec.  1,  1643 

Bishop  of  Hereford 1661 

Died Aug.  22,  1672 

Died Aug.  24,  1692 

Bishop  of  Landaff 1706 

Bishop  of  Landaff 1724 

Bishop  of  Landaff 1730 

Bishop  of  Landaff 1748 

Bishop  of  Bangor 1756 

Died 1771 

Died 1808 

Died 1809 

Died July  29,  1820 

Bishop  of  Chichester 1827 

Died Dec.  1830 

Now  living. 


25  Not  mentioned  in  Antiquities  of  Cath.     And  Wood,  in  Athen.  Oxon.  names  George  Carleton  as  Dean  in  1617. 

26  Not  mentioned  in  Willis,  or  Le  Neve,  but  described  in  The  Antiquities  as  having  exchanged  with  Montague.  See 
Wood's  Athena?  Oxon.  edit.  1815.  vol.  iii.  col.  878.  He  was  Chancellor  of  Hereford,  in  1615  Canon  of  Windsor, 
which  he  exchanged  with  Montague  for  this  Deanery.     Died  in  Hereford.     Antiq.  of  Cath. 

27  Chaplain  to  Prince  Henry,  afterwards  to  James  I.,  then  to  Charles  I.,  Canon  Residentiary  of  Hereford,  Rector 
of  Worthing  in  Shropshire,  and  of  Lanteglos,  Cornwall,  and  Justice  of  the  Peace.  Died  at  Worthing  near  Cause 
Castle,  Salop,  and  was  buried  there.     Willis  gives  a  long  inscription  from  his  tomb.     Survey,  i.  536. 

58  Le  Neve  says  installed  1634,  also  Antiq.  of  Cath.  In  his  will  he  gave  five  pounds  to  the  Cathedral,  and  six 
pounds  to  the  poor  of  Hereford  City,  &c. 

29  Prebend  of  Westminster,  Minister  of  St.  Faith's,  London,  in  1633,  and  Rector  of  Hertingfordbury,  co.  Herts, 
where  he  was  buried.     Willis. 

30  Rector  of  Kensington,  was  a  celebrated  preacher  before  Parliament,  one  of  the  Assembly  of  Divines,  and  a 
Covenanter ;  one  of  the  clergymen  who  attended  tlie  Earl  of  Holland  on  the  scaffold,  to  whom  he  was  distantly  related ; 
Rector  of  St.  Peter's,  Cornhill,  in  1662  ;  buried  at  Kensington,  where  there  is  a  gravestone  to  his  memory.  Faulkner's 
History,  &;c.  of  Kensington,  p.  166. ;  Willis. 

31  Prebendary  of  Worcester,  Archdeacon  of  Hereford,  Prebendary  of  Wellington.  Ant.  of  Cath.  He  was  Dean  of 
Hereford,  Master  of  Ledbury  Hospital,  and  Rector  of  Cradley  in  Herefordshire.  Buried  near  the  Altar  at  Hereford 
Cathedral.     Wood's  Fasti  Oxon.  and  Antiquities  of  the  Cath.  136. 

32  Prebendary  of  Bartonsham,  and  Vicar  of  St.  Peter's  in  Hereford ;  held  the  Deanery  of  Hereford  in  commendam, 
with  the  Bishopric  of  Landaff.     Antiquities  of  the  Cath. 

33  See  account  of  Peterborough  Cathedral. 

34  Resigned  the  Deanery,  1736. 

35  Resigned  the  Deanery,  1748. 

36  Son  of  Bishop  Egerton ;  Bishop  of  Bangor,  1756 ;  Lichfield,  1768  ;  Durham,  1771 ;  died,  1787.— See  Account 
of  Lichfield  Cathedral. 

37  Head  of  University  Coll.  Oxford;  Prebendary  of  Cublington;  Died  at  Oxford. 

38  Never  resided  at  the  Deanery,  but  made  considerable  repairs  to  the  Deanery  House. 

39  Elected  a  Fellow  of  Trinity  College,  Cambridge,  B.A.  1776,  M.A.  1779,  D.D.  1791;  promoted  to  this 
Deanery  through  the  interest  of  the  Earl  of  Lonsdale ;  died  at  the  Deanery  House,  aged  sixty-seven.  He  was  Vicar 
of  Upton  Bishop,  near  Ross,  and  Canon  Residentiary  of  Hereford.     Gent.  Mag. 

,0  Resigned  the  Deanery,  1827. 


68 

A 

IU$t  of  23oofc$,  ©$$*££,  antr  Print*, 

WHICH  HAVE  BEEN  PUBLISHED  RELATING  TO  THE 

CATHEDRAL  OF  HEREFORD. 

WITH  A   LIST  OF 

ENGRAVED    PORTRAITS    OF   ITS    BISHOPS. 

THIS  LIST  IS  SUBJOINED  TO  GRATIFY  THE  BIBLIOGRAPHER,  THE  CRITICAL  ANTIQUARY,  AND  THE  ILLUSTRATOR; 
AS  WELL  AS  TO  SHEW,  AT  ONE  VIEW,  THE  SOURCES  WHENCE  THE  CONTENTS  OF  THE  PRECEDING  PAGES  HAVE 
BEEN  DERIVED,  AND  THE  FULL  TITLES  OF  THE  WORKS  REFERRED  TO  IN  THE  NOTES. 


MANUSCRIPTS,  BOOKS,  AND  ESSAYS. 

The  following  notice  from  Bishop  Nicholson's  "  Historical  Library,"  edit.  1736",  p.  130,  contains 
some  information  respecting  the  library  and  archives: — 

"  That  there  were  anciently  several  good  old  Register  Books  belonging  to  this  Cathedral,  is 
beyond  dispute.  Sir  H.  Spelman1  quotes  one  of  them;  and  we  have  heard  of  several  others 
besides  that  of  Bishop2  Booth.  The  library  and  archives  here  fell  under  the  like  misfortunes, 
during  the  ravage  of  our  late  days  of  usurpation,  with  those  of  other  Cathedral  Churches  :  being 
made  a  very  improper  prey  to  a  fanatical  and  illiterate  army  of  rebellious  blockheads.  Amongst 
these  Silas  Taylor  was  an  officer  of  a  more  than  ordinary  fancy  and  respect  for  books  and 
learning;  and,  having  gotten  part  of  the  Bishop's  Palace'  in  his  possession,  thought  it  was  also 
convenient  to  seize  as  many  of  the  Churches  evidences  and  records,  as  he  could  possibly  get  into 
his  clutches.  With  these  (and  many  of  the  like  kind  from  the  church  of  Worcester)  he  troop'd  off, 
upon  the  happy  return  of  our  old  English  government ;  and  near  twenty  years  afterwards,  dy'd  with 
some  of  'em  in  his  possession  at  Harwich.  His  books  and  papers,  together  with  the  few  other 
moveables  he  left  behind  him,  fell  into  the  hands  of  his  creditors;  from  whom  (if  any  care  was 
taken  to  preserve  them)  it  will  now  be  a  very  difficult  matter  to  retrieve  them." 

In  a  volume  printed  in  London  in  1720,  8vo.  is  the  following  notice: — "  In  the  public  library 
at  Oxford  amongst  Mr.  Jones's  IMS.  is  one  in  folio,  on  vellum,  entitled  '  Inquisitiones  ct  literal 
patentes  ad  Eceleriam  Herefordenscm  pcrtiitentcs  MSS.  Jones  XXI.'  This  was  deposited  in  the 
library  since  the  publication  of  Dr.  Bernard's  Catalogue.  In  a  private  hand  is  a  Collection  of  the 
Monuments  in  the  Cathedral  Church,  made  by  Mr.  Dingley  in  1680,  which  has  preserved  some 
few  inscriptions  ;  but  is  remarkable  for  the  fine  draughts  of  monuments  and  the  original  characters 
in  which  the  inscriptions  are  wrote." — Cough's  Topography.  A  list  of  the  same  is  given  in  the 
Appendix  to  "  The  Antiquities  of  the  Cathedral  Church,"  e've. 

"  Rcgistrum  (aroli  Booth,  Edv.  Fox,  ct  Edm.  Boneri  Episcoporvm  Hereford,"  ab  A.  D.  1516 
ad  A.  D.  1531)  inclusive,  MS.  pergam.  folio,  nuper  in  bibl.  Joannis  Moore  episc.  Eliens.  modo  in 
bibl.  publ.  Cantab. 

In  Bibl.  Cotton  MSS.  Vitellius,  E.  ix.  Adami  Herefordcnsis  episcopi  quadam  ad  Joannem  de 
rebus  quibusdam  et  controcersiis  ad  ecclesiam  suam  spectantibus.  Ibid.  Faustina,  B.  ii.  33, 
appropriationcm  ecclesice  de  Lugivarden  decano  et  capitulo  Hereford. 

Registrum  pcrvetustum  eccl.  Cath.  Hereford,  temp.  R.  Ed.  I.  vol.  ii.  penes  praehonorabilem 
Thomam  vicecomitem  Weymouth. 

In  Bibl.  Coll.  Corp.  Christi.  Cant.  MS.  120,  p.  483,  Consvetttdines  et  Statuta  Ecclesice 
Hereford;  p.  510,  injunctions  given  by  Queen  Elizabeth's  Visitors  to  the  Dean  and  Chapter  of 
Hereford. 

In  the  "  Valor  Ecclesiasticus,"  temp.  Henry  VIII.  is  a  map  of  the  Diocess  of  Hereford,  and 
some  account  of  the  same. 

In  the  "  Reports  on  the  Public  Reeords  of  the  Kingdom,"  folio,  1800,  published  by  authority 

1   Glossar.  in  voce  Panama.  2  Hist.  Episc.  et  Dec.  Loodia.  et  Assav. 

"  Atb.  Oxod.  vol.  ii.  p.  464.     See  new  edition,  vol.  iii.  col.  1175. 


LIST  OF  BOOKS,  ESSAYS,  AND  PRINTS.  69 

of  Parliament,  is  a  return  from  the  Registrar  of  the  Cathedral  Church  and  of  the  Dean  and 
Chapter  of  Hereford,  respecting  the  records  of  this  Cathedral. 

In  the  British  Museum,  are  some  MSS.  relating  to  Hereford  Cathedral,  its  monuments,  &c. 
The  following  numbers  in  the  Harleian  Catalogue  point  them  out :— Nos.  6149,  3048,  23d  article 
has  relation  to  De  Bohun. — 4826,  the  Bishops  of  Hereford. — 4768,  Family  of  Cantilupe. — 1430, 
5th  Article,  ditto. — 595,  Episcopal  Affairs. — 6303,  Regulations  respecting  the  Church  of' 
Hereford. — 3740,  Article  12,  Disputes  between  the  Dean  and  Prebendaries. 

"  The  Life  and  Gests  of  Sir  Thomas  Cantilupe,  Bishop  of  Hereford,  and  some  time 
Chancellor  of  England.  Extracted  out  of  the  authentic  Records  of  his  Canonization  as  to  the 
most  part.  Anonymous,  Matt.  Paris,  Capgrave,  Harpsfleld,  and  others.  Collected  by  R.  S. 
(Qy.  Surius)  S.  I.  at  Gaut.     Small  8vo.  1674.     Dedicated  to  the  Duke  of  Tuscany." 

"  Dr.  Stukeley  saw  a  book  of  no  little  bulk  at  St.  Omer's,  containing  an  account  of  his 
miracles."     Gough's  "  Topography,"  vol.  i.  p.  412. 

"  The  History  and  Antiquities  of  the  City  and  Cathedral  Church  of  Hereford,  containing  an 
Account  of  all  the  Inscriptions,  Epitaphs,  &c.  upon  the  Tombs,  Monuments,  and  Gravestones; 
with  Lists  of  the  principal  Dignitaries  ;  and  an  Appendix,  consisting  of  several  valuable  original 
Papers,"  was  published,  if  not,  compiled  by  Dr.  Rawlinson.  London,  1717,  8vo.  (By  a  notice, 
in  p.  23,  of  "  the  present  Lord  Chancellor,"  Harcourt,  it  is  presumed  that  the  volume  was  printed 
in  1713,  as  he  was  Chancellor  only  that  year.)  The  Appendix  contains  the  obits  of  several 
benefactors  to  this  Cathedral,  transcribed  from  a  folio  MS.  missal  secundum  usum  Hereford, 
written  about  the  reign  of  Edward  III.,  and  seventy-one  charters  or  grants  of  lands  to  this 
church,  from  a  Bodleian  MS.  and  dated  1510.  Some  years  after  it  came  out  it  was  attacked 
"  in  a  most  ungenerous  manner  by  a  member  of  this  church,  in  a  very  warm  and  angry  preface  to 
a  sermon  preached  in  Landaff  Cathedral,  fathering  it  on  Browne  Willis,  with  some  uncharitable 
reflections."  In  the  account  of  this  Church  in  his  "  Survey  of  the  Cathedrals,"  &c.  1727,  p.  500, 
Mr.  Willis  disclaims  all  concern  in  the  book,  and  gives  the  author  of  the  sermon  a  sharp 
castigation. 

The  new  edition  of  Dugdale's  "  Monasticon  Anglicanum,"  vol.  vi.  by  Caley,  Ellis,  and 
Bandinel,  contains  the  following  engravings,  drawn  and  etched  by  J.  Coney: — 1.  Ground  Plan 
of  the  Cathedral. — 2.  View  of  the  West  End,  copied  from  Hollar's  print. — 3.  North  East  View, 
and  4.  An  Interior  View.  The  same  volume  contains  some  account  of  the  Diocess,  See,  and 
Cathedral,  notices  of  the  Bishops  and  Deans,  copies  of  the  following  deeds,  &c. — No.  1.  Historia 
de  prima  fundatione  ejusdem,  1212. — 2.  Carta  regis  Edwardi  Confessoris,  ib. — 3.  Praedia 
Episcopatus  Heref.  temp.  R.  Willielmi  I.  ib. — 4.  Carta  R.  Henrici  I.  donat  Rad.  de  Simesi 
confirmans,  1215. — 5.  C.  Simonis  de  Cliffords,  de  Manerio  de  Hamne,  ib. — 6.  C.  Radulhi 
Heref.  episcopi  dec.  et  capitulo  vi.  ib. — 7.  C.  Walteri  de  Lascy  facta  priori  et  conv.  de 
Crassewell,  1216. — 8.  C.  Prioris  de  Crassewell,  et  ejusdem  loci  fratrum,  ib. — 9.  De  dono  et 
concessionibus  Petri  de  Aquablanca  Herefordensis  episcopi,  ib. — 10.  Nomina  maneriorum  olim 
eccl.  Cathedr.  Heref.  spectantium,  ib. — 11.  Carta  Will.  d'Eureus  de  Capella  de  putela,  ib. — 
12.  Finis  lavatus  de  advocatione  eccl.  de  Putelego,  1217. — 13.  Confirmatio  Radulfi  Murdac,  ib. 

Tanner's"  Notitia  Monastica"  contains  references  to  several  authorities  relating  to  the  See 
and  Diocess. 

Willis's  "  History  of  the  Mitred  Abbeys,"  8vo.  1719,  contains  measurements  of  the  Cathedral, 
with  names  of  Bishops  buried  within  it. 

In  Stukeley's  "  Itinerarium  Curiosum,"  fol.  1724,  Iter.  4,  p.  67,  is  an  account  of  Cantilupe's 
shrine,  the  Chapter  House,  Lady  Chapel,  and  Library. 

Lord  John  Scudamore 's  Benefactions  to  this  Cathedral,  are  recorded  in  Gibson's  "View  of 
Door  and  Holm  Lacy."  London,  1727,  4ta. 

In  Wilkius's  "  Concilia  Magna  Britannia, "  fol.  1737,  vol.  i.  p.  761,  Prseceptum  Regis 
Henrici  HI.  episcopo  Herefardensi  contra  non  residentiam  praelatorum. 

Browne  Willis's  "  Survey  of  the  Cathedrals,"  4to.  1742,  contains  accounts  of  the  Cathedral, 
Monuments,  Inscriptions,  sale  of  the  estates  and  lands  in  1647, 1648, 1649,  and  1650,  endowment 
of  the  Dean  and  Chapter,  notices  of  the  Bishops,  Deans,  Precentors,  Chancellors,  Treasurers, 
Archdeacons,  Prebendaries,  also  an  account  of  the  Churches  and  Chapels  in  the  Diocess,  &c. 
vol.  i.  p.  499  to  622.  Plates,  North  Prospect,  drawn  by  W.  Merricke  and  engraved  by 
J.  Harris  ;   West  Front,  ditto  ditto. 

Leland's  "  Itinerary"  8vo.  1744,  vol.  iv.  p.  86,  of  the  Cathedral ;  vol.  v.  p.  10,  vol.  vi.  p.  75, 


70  HEREFORD  CATHEDRAL. 

of  Prestbury;  vol.  viii.  p.  37.  56,  nomina  episcoporum ;  p.  41,  ex  libro  martirologii ;  p.  55, 
inscriptiones  sepulchrales  in  ecclesia  Hereford;  p.  57,  palaetia  episcopi  Hereford;  p.  59,  de 
fundatione. 

In  Carter's  "  Antient  Architecture,"  folio,  1795,  Pl.  xlv.  Shield  from  Cantilupe's  tomb, 
lviii.  Stone  Seats  in  the  Cathedral,  lxxviii.  Spandril  on  Cantilupe's  tomb. 

Gough's  "  Sepulchral  Monuments,"  fo.  1796,  coutains,  vol.  i.  part  i.  p.  lxix,  Chalice,  found 
1524 — p.  cxx.  Brasses  stolen  from — p.  ci.  Brass  in  Cathedral  ;  vol.  i.  part  ii.  p.  18,  account  of 
Tombs  of  Bishops  Rainelm  and  Lozing — p.  32,  five  Bishops'  Monuments  alike,  Vere,  Clyve, 
Betune,  Foliot,  and  Melun — p.  36,  Monument  of  Giles  Bruce  (Bp.) — p.  62,  Bishop  Cantilupe, 
account  of  bis  Tomb,  &c. ;  vol.  ii.  part  i.  cci.,  Charnel  House;  part  iii.  West  End  rebuilt  by 
Lochard,  115 — inscriptions  on  two  Monuments  in  south  transept,  178.  315 — Cathedral  yard 
levelled,  325;  with  the  following  Plates;  Shrine  of  Cantelupe — Shrine  of  St.  Ethelbert — Chapel 
of  Bishop  Stanburv — Figures  on  the  Tomb  and  Arms — Monument  of  Bishop  Thomas  Charlton, 
1313 — Monument  of  Sir  Richard  Pembridge,  1375 — Monument  of  Lewis  Charlton,  Bishop,  1369 
— Brasses  on  Tomb  of  Bishop  Trellick — Monuments  of  Robert  Lozing  and  Raynelm. 

Price's  "  Historical  Account  of  the  City  of  Hereford,''  8vo.  1796,  contains  a  South  East  View 
of  the  Cathedral,  erroneously  called  the  west;  Plan  of  the  Cathedral;  Remains  of  the  old 
Chapter  House. 

"  Collections  toicards  the  History  and  Antiquities  of  the  County  of  Hereford.  By  John 
Duncumb,  A.  M.  vol.  i."  1804,  Hereford ;  contain  memoirs  of  the  Bishops,  from  680  to  1803 — 
accounts  of  the  revenues  of  the  Cathedral,  and  of  monuments,  &c.  p.  443  to  583  ;  Plates,  1.  Five 
Seals — 2.  Ancient  Front  (West) — 3.  Windows — 4.  Shrines  of  Ethelbert  and  Cantilupe. 

In  Newcourt's  "  Iiepertorium,"  vol.  i.  p.  452,  of  the  advowson  of  St.  Mary  Mounthaw, 
London,  and  the  Bishop's  bouse  near  it. 

In  the  "  Beauties  of  England  and  Wales,"  vol.  iv.  8vo.  1805,  is  an  account  of  the  Cathedral, 
p.  458  to  479,  and  two  Plates;  General  View — Ruins  of  the  Chapter  House. 

Malcolm's  "  First  Impressions,"  8vo.  1807,  contain  an  account  of  the  Cathedral,  p.  82  to  109, 
and  two  Plates,  1.  of  Windows — 2.  North  Porch,  drawn  and  etched  by  the  author. 

"  The  History  and  Antiquities  of  the  Cathedral  Church  of  Hereford,"  by  J.  and  H.  S.  Storer, 
8vo.  1815,  contains  a  short  account  of  the  Cathedral,  and  the  following  nine  prints,  Ground  Plan 
— South  Transept — Interior  of  Nave — South  West  View — North  West  View — Interior  North 
Wrest  of  Transept — Cloisters — South  East  End — East  End. 

George  III.  Anno  59.  An  Act  to  enable  the  Dean  and  Chapter  of  Hereford  to  discharge 
certain  Debts  incurred  in  repairing  the  Cathedral  Church  of  Hereford.     P.  A. 

"  The  Hereford  Guide ;  containing  a  concise  History  of  the  City  of  Hereford,  a  Description 
of  its  public  Buildings,  Episcopal  See,  Cathedral,  Parochial  Churches,"  &c.  by  W.J.  Rees,  M.  A. 
12mo.  1827,  contains  a  short  account  of  the  See,  account  of  the  Bishops,  &c.  history  and  account 
of  the  Cathedral,  Bishop's  Palace,  &c.  p.  110  to  173,  and  a  View  of  the  Cathedral  engraved  on 
wood. 

"  A  Brief  Inquiry  into  the  ancient  and  present  State  of  Hereford  Cathedral,  with  an  Attempt 
to  classify  its  Architecture,  and  suggestions  for  its  renovation  and  improvement.  By  the 
Rev.  Thomas  Garbett,  M.  A."  8vo.  1827,  contains  remarks  on  the  alterations  and  present  state 
of  the  Cathedral,  and  three  plates  of  windows. 

"  A  short  Description  of  a  portable  Shrine  (Saint  Ethelbert  s).  By  the  Rev.  Thomas  Russell, 
M.  A."  8vo.  1830,  contains  a  plate  of  the  shrine,  with  fac-simile  of  the  inscription — an  account  of 
the  discovery  of  Bishop  Trellick's  coffin,  with  a  plate  of  the  head  of  his  crosier. 

PRINTS. 

West  Front  of  the  Cathedral  as  it  stood  in  1724,  published  in  European  Mag.  1792,  8vo. 

In  the  "  Vetusta  Monumenta,"  by  the  Society  of  Antiquaries,  is  a  View  and  Plan  of  the 
Chapel  called  St.  Magdalen's,  1747,  folio,  vol.  i.  pl.  49.  The  same  is  re-engraved  for  Gough's 
edition  of"  Camden's  Britannia,"  vol.  ii.  folio,  1789. 

Four  Vieics  of  Hereford,  each  taking  in  the  Cathedral,  Geo.  Powle,  del. ;  James  Ross,  sc. 
large  4to.  1778. 

North  View  of  the  Cathedral,  uith  Spire  and  Toner,  published  in  the  "  Christian's  Magazine," 
1784,  8vo. 


LIST  OP  BOOKS,  ESSAYS,  AND  PRINTS.  71 

Interior  of  the  Chapter  House,  sketched  1784,  J.  Carter,  sc.  1790. — Ditto,  in  "  The  Beauties 
of  England  and  Wales,"  T.  Hearne  del. ;  J.  Roffe,  sc.    1803. 

In  "  Hearne  and  Byrne's  Antiquities,"  1786,  is  a  View  of  the  ruins  of  the  West  End,  &c.  of 
the  Cathedral,  with  an  account. 

Four  Prints  of  the  Cathedral,  representing-  the  West  Front  before  it  fell,  and  view  of  it  in  ruins, 
with  the  Nave  and  North  West  View,  were  engraved  in  aquatint  by  Middiman  and  Jukes  in 
1788  and  1789,  from  drawings  by  James  Wathen. 

View  of  the  Cathedral  after  the  spire  was  taken  down,  E.  Dayes,  del. ;  J.  Walker,  sc.  4to. 
1795,  in  Copper-plate  Magazine. 

View  of  the  Cathedral  from  the  North  East,  1811,  a  large  aquatint,  from  a  drawing  by 
J.  Buckler. — Ditto,  1816,  etched  by  J.  C.  Buckler,  4to. 

In  the  Gentleman's  Magazine  for  July,  1824,  is  a  View  of  the  North  Porch.  The  same  plate 
published  in  Malcolm's  "  First  Impressions." 

Vertue  engraved  a  Seal  of  the  Dean,  two  of  the  Dean  and  Chapter  (temp.  Hen.  III.  and  later), 
those  of  Bishops  Bennet  and  Coke,  three  of  the  Bohun  families,  and  three  others. 

N.  W.  View  of  the  Cathedral,  with  the  Western  Tower,  published  by  Smith,  in  Exeter 
Change,  large  folio. — The  same,  published  in  4to.  J.  Harris,  fecit. 

King  engraved  a  North  View  of  the  Cathedral,  and  Hollar  both  North  and  West  Views,  for 
the  third  volume  of  the  Monasticon,  which  Gough  calls  "  some  of  his  worst." 

In  Grose's  Antiquities  of  England  and  Wales  is  a  View,  with  an  account  of  the  Chapter  House. 
Engraved  by  Sparrow. 

View  of  the  East  Window  of  the  Cathedral,  painted  by  Bachler.  E.  W.  Gill,  del. ;  on  stone 
by  L.  Haghe.    Small  folio,  published  by  W.  H.  Vale,  Hereford. 

"  Ecclesiae  Cathedralis  Herefordensis  Prospectus  Occidentalis,"  large  print. 

In  the  Antiquarian  and  Topographical  Cabinet  are  the  following  engravings,  Shrine  of 
Bishop  Cantilupe — Shrine  of  St.  Ethelbert — Back  of  ditto — Crosier  of  Bishop  Trellick. 

ACCOUNTS  OF  BISHOPS. 

Godwin  in  his  "  Catalogue  of  Bishops,"  small  4to.  1615,  gives  short  Memoirs  of  the  Bishops 
from  680  to  1602. 

In  "  De  Prasulibus,"  by  Godwin  and  Richardson,  fol.  1742,  these  accounts  are  continued  to 
1723. 

Le  Neve's  "  Fasti  Ecclesiae  Anglicanm,"  fol.  1716,  contains  lists,  with  short  accounts  of  the 
Bishops,  Deans,  Prebendaries,  &c.  up  to  1713. 

Willis's  "  Survey  of  the  Cathedrals,"  4to.  1742,  contains  a  list,  with  Memoirs  of  the  Bishops, 
Deans,  Prebendaries,  &c.  up  to  that  time. 

"  The  History  and  Antiquities  of  the  Cathedral  Church  of  Hereford"  8vo.  1717,  gives  lists  of 
the  Bishops,  Deans,  Treasurers,  Archdeacons,  &c.  to  1712. 

PORTRAITS  OF  BISHOPS. 

1538  Edmund  Bonner  whipping  Thomas  Henshawe,  a  wood  print,  in  the  first  edition  of  Fox's 

"  Acts  and  Monuments,"  p.  2043.     Granger.     Bromley. 
1617  Francis  Godwin  : — half  sh.  Vertue,  sc.  1742,  engraved  for  "  De  Prsesulibus." 

1633  William  Juxon  :—"  From  a  painting  at  Longleat,  8vo.  Granger.     In  the  set  of  Loyalists, 

G.  Vertue,  sc.     Bromley.     In  Lord  Clarendon's  "  History,"  8vo.   Vertue,  sc.  Bromley. 

1634  Matthew   Wren:  —  G.    Vander  Gucht,  half  sh.,   engraved   for  the   "  Parentalia." 

Granger.     Bromley.     A  satirical  print  in  "  Wren's  Anatomy,"  4to.     Bromley. 
1660  Nicholas  Monk: — Jos.  Nutting,  sc,  small,  with  others.     Granger.     Bromley. 
1712  Philip  Bisse,  folio,  Thomas  Hill,  p. ;  G.  Vertue,  sc.     Noble.     Bromley. 
1721  Benjamin  Hoadley: — Sitting  in  robes,  sh.    W.  Hogarth,  p.;  B.  Baron,  sc.    1743. 

Bromley.     Prefixed  to  his  "  Works,"  1773,  fol.;  N.  Hone,  p.;  J.  Basire,  sc.  1772. 

Bromley.     Oval,  in  a  canonical  habit;  J.  Faber,  sc.  Bromley.     Large  folio;  G.  Vertue, 

sc.     Bromley. 
1788  John  Butler: — Prefixed  to  a  volume  of  Sermons,  iEtat  82;  Hall,  pinx. ;  Simon,  sc. 

Another,  in  Christian's  Magazine,  as  Bishop  of  Oxford,  8vo.    1783. 


72 


HEREFORD  CATHEDRAL. 


m$t  of  ^rtntjef, 

ILLUSTRATIVE  OF  HEREFORD  CATHEDRAL. 


I, 

-  II, 

III 

IV, 

v. 

VI 

VII, 

VIII. 

IX. 

x. 

XI. 

XII. 

XIII. 

XIV. 
XV. 

XVI. 
XVII. 


Subjects. 


Ground  Plan,  and  Plans  ofParts 

View  of  the  Cburch  from  N.  W 

North  Porch.  North  Transept,  Sec 

View  of  the  Nave  in  Ruins 

View  behind  the  Altar  , 

Part  of  North  Transept,  Tower,  &c.  .. 

East  End  

Lady  Chapel,  Compartment  North  Side 
with  Section  of  the  East  End 

Section  East  End,  Lady  Chapel  and  Crypt 

Compartments    of  Choir,   Interior  and) 
Exterior,  North  Side ) 

Section  throogh  Tower  and  Transept,) 
North  to  South  £ 

View  in  the  North  Transept 

Sooth  Aile,  Monomentof  Bishop  Mayo,  Sec. 

Cantelupe's  Shrine  (figured  XV.) 

Mnnnment   in   the  North    Wall   of  the 
Lady  Chapel  (Title) 

Windows  at  N.  E.  end,  Lady  Chapel  ... 

View  of  Monuments  in  the  South  Aile) 
of  the  Choir  (Wood  Cut) J 


Drawn  by 


T.  H.  Clarke. 
W.  H.Bartlett 
W.H.  Bartletl 
T.  Hearne . , 
W.  H.Bartlett 
W.H.  Bartletl 

W.H.  Bartletl 

T.H.Clarke... 
T.H.Clarke... 
T.H.Clarke... 

T.H.Clarke... 
T.H.Clarke... 
W.H.  Bartletl 

W.H.  Bartletl 

T.H.Clarke... 
W.H.  Bartletl 
W.H.  Bartletl 


Engraved  by 


R.  Roose  .. 
T.  Higham. 
J.  Le  Keux 
Jas.  Redaway 
J.  Le  Keux 
R.  Sands... 


W.  Taylor... 

G.  Gladwin  .. 
J.  Le  Keux... 
J.  Le  Keux... 

J.  Le  Keux... 
J.  Le  Keax... 
W.Woolnolh 

J.  Le  Keux... 

J.  Le  Keux... 
J.  Le  Keax... 
S.  Williams.. 


R.  B.Phillips,  Esq. 
Rev.  John  Clutton.D.D. 
Rev.A.  J.Walker,  A.M. 

Ben.  Biddulph,  Esq 

Rev. H. H.Morgan, B.D. 
"Rev.  Thomas    Un-) 
derwood,  M.  A.  $ 


Edward  Haycock,  Esq. 


William  Tite,  Esq 

The  Rev.  John  Jones. . 
(Rev.  Newton  D.H 
(     Newton,  A.  B. 
I  The  Lord  Bishop  of  ) 

\      Hereford J 

t  The     Rev.    Henry ) 
(      Lee  Warner  ....  $ 

Sir  E.  S.  Stanhope,  Bt 


37,  38. 

42,  43. 
43. 

44.  51. 
43. 

44. 

52. 
52. 

42.  44.  47. 

43.  49,  50. 
50.  56. 
48.  51. 

56. 

52. 
52. 
60. 


a  ©fcronologtcal  ftatile 


NAMES  AND  DATES  OF  DIFFERENT  PARTS  OF  HEREFORD  CATHEDRAL. 


Kings. 


William  II 
Henry  I.... 

Henry  II.  . 

Henry  III. 

Henry  HI. 


Edward  II. 


r.i-iiMp-- 


Parts  of  the  Building. 


Lozing 1079 Nave,  East  Side  of  South  Transept  , 

Raynelm 1107 Nave,  Uc 

De  Vere  1190 1    \  ^'l  behind  the  Altar 

|    (  Lady  Chapel  

Aquablanca 1240 |  Clerestory  of  the  Choir  

Brace 5  12 1G  |     Cenlral  Tower 

Cantelupe  1287 I    (North  Transept  from  the  Ground .. 

|    ^Cantelupe  s  Shrine 

Henry  VI jSlanbnry  1474 1  Stanbury  Chapel 

Henry  MI....   Andley  1502 |  Andley  Chapel 

Henry  VIII...  Booth 1536 North,  or  Booth's  Porch 

I 


41.  49 

41 

44.51  . 


42.  44.  47  , 
49 


Plates. 


VII,  VIII. 
X. 


50  

19 JXIV. 

57  X. 

52  IX. 

43  I  III. 


II.  VI.  VII 
XI.  XII. 


INDEX. 


AiLES,  see  Ground  Plan  ;  monuments  in,  60; 

remarks  on  the  word,  41. 
Aldred,  Archbishop  of  York,  7. 
Altar-screen,  by  Bishop  Bisse,  33. 
Aquablanca,  Bishop,  account  of,  14;    his 

character,  15;  annually  commemorated,  16; 

monument,  57. 
Aquablanca,  Dean,  monument,  57 ;  notice  of, 

65. 
Athelstan,  see  Ethelstan. 
Audley,  Bishop,  24;    chantry  chapel  of,  52; 

section,  plate  ix. 

Beauchamp,  Bishop,  23. 

Beauclerk,  Bishop,  34. 

Bennett,  Bishop,  28 ;  disputes  between  him 
and  the  citizens,  29 ;  a  good  tennis  player, 
30;  monument,  57. 

Berew,  Dean,  mouuraent,  59;  noticed,  66. 

Betun,  Bishop,  account  of,  9 ;  anecdote  of,  10  ; 
repaired  the  cathedral,  11;  monument  of,  60. 

Bishops,  biographical  notices  of,  2  to  35 ; 
chronological  list  of,  63;  monuments  of,  see 
respective  names  ;  palaces  of,  61. 

Bisse,  Bishop,  33;  built  the  organ-screen,  ib. ; 
monument,  61 ;  portrait  of,  71. 

Bohun,  Humphrey  de,  monument  of,  59. 

Bonner,  Bishop,  26 ;  died  in  prison,  ib. ;  por- 
trait of,  71. 

Booth,  Bishop,  25  ;  porch  of,  43;  monument 
of,  57. 

Breton,  Bishop,  account  of,  16. 

Breuse,  Bishop,  13  ;  built  the  central  tower, 
ib.  ;  monument  of,  61. 

Burials  within  towns,  &c.  3. 

Butler,  Bishop  Richard,  23. 

Butler,  Bishop  John,  35  ;  built  the  chapel  of 
the  palace,  and  contributed  towards  the  re- 
building of  the  west  end,  ib. ;  portrait  of,  71. 

Cantelupe,  Bishop,  16 ;  account  of,  17 ;  his 
shrine,  ib. ;  miracles  performed  at,  18 ;  view 
of  shrine,  plate  xiv. ;  described,  56. 

Capella,  Bishop,  9;  built  the  Wye  Bridge,  ib. 

Castello,  Bishop,  attempt  to  poison,  25. 

Cathedral — Milfred  built  a  "  stone  church," 
and  appointed  a  bishop,  4;  suffered  from  the 


Danes,  5;  repaired  or  rebuilt  by  Ethelstan, 
ib. ;  burnt  by  the  Welsh,  ib. ;  commenced 
rebuilding  by  Bishop  Lozing,  8;  injured  in 
the  civil  wars,  temp.  Stephen,  11 ;  repaired 
by  Bishop  Betun,  ib. ;  described,  37  ;  exte- 
rior described,  42;  interior,  44;  nave,  45; 
west  end,  45;  transept,  43.  49;  choir,  44 
to  48;  east  transept,  51;  Lady  Chapel,  44. 
52;  cloisters,  53;  chapter-house,  54;  tower, 
43 ;  repairs  and  rebuilding,  46. 

Cedda,  Bishop,  4. 

Chandler,  Dean,  monument  to,  60;  see  list. 

Chapel,  an  ancient,  account  of,  34. 

Chapel,  Lady,  described,  44;  plan  of,  see 
plate  i. 

Chapter-house,  remains  of,  53;  plan,  plate  I. 

Chapter-room,  ancient  map  in,  54. 

Charlton,  Lewis,  Bishop,  22;  monument  of, 
60. 

Charlton,  Thomas,  21 ;  monument  of,  61. 

Choir  described,  44.  48;  monuments  in,  61 ; 
plate  x. 

Clive,  Bishop,  9;  monument  of,  57. 

Cloisters,  Bishops',  described,  53 ;  plan  of, 
plate  i. 

Coke,  Bishop,  32  ;  monument  of,  60. 

Columns,  plans  of,  see  Plan,  plate  I.;  see  also 
plates  of  interior  views. 

Cornewall,  Bishop,  35. 

Courteney,  Bishop,  22. 

Croft,  Bishop,  character  of,  32. 

Crypt,  plan  of,  plate  I.;  section,  plate  ix. ;  de- 
scribed, 52. 

Cuthbert,  Bishop,  account  of,  3. 

Deans,  chronological  list  of,  with  notices,  65. 
Denton,  Alexander,  and  his  wife,  monument 
of,  60. 

Egerton,  Bishop,  34. 

Ethelbert,  murder  of,  3 ;  his  ghost,  4 ;  interred 
at  Hereford,  ib. ;  miracles  at  his  tomb,  ib. ; 
new  church  dedicated  to,  ib.  ;  supposed 
statue  of,  59. 

Ethelstan,  Bishop,  repaired  or  rebuilt  the  ca- 
thedral, 5;   account  of,  6;   remarks  on  his 
building,  41 ;  monument  of,  56. 
L 


74 


INDEX. 


Field,  Bishop,  32  ;  bust  of,  57. 

Foliot,  Gilbert,  11 ;  monument  of,  60. 

Foliot,  Hugh,  13  ;  hospital,  ib. 

Foliot,  Robert,  Bishop,  account  of,  12 ;  monu- 
ment of,  13. 

Fout  described,  54. 

Foxe,  Bishop,  his  works,  26. 

Frowcester,  Dean,  brass  to,  60;  see  list  of 
Deans. 

Gerard,  Bishop,  anecdote  of,  8. 

Gilbert,  Bishop,  22. 

Godwin,  Bishop,  account  of  his  works,  30,  31 ; 

monument  of,  58. 
Harley,  John,  Bishop,  account  of,  26. 
Harley,  the  Honourable  John,  Bishop,  34. 
Harold,   Dean,  monument  of,  60;  see  list  of 

Deans. 
Harvey,  Dean,  monument  of,  60. 
Hereford,  founded  in  the  Anglo-Saxon  era,  2; 

See  here  in  544,  2. 
Hoadley,  Bishop,  account  of,  33;  portraits,  71. 
Humphreys,  Bishop,  disputes  with  the  citizens, 

33;  monument  of,  61. 
Huntingford,  Bishop,  35. 

Ironside,  Bishop,  33. 

Juxon,  Bishop,  32. 

Lady  Chapel,  described,  44  ;  plates  viii.  ix.  xvi. ; 
described  by  Mr.  Garbett,  52 ;  remarks  on 
its  present  state,  53  ;  monuments  in,  59. 

Leofgar,  Bishop,  account  of,  6. 

Lindsell,  Bishop,  32  ;  monument  of,  60. 

Lozing,  account  of,  7  ;  built  the  cathedral,  8  ; 
inscription  to,  58. 

Lucy,  Bishop,  22. 

Luxmore,  Bishop,  35. 

Mapenore,  Bishop,  13;  monument  of,  57. 
Marr,  Richard  de  la,  and  his  wife,  brass  to,  59. 
Mascall,  Bishop,  22. 
Maydenstan,  Bishop,  his  benefactions  to  the 

cathedral,  14. 
Mayo,  Bishop,  25  ;  monument  of,  60. 
Melun,  Bishop,  12;  monument  of,  60. 
Millyng,  Bishop,  24. 
Monk,  Bishop,  never  visited  his  diocess,  32. 

Xave,  described,  47  ;  view  of,  plate  iv. 

Orlton,  Bishop,  account  of,  20. 


Palaces  of  Bishops,  61. 

Pembridge,  Sir  Richard,  monument  of,  56. 

Philips,  John,  monument  of,  57. 

Podda,  Bishop,  3. 

Polton,  Bishop,  22. 

Porch,  built  by  Bishop  Booth,  25;  see  Booth. 

Purfey,  Bishop,  or  Warton,  26. 

Putta,  Bishop,  account  of,  2. 

Raynelm,  Bishop,  account  of,  9 ;  monument 
of,  60. 

Saxon  Architecture,  remarks  on,  48. 

Scory,  Bishop,  account  of,  27 ;    bequests  to 

Hereford,  28. 
See  at  Hereford  in  544,  2;  granted  in  trust  to 

Aldred — vacant  six  years — vacant  fourteen 

years,  1646,  32. 
Shrine,  see  Cantelupe. 
Skipp,  Bishop,  26. 
Spofford,  Bishop,  23. 
Stanbury,   Bishop,   account   of,   23 ;    built    a 

chantry  chapel,  24;  described,  57. 
Swinford,  Bishop,  19;  journal  of  his  domestic 

affairs,  See.  20 ;  monument  of,  58. 

Tirktell,  Bishop,  3. 
Tortere,  Bishop,  3. 
Tower,  Central,  built  by  Bishop  Breuse,  13; 

described,  43  ;  views  of,  plates  ii.  vi.  xi. 
Transepts,  Eastern,  Account  of,  51 ;  windows 

of,  ib. 
Transept,  North,  described,  43.  50.  57  ;  plates 

vi.  xi.  xii. 
Transept,   South,   described,  49;    monuments 

in,  60  ;  plate  xi. 
Trellick,  Bishop,   an  enemy  to  pageants  and 

matrimony,  21 ;  his  grave  opened,  ib. 
Trevenant,  Bishop,  22  ;  monument  of,  60. 
Tyler,   Dean,  monument  of,   60;    see   list  of 

Deans. 

Vere,  Bishop,  13;  noted  for  buildings,  ib. ; 
monument  of,  60. 

Walstod,  Bishop,  commenced  a  "  magnificent 
cross,"  which  Cuthbert  finished,  3. 

Walter  of  Lorraine,  7. 

West  Front,  comments  on,  45. 

Warton,  Bishop,  or  Purfey,  26. 

Westfayling,  Bishop,  28;  anecdote  of,  ib.  ; 
character  of,  ib. ;  monument  of,  59. 

Wren,  Bishop,  32. 


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